Cannabis use disorder among people using cannabis daily/almost daily in the United States, 2002–2016

Drug and Alcohol Dependence“Cannabis use disorder (CUD) prevalence among people reporting past-year cannabis use declined from 2002–2016.

We examined whether similar reductions in CUD were observed among people reporting daily/almost daily cannabis use.

We expected that CUD prevalence among people reporting daily/almost daily use would not decrease.

Results

From 2002–2016, the prevalence of CUD among people reporting daily/almost daily cannabis use decreased by 26.8% in adolescents, by 29.7% in ages 18–25, and by 37.5% in ages 26 + . Prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence decreased significantly among adolescents (-43.9%) and young adults (-26.8%) but remained stable in adults 26 + . Reductions in most dependence items were observed in young adults, with less consistent patterns in adolescents and adults 26 + . Prevalence of DSM-IV cannabis abuse decreased overall and for each abuse item across all age groups.

Conclusions

Contrary to expectations, CUD prevalence decreased significantly across all ages reporting daily/almost daily cannabis use between 2002–2016. Cannabis dependence prevalence decreased for adolescents and young adults and was stable only among adults ages 26+ reporting daily/almost daily cannabis use. Potential drivers of this decrease should be further explored.

The prevalence of cannabis use disorder decreased in frequent cannabis users. Endorsement of cannabis abuse items decreased in adolescents and young adults. Endorsement of cannabis dependence items decreased mainly in young adults. Changes in social attitudes and frequent users’ features may explain findings.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871619303989

“Cannabis use disorder is declining among young adolescents and young adults. The prevalence of cannabis use disorder decreased in 2002 to 2016 among frequent users. Changes in social attitudes and the traits of frequent users may explain the decline, according to researchers. This is one of the first studies to examine the general health profile of people using cannabis daily or almost daily and the trends in the prevalence of cannabis use disorder in this population.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/10/191031100512.htm

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Does cannabis use modify the effect of post-traumatic stress disorder on severe depression and suicidal ideation? Evidence from a population-based cross-sectional study of Canadians

Image result for journal of psychopharmacology“Post-traumatic stress disorder sharply increases the risk of depression and suicide. Individuals living with post-traumatic stress disorder frequently use cannabis to treat associated symptoms.

We sought to investigate whether cannabis use modifies the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and experiencing a major depressive episode or suicidal ideation.

This study provides preliminary epidemiological evidence that cannabis use may contribute to reducing the association between post-traumatic stress disorder and severe depressive and suicidal states. There is an emerging need for high-quality experimental investigation of the efficacy of cannabis/cannabinoids for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31684805

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0269881119882806

“Cannabis could help alleviate depression and suicidality among people with PTSD” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-11-cannabis-alleviate-depression-suicidality-people.html

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Using cannabis for pain management after spinal cord injury: a qualitative study.

Image result for spinal cord series and cases

“OBJECTIVES:

To explore why individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) choose to use cannabis to manage their pain and their experiences in doing so.

RESULTS:

Eight individuals participated in this study. We interpreted six themes that captured the participants’ perspectives regarding their choice to, and perceptions of, using cannabis to manage SCI pain. Participants were motivated to use cannabis when other pain management strategies had been ineffective and were well-informed, knowledgeable cannabis consumers. Participants reported cannabis reduced their pain quickly and enabled them to engage in activities of daily living and participate in life roles without the drowsiness of traditional prescribed pain medication. Despite the positive aspects, participants were concerned about the irregularity of supply and inconsistent dosage.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings show that cannabis is used to reduce pain after SCI and enable increased community participation. Findings suggest that future studies examining the efficacy of cannabinoids in managing pain include function and participation outcome measures rather than solely focusing on measuring pain intensity. Focusing on meaningful outcomes may contribute to a greater understanding of the experiences of people with SCI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31632740

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41394-019-0227-3

“Cannabis helps those with spinal cord injuries escape pain”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-10-cannabis-spinal-cord-injuries-pain.html

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Cannabidiol Counteracts the Psychotropic Side-Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Ventral Hippocampus Through Bi-Directional Control of ERK1-2 Phosphorylation

Journal of Neuroscience“Evidence suggests that the phytocannabinoids Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) differentially regulate salience attribution and psychiatric risk. The ventral hippocampus (vHipp) relays emotional salience via control of dopamine (DA) neuronal activity states, which are dysregulated in psychosis and schizophrenia. Using in-vivo electrophysiology in male Sprague Dawley rats, we demonstrate that intra-vHipp THC strongly increases ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neuronal frequency and bursting rates, decreases GABA frequency, and amplifies VTA beta, gamma and epsilon oscillatory magnitudes via modulation of local extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (pERK1-2). Remarkably, whereas intra-vHipp THC also potentiates salience attribution in morphine place-preference and fear conditioning assays, CBD co-administration reverses these changes by down-regulating pERK1-2 signaling, as pharmacological re-activation of pERK1-2 blocked the inhibitory properties of CBD. These results identify vHipp pERK1-2 signaling as a critical neural nexus point mediating THC-induced affective disturbances and suggest a potential mechanism by which CBD may counteract the psychotomimetic and psychotropic side-effects of THC.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Strains of marijuana with high levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of cannabidiol (CBD) have been shown to underlie neuropsychiatric risks associated with high potency cannabis use. However, the mechanisms by which CBD mitigates the side effects of THC have not been identified. We demonstrate that THC induces cognitive and affective abnormalities resembling neuropsychiatric symptoms directly in the hippocampus, while dysregulating dopamine activity states and amplifying oscillatory frequencies in the ventral tegmental area via modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. In contrast, CBD co-administration blocked THC-induced ERK phosphorylation, and prevented THC-induced behavioural and neural abnormalities. These findings identify a novel molecular mechanism that may account for how CBD functionally mitigates the neuropsychiatric side-effects of THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31570536

https://www.jneurosci.org/content/early/2019/09/27/JNEUROSCI.0708-19.2019

“Western University researchers show how CBD blocks side-effects of THC in cannabis. Research out of Western University is showing for the first time how cannabidiol (CBD) helps to lessen negative psychiatric side effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis.”  https://globalnews.ca/news/5970908/western-university-research-cbd-thc-cannabis/

“Cannabis study reveals how CBD offsets the psychiatric side-effects of THC”  https://neurosciencenews.com/cbd-thc-psychosis-15002/

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Cannabidiol attenuates seizures and EEG abnormalities in Angelman syndrome model mice.

 Image result for J Clin Invest.“Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, lack of speech, ataxia, EEG abnormalities, and epilepsy. Seizures in AS individuals are common, debilitating, and often drug-resistant. Therefore, there is an unmet need for better treatment options.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a major phytocannabinoid constituent of cannabis, has antiseizure activity and behavioral benefits in preclinical and clinical studies for some disorders associated with epilepsy, suggesting that the same could be true for AS.

Here we show that acute CBD (100 mg/kg) attenuated hyperthermia- and acoustically-induced seizures in a mouse model of AS. However, neither acute CBD nor a two-weeklong course of CBD administered immediately after a kindling protocol could halt the pro-epileptogenic plasticity observed in AS model mice.

CBD had a dose-dependent sedative effect, but did not have an impact on motor performance. CBD abrogated the enhanced intracortical local field potential power, including delta and theta rhythms observed in AS model mice, indicating that CBD administration could also help normalize the EEG deficits observed in individuals with AS.

Our results provide critical preclinical evidence supporting CBD treatment of seizures and alleviation of EEG abnormalities in AS, and will thus help guide the rational development of CBD as an AS treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31503547

https://www.jci.org/articles/view/130419

“CBD Could Help Treat Angelman Syndrome, Says Study”   https://www.analyticalcannabis.com/articles/cbd-could-help-treat-angelman-syndrome-says-study-311798

“Medical marijuana saved the life of 8 year old boy with Angelman Syndrome”   http://www.chicagonow.com/soapbox-momma/2016/05/medical-marijuana-saved-the-life-of-8-year-old-boy-with-angelman-syndrome/

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Role of the endocannabinoidome in human and mouse atherosclerosis.

“The Endocannabinoid (eCB) system and its role in many physiological and pathological conditions is well described and accepted, and includes cardiovascular disorders. However, the eCB system has been expanded to an “-ome”; the endocannabinoidome (eCBome) that includes endocannabinoid-related mediators, their protein targets and metabolic enzymes, many of which significantly impact upon cardiometabolic health. These recent discoveries are here summarized with a special focus on their potential involvement in atherosclerosis. We described the role of classical components of the eCB system (eCBs, CB1 and CB2 receptors) and eCB-related lipids, their regulatory enzymes and molecular targets in atherosclerosis. Furthermore, since increasing evidence points to significant cross-talk between the eCBome and the gut microbiome and the gut microbiome and atherosclerosis, we explore the possibility that a gut microbiome – eCBome axis has potential implications in atherosclerosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31448709

http://www.eurekaselect.com/174465/article

“Oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis”  https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/787468

“The active ingredient in marijuana that produces changes in brain messages appears to fight atherosclerosis — a hardening of the arteries.” https://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/news/20050406/marijuana-chemical-fights-hardened-arteries

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Emerging role of cannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoid receptor 1/cannabinoid receptor 2 receptor agonists in cancer treatment and chemotherapy-associated cancer management

Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics“Cannabis was extensively utilized for its medicinal properties till the 19th century. A steep decline in its medicinal usage was observed later due to its emergence as an illegal recreational drug.

Advances in technology and scientific findings led to the discovery of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound of cannabis, that further led to the discovery of endogenous cannabinoids system consisting of G-protein-coupled receptors – cannabinoid receptor 1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 along with their ligands, mainly anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol.  Endocannabinoid (EC) is shown to be a modulator not only for physiological functions but also for the immune system, endocrine network, and central nervous system.

Medicinal research and meta-data analysis over the last few decades have shown a significant potential for both THC and cannabidiol (CBD) to exert palliative effects. People suffering from many forms of advanced stages of cancers undergo chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting followed by severe and chronic neuropathic pain and weight loss.

THC and CBD exhibit effective analgesic, anxiolytic, and appetite-stimulating effect on patients suffering from cancer. Drugs currently available in the market to treat such chemotherapy-induced cancer-related ailments are Sativex (GW Pharmaceutical), Dronabinol (Unimed Pharmaceuticals), and Nabilone (Valeant Pharmaceuticals).

Apart from exerting palliative effects, THC also shows promising role in the treatment of cancer growth, neurodegenerative diseases (multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease), and alcohol addiction and hence should be exploited for potential benefits.

The current review discusses the nature and role of CB receptors, specific applications of cannabinoids, and major studies that have assessed the role of cannabinoids in cancer management.

Specific targeting of cannabinoid receptors can be used to manage severe side effects during chemotherapy, palliative care, and overall cancer management. Furthermore, research evidences on cannabinoids have suggested tumor inhibiting and suppressing properties which warrant reconsidering legality of the substance.

Studies on CB1 and CB2 receptors, in case of cancers, have demonstrated the psychoactive constituents of cannabinoids to be potent against tumor growth.

Interestingly, studies have also shown that activation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors by their respective synthetic agonists tends to limit human cancer cell growth, suggesting the role of the endocannabinoid system as a novel target for treatment of cancers.

Further explorations are required to exploit cannabinoids for an effective cancer management.”

http://www.cancerjournal.net/preprintarticle.asp?id=263538

“Could Cannabis Kill Cancer Cells? A New Study Looks Promising”  https://www.portlandmercury.com/blogtown/2019/08/15/26977361/could-cannabis-kill-cancer-cells-a-new-study-looks-promising

“Study Reviews How Marijuana Compounds Inhibit Tumor Growth And Kill Cancer Cells” https://www.marijuanamoment.net/study-reviews-how-marijuana-compounds-inhibit-tumor-growth-and-kill-cancer-cells/

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THE EFFECTS OF MEDICAL MARIJUANA DISPENSARIES ON ADVERSE OPIOID OUTCOMES

 Publication cover image“As more states enact laws liberalizing marijuana use and the U.S. opioid epidemic surges to unprecedented levels, understanding the relationship between marijuana and opioids is growing increasingly important.

Using a unique self‐constructed marijuana dispensary dataset, I estimate the impact of increased marijuana access on opioid‐related harms.

I exploit within‐ and across‐state variation in dispensary openings and find county‐level prescription opioid‐related fatalities decline by 11% following the opening a dispensary.

The estimated dispensary effects are qualitatively similar for opioid‐related admissions to treatment facilities. These results are strongest for males and suggest a substitutability between marijuana and opioids.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ecin.12825

“I find that core-based statistical areas (CBSAs) with dispensary openings experience a 20 percentage point relative decrease in painkiller treatment admissions over the first two years of dispensary operations.”

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3012381

Access to medical marijuana reduces opioid prescriptions”  https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/access-to-medical-marijuana-reduces-opioid-prescriptions-2018050914509

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THE EFFECTS OF RECREATIONAL MARIJUANA LEGALIZATION AND DISPENSING ON OPIOID MORTALITY

Publication cover image“This study documents how the changing legal status of marijuana has impacted mortality in the United States over the past two decades.

We use a difference‐in‐difference approach to estimate the effect of medical marijuana laws (MML) and recreational marijuana laws (RML) on fatalities from opioid overdoses, and we find that marijuana access induces sharp reductions in opioid mortality rates.

Our research corroborates prior findings on MMLs and offers the first causal estimates of RML impacts on opioid mortality to date, the latter of which is particularly important given that RMLs are far more expansive in scope and reach than MMLs.

In our preferred econometric specification, we estimate that RMLs reduce annual opioid mortality in the range of 20%–35%, with particularly pronounced effects for synthetic opioids. In further analysis, we demonstrate how RML impacts vary among demographic groups, shedding light on the distributional consequences of these laws.

Our findings are especially important and timely given the scale of the opioid crisis in the United States and simultaneously evolving attitudes and regulations on marijuana use.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/ecin.12819

“Marijuana legalization reduces opioid deaths. A new Economic Inquiry study finds that marijuana access leads to reductions in opioid-related deaths.” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2019-08-marijuana-legalization-opioid-deaths.html
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Olivia Newton John says medicinal cannabis is key to her cancer recovery

“Olivia Newton-John says medicinal marijuana is a key part of her treatment for stage four cancer. In an exclusive interview with 60 Minutes reporter Liz Hayes, Newton-John says that not only has cannabis assisted with her pain management, sleep and anxiety – but it’s having affects on her physical health too. “I’m incredibly pro cannabis,” she told Liz Hayes. “If I don’t take the cannabis, I can feel the pain so I know it’s working.”

 “Newton-John is maintaining her health with a combination of conventional and alternative medicines and remedies. But her husband of ten years, John Easterling, says he’s confident medicinal cannabis is contributing significantly to maintaining her health.
Easterling, who spent years cultivating herbs from the Amazon, has long held a strong belief in the medicinal power of plants. In a greenhouse at the Santa Barbara ranch the couple share in California, he grows various strains of cannabis that he uses to help treat his wife. “Cannabis can be used for so many things,” he told Hayes. “I don’t use the word cure…. but I’m confident. We had MRIs showing a lesser number of tumours, and the majority of the other ones are shrinking.”
 “Now a cannabis convert, Newton-John is joining the fight for medicinal cannabis to be legalised. She and Easterling want Australians to have greater access to the plant, like they do in their home state of California – where both medicinal and recreational cannabis is legal.  She’s also hoping to break down the stigma surrounding cannabis use.
“It’s not a drug, it’s a herb and a plant,” she told Hayes. “I think when people use the word drug, it’s a misconception as to what it is and it gets people thinking, ‘oh it’s just another drug’, but it’s not.” Doctors at the Olivia Newton-John Research Institute will conduct a clinical trial to determine the effectiveness of medicinal cannabis later this year.”
 
 “EXCLUSIVE: Olivia Newton-John and Chloe Lattanzi emotional interview | 60 Minutes Australia” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rJtPgpedcFo&feature=share

“Olivia Newton-John: ‘Medicinal cannabis enhanced my quality of life’.  For this special 60 Minutes report, Olivia Newton-John tells Liz Hayes that despite her latest diagnosis she was “getting strong again” and that her quality of life had been greatly enhanced by medicinal cannabis, grown for her by her husband John. Olivia and John are strong believers in the power of plants particularly cannabis. “I really believe the cannabis has made a huge difference,” says Olivia. “I’m confident,” John concurs. Olivia, John and Chloe are now cannabis converts, and now want medicinal cannabis legalised as an alternative treatment in Australia.” https://www.9news.com.au/national/olivia-newton-john-60-minutes-medical-cannabis-advocate-after-cancer-treatment-news/da315271-7387-47e0-a14e-c7fbb9a4b18b

“I have to credit again my wonderful husband because he gives me Cannabis oil that he makes for me, grows the plants here. We’re so lucky in California that we can grow our own, and so he’s made me these incredible tinctures that help with my pain and with sleep, and everything.” https://www.today.com/video/watch-olivia-newton-john-s-full-interview-with-natalie-morales-1455610947796

 Olivia Newton-John: “The choices of your treatment is a very personal thing. I can’t tell anyone else what they should do. I’d like to tell you all something that I did that people should know about. I’ve mixed traditional medicine and herbal medicine and homoeopathic medicine and a lot of mind-body spiritual focus. Staying positive and believing I can get well is really important. I’m very fortunate that I have a husband who’s a plant medicine man who helps me with herbs and medicinal cannabis, it’s been a huge part of my journey. I weaned myself off morphine with cannabis and I just want people to know that that is possible and it’s not going to kill you. If we can start teaching people that cannabis can help keep the pain away and not kill you, that’s an important message to get out there. I want to see an end to cancer in my lifetime. I’ve had three bouts with cancer. I am living with it well, and I think I’m going to see an end of it. And that’s my dream, that it will be gone.” https://www.image.ie/life/olivia-newton-john-shares-her-advice-for-women-with-cancer-154470
 “”I want to see an end to cancer in my lifetime. And if it could be through cannabis, or helping people with cannabis, the patients, particularly who are in pain, that’s my goal. I want everyone to have access to this amazing plant”” https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=269501097009373
 ““I truly believe medicinal cannabis will play a huge part in defeating cancer.”“I absolutely believe all patients should have the right to try. It is a matter of common-sense and it is a compassionate thing to do for people,” she said,” https://starinvesting.com.au/medicinal-cannabis-to-play-huge-role-in-beating-cancer-olivia-newton-john/
Olivia Newton-John reveals she’s using marijuana grown by her husband to fight cancer – and says reports she was on death’s door hurt her deeply. Australian singing sensation Olivia Newton-John says she has been using marijuana grown by her husband to help her through her cancer battle. ‘I really believe the cannabis has made a huge difference,'”
“‘It Has Helped Incredibly’. It’s an amazing plant, a maligned plant, but it’s helping so many people.”” https://www.inquisitr.com/5330159/home-grown-cannabis-is-helping-olivia-newton-john-amid-cancer-battle-it-has-helped-incredibly/
“Olivia Newton-John says she uses cannabis to treat her stage 4 breast cancer… and her husband grows it at home” https://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-6782847/Olivia-Newton-John-uses-cannabis-treat-stage-4-breast-cancer.html
““I’m Living With Cancer and It’s Going Away!” Olivia Newton John Declares That Her Body is “Winning” Against Stage 4 Cancer” https://www.survivornet.com/articles/im-living-with-cancer-and-its-going-away-olivia-newton-john-declares-that-her-body-is-winning-against-stage-4-cancer/
“Mainstream media has reported that the cannabis tincture she takes helps with pain, but Amazon John Easterling eagerly expounds on its many healing properties, including the potential to cause cancer cell death. “Cannabis initiates a number of healing responses that can result in apoptosis, cancer cell death—while healing and strengthening the body,” he detailed. His focus is on the plant as chemovar, a more scientific approach to looking at the many compounds, via terpene and cannabinoid extraction from the whole plant to treat the cancer and the entire body, building the immune system so it can aid in fighting the disease.“ https://culturemagazine.com/olivia-newton-john-and-john-easterling/
“Medicinal cannabis is a big part of my recovery. I’m living proof that it works. It’s a healing herb.” https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=1580591005362546
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