Engineering yeasts as platform organisms for cannabinoid biosynthesis.

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“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a plant derived secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa l. The discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the late 1980s resulted in a growing number of known physiological functions of both synthetic and plant derived cannabinoids. Thus, manifold therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of research. Here we reconstituted the final biosynthetic cannabinoid pathway in yeasts. The use of the soluble prenyltransferase NphB from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190 enables the replacement of the native transmembrane prenyltransferase cannabigerolic acid synthase from C. sativa. In addition to the desired product cannabigerolic acid, NphB catalyzes an O-prenylation leading to 2-O-geranyl olivetolic acid. We show for the first time that the bacterial prenyltransferase and the final enzyme of the cannabinoid pathway tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase can both be actively expressed in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Komagataella phaffii simultaneously. While enzyme activities in S. cerevisiae were insufficient to produce THCA from olivetolic acid and geranyl diphosphate, genomic multi-copy integrations of the enzyme’s coding sequences in K. phaffii resulted in successful synthesis of THCA from olivetolic acid and geranyl diphosphate. This study is an important step toward total biosynthesis of valuable cannabinoids and derivatives and demonstrates the potential for developing a sustainable and secure yeast bio-manufacturing platform.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694184  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165617315201

“Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994576

“Scientists Engineer Yeast to Produce Active Marijuana Compound, THC”  https://www.sciencealert.com/scientists-engineer-yeast-to-produce-active-marijuana-compound-thc

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Study shows non-hallucinogenic cannabinoids are effective anti-cancer drugs

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“New research has shown that the non-hallucinogenic components of cannabis could act as effective anti-cancer agents. The anti-cancer properties of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary hallucinogenic component of cannabis, has been recognised for many years, but research into similar cannabis-derived compounds, known as cannabinoids, has been limited.

The study was carried out by a team at St George’s, University of London. It has been published in the journal Anticancer Research. The team, led by Dr Wai Liu and colleagues carried out laboratory investigations using a number of cannabinoids, either alone or in combination with each other, to measure their anti-cancer actions in relation to leukaemia.

Of six cannabinoids studied, each demonstrated anti-cancer properties as effective as those seen in THC. Importantly, they had an increased effect on cancer cells when combined with each other.

Dr Liu said: “This study is a critical step in unpicking the mysteries of cannabis as a source of medicine. The cannabinoids examined have minimal, if any, hallucinogenic side effects, and their properties as anti-cancer agents are promising.

“These agents are able to interfere with the development of cancerous cells, stopping them in their tracks and preventing them from growing. In some cases, by using specific dosage patterns, they can destroy cancer cells on their own.

“Used in combination with existing treatment, we could discover some highly effective strategies for tackling cancer. Significantly, these compounds are inexpensive to produce and making better use of their unique properties could result in much more cost effective anti-cancer drugs in future.”

The study examined two forms of cannabidiol (CBD), two forms of cannabigerol (CBG) and two forms of cannabigevarin (CBGV). These represent the most common cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant apart from THC.” https://www.sgul.ac.uk/alumni/magazine/study-shows-non-hallucinogenic-cannabinoids-are-effective-anti-cancer-drugs

“Enhancing the Activity of Cannabidiol and Other Cannabinoids In Vitro Through Modifications to Drug Combinations and Treatment Schedules”  http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/33/10/4373.abstract

“Non-hallucinogenic cannabinoids are effective anti-cancer drugs” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131014094105.htm

“Cannabinoids used in sequence with chemotherapy are a more effective treatment for cancer. New research has confirmed that cannabinoids – the active chemicals in cannabis – are effective in killing leukaemia cells, particularly when used in combination with chemotherapy treatments.” https://www.sgul.ac.uk/news/news-archive/cannabinoids-used-in-sequence-with-chemotherapy-are-a-more-effective-treatment-for-cancer
 
“Anticancer effects of phytocannabinoids used with chemotherapy in leukaemia cells can be improved by altering the sequence of their administration.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28560402
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Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome

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“BACKGROUND

The Dravet syndrome is a complex childhood epilepsy disorder that is associated with drug-resistant seizures and a high mortality rate. We studied cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome.

METHODS

In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 120 children and young adults with the Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures to receive either cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or placebo, in addition to standard antiepileptic treatment. The primary end point was the change in convulsive-seizure frequency over a 14-week treatment period, as compared with a 4-week baseline period.

RESULTS

The median frequency of convulsive seizures per month decreased from 12.4 to 5.9 with cannabidiol, as compared with a decrease from 14.9 to 14.1 with placebo (adjusted median difference between the cannabidiol group and the placebo group in change in seizure frequency, −22.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], −41.1 to −5.4; P=0.01). The percentage of patients who had at least a 50% reduction in convulsive-seizure frequency was 43% with cannabidiol and 27% with placebo (odds ratio, 2.00; 95% CI, 0.93 to 4.30; P=0.08). The patient’s overall condition improved by at least one category on the seven-category Caregiver Global Impression of Change scale in 62% of the cannabidiol group as compared with 34% of the placebo group (P=0.02). The frequency of total seizures of all types was significantly reduced with cannabidiol (P=0.03), but there was no significant reduction in nonconvulsive seizures. The percentage of patients who became seizure-free was 5% with cannabidiol and 0% with placebo (P=0.08). Adverse events that occurred more frequently in the cannabidiol group than in the placebo group included diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, pyrexia, somnolence, and abnormal results on liver-function tests. There were more withdrawals from the trial in the cannabidiol group.

CONCLUSIONS

Among patients with the Dravet syndrome, cannabidiol resulted in a greater reduction in convulsive-seizure frequency than placebo and was associated with higher rates of adverse events. (Funded by GW Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02091375.)”

http://www.nejm.org/doi/10.1056/NEJMoa1611618

“Cannabinoids for Epilepsy — Real Data, at Last”  http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMe1702205

“Cannabidiol (CBD) Significantly Reduces Convulsive Seizure Frequency in Dravet Syndrome (DS): Results of a Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial (GWPCARE1)” http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/AMDA-1TW341/201889199x0x919787/73B57FA6-CD45-4ABB-8C89-87EFEA36B4ED/1332B_AES_Poster_Dravet_Part_B_.pdf

“EPILEPSY AND MARIJUANA: CANNABIS DRUG REDUCES DRAVET SYNDROME SEIZURES IN LARGE-SCALE CLINICAL TRIAL” http://www.newsweek.com/cannabis-marijuana-dravet-syndrome-epilepsy-clinical-trial-614982

“Study proves medicinal cannabis can help children with severe epilepsy, researchers say” http://www.abc.net.au/news/2017-05-25/scientific-study-medicinal-cannabis-helps-children-with-epilepsy/8556180
 
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A chronic low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) restores cognitive function in old mice

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“The balance between detrimental, pro-aging, often stochastic processes and counteracting homeostatic mechanisms largely determines the progression of aging. There is substantial evidence suggesting that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is part of the latter system because it modulates the physiological processes underlying aging.

The activity of the ECS declines during aging, as CB1 receptor expression and coupling to G proteins are reduced in the brain tissues of older animals and the levels of the major endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are lower. However, a direct link between endocannabinoid tone and aging symptoms has not been demonstrated.

Here we show that a low dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reversed the age-related decline in cognitive performance of mice aged 12 and 18 months. This behavioral effect was accompanied by enhanced expression of synaptic marker proteins and increased hippocampal spine density.

THC treatment restored hippocampal gene transcription patterns such that the expression profiles of THC-treated mice aged 12 months closely resembled those of THC-free animals aged 2 months. The transcriptional effects of THC were critically dependent on glutamatergic CB1 receptors and histone acetylation, as their inhibition blocked the beneficial effects of THC.

Thus, restoration of CB1 signaling in old individuals could be an effective strategy to treat age-related cognitive impairments.”

https://www.nature.com/nm/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nm.4311.html

“CAN MARIJUANA RESTORE MEMORY? NEW STUDY SHOWS CANNABIS CAN REVERSE COGNITIVE DECLINE IN MICE” http://www.newsweek.com/cannabis-marijuana-restores-memory-learning-cognitive-decline-596160

“A little cannabis every day might keep brain ageing at bay” https://www.newscientist.com/article/2130257-a-little-cannabis-every-day-might-keep-brain-ageing-at-bay/

“Low-dose cannabinoid THC restores memory and learning in old mice”  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317342.php

“Daily Dose Of Cannabis May Protect And Heal The Brain From Effects Of Aging”  https://www.forbes.com/sites/janetwburns/2017/05/08/daily-dose-of-cannabis-may-protect-and-heal-the-brain-from-effects-of-aging/#70ef658f2e44

“Cannabis reverses aging processes in the brain”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-05-cannabis-reverses-aging-brain.html

“Future dementia cure – Chemical in cannabis could REVERSE the ageing process” http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/801827/dementia-cure-cannabis-THC-chemical-memory

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Compound found in cannabis helps ‘shrink’ four-year-old’s brain tumour

Four-year-old William Frost from Newark

“The family of a four-year-old boy from Nottinghamshire are backing new research into whether a non-psychoactive compound found in cannabis can reduce paediatric brain cancer cells.

Experts from Nottingham’s Children’s Brain Tumour Research Centre, at The University of Nottingham, will test Cannabidiol (CBD) for its effects on paediatric brain tumours in youngsters. This research will form part of the pre-clinical phase of the evaluation of the potential use of cannabidiol in paediatric brain tumours” http://www.nottinghampost.com/compound-found-in-cannabis-helps-shrink-four-year-old-s-brain-tumour/story-30307458-detail/story.html

“Scientists plan study after Nottinghamshire boy’s tumour shrinks during cannabis compound treatment” https://nottstv.com/notts-scientists-treating-brain-tumours-with-cannabis-backed-by-four-year-old-boy-with-the-condition/
 
“Study looks at cannabis ingredient’s ability to help children’s tumours. UK research into cannabidiol (CBD) comes after surge in parents administering it to children without medical advice” https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/may/02/study-cannabis-cannabidiol-cbd-ability-to-help-children-brain-tumours

 “Little boy’s aggressive brain tumour shrinks thanks to CANNABIS compound, his parents claim” https://www.thesun.co.uk/living/3472080/little-boys-aggressive-brain-tumour-shrinks-thanks-to-cannabis-his-parents-claimed/

“Little boy battling golf ball-sized brain tumour given new lease of life after being given a special OIL” http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/little-boy-battling-golf-ball-10347423

 “Four-year-old brain cancer patient sees tumour shrink – thanks to cannabis oil”  http://metro.co.uk/2017/05/03/four-year-old-brain-cancer-patient-sees-tumour-shrink-thanks-to-cannabis-oil-6613034/
Four-year-old William was diagnosed with a brain tumour in 2014
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Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

“A Nevada company is hoping to develop new medicines for heart failure using compounds in marijuana and a novel therapy identified by a University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa researcher. Dr. Alexander Stokes, assistant research professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the UH John A. Burns School of Medicine, obtained a U.S. patent for his novel therapy in 2015. The patent claims the cannabinoid receptor TRPV1 can be regulated therapeutically by plant-based cannabinoids.”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-01-marijuana-compounds-treatment-cardiac-disease.html

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://manoa.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=8355

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://www.hawaii.edu/news/2017/01/12/marijuana-compounds-show-promise-in-treatment-of-cardiac-disease/

 

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Cannabinoid CB2 receptor ligand profiling reveals biased signalling and off-target activity

“The cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) represents a promising therapeutic target for various forms of tissue injury and inflammatory diseases. There is a great interest in the development of selective type-2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) agonists as potential drug candidates for various pathophysiological conditions, which include chronic and inflammatory pain, pruritus, diabetic neuropathy and nephropathy, liver cirrhosis, and protective effects after ischaemic-reperfusion injury.” https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms13958

“Pain relief without the high. Researchers at Leiden University led by Mario van der Stelt (Leiden Institute for Chemistry) have set ‘gold standards’ for developing new painkillers based on the medicinal effects of cannabis.”  https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/01/170104103916.htm

ScienceDaily
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Medical Marijuana Laws May Be Associated With A Decline In The Number Of Prescriptions For Medicaid Enrollees

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“In the past twenty years, twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia have passed some form of medical marijuana law. Using quarterly data on all fee-for-service Medicaid prescriptions in the period 2007–14, we tested the association between those laws and the average number of prescriptions filled by Medicaid beneficiaries. We found that the use of prescription drugs in fee-for-service Medicaid was lower in states with medical marijuana laws than in states without such laws in five of the nine broad clinical areas we studied. If all states had had a medical marijuana law in 2014, we estimated that total savings for fee-for-service Medicaid could have been $1.01 billion. These results are similar to those in a previous study we conducted, regarding the effects of medical marijuana laws on the number of prescriptions within the Medicare population. Together, the studies suggest that in states with such laws, Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries will fill fewer prescriptions.” http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/early/2017/04/13/hlthaff.2016.1135

“Medical Marijuana Laws Reduce Prescription Medication Use In Medicare Part D”  http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/35/7/1230

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Cannabis ‘mimics love hormone in the brain’, study finds – marking new research possibilities for autism

Cannabis behaves like the human 'love hormone'

“Cannabis has a reputation for inducing feelings of peace and love – and now scientists claim they have found the reason why.

A new study reveals the illegal drug acts much in the same way as chemicals produced by the natural ‘love hormone’ oxytocin, which is known to boost emotional feelings and bonding towards romantic partners, between mothers and babies and friends.

The research, conducted on mice, found that higher levels of oxytocin led to the release of anandamide – which behaves very similarly in the brain to the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, THC.

Both chemicals attach to the same brain cell receptors, producing a similar ‘high’.

As part of the study, the researchers found that blocking anandamide reduced the pro-social effects of oxytocin – while a drug which preserved anandamide in the mice’s brains seemed to make them happier around other mice than other, untreated, animals.

Scientists say the results could highlight new paths for research in the treatment of autism, for which symptoms often include difficulty socialising.

It is very difficult to directly deliver oxytocin to the brain, however.

Dr Daniele Piomelli, of the Italian Institute of Technology in Genoa, Italy, said another strategy could be to intervene further down the oxytocin-anandamide pathway.

Our findings open the exciting possibility that drugs that block the degradation of anandamide, which are currently being tested for various anxiety disorders, could give a boost to the brain’s own oxytocin and help people with autism socialise more.

– DR DANIELE PIOMELLI, RESEARCHER

The findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.”

http://www.itv.com/news/2015-10-27/cannabis-mimics-love-hormone-in-the-brain-study-finds/

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It’s Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. Please Be Aware.

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“Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. While smoking and tobacco use are still major risk factors, the fastest growing segment of oral cancer patients is young, healthy, nonsmoking individuals due to the connection to the HPV virus. We cannot stop this virus from spreading; our only hope to save lives is with professional involvement and public awareness.”  http://oralcancerfoundation.org/events/oral-head-neck-cancer-awareness-month/

“Oral Sex Linked to Rise in Oral Cancers”  https://www.roswellpark.org/cancertalk/201304/oral-sex-linked-rise-oral-cancers

“Role of human papilloma virus in the oral carcinogenesis”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542661                                                           “A causal role for human papillomavirus in head and neck cancer.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15135592/

“Bogarting that joint might decrease oral hpv among cannabis users. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794675/

“Additive found in toothpaste and food products could cause cancer, say scientists” http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/toothpaste-additive-e171-titanium-dioxide-food-products-cancer-cause-scientists-a7541956.html

“Mouthwash And Poor Dental Hygiene May Up The Risk Of Oral Cancer”  http://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2014/04/08/300257396/mouthwash-and-poor-dental-hygiene-may-up-the-risk-of-oral-cancer

“Gum Disease Linked to Risk of Oral Cancer Causing Virus”  https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2013-08-21/gum-disease-linked-to-risk-of-oral-cancer-causing-virus

“ROUGH TEETH AND RUBBING DENTURES MAY BE LINKED TO ORAL CANCER” http://www.managedhealthcareconnect.com/content/rough-teeth-and-rubbing-dentures-may-be-linked-oral-cancer

“Unhealthy lifestyles blamed for sharp rise in mouth cancer cases”  http://www.itv.com/news/2016-11-25/bad-habits-linked-to-soaring-rates-of-mouth-cancer/

“Type of food and risk of oral cancer. To reduce the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral cancer, diet must be optimized, primarily to reduce calorie intake, monounsaturated fat, and red or processed meat. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which are the major source of vitamins and fiber, should be adequate in the daily diet. Optimal levels of daily allowance of micronutrients like vitamin C, E, antioxidants, zinc, beta-carotene, and folate are effective in prevention of oral cancer. Consumption of fried or broiled foods and employment of microwave cooking, because of formation of heterocyclic amines, must be avoided because of increasing risks of oral cancer including the salivary gland tumors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367228

“Coffee consumption associated with reduced risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis”  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212440315013656

“Tobacco and alcohol use are among the strongest risk factors for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers.” https://www.cancer.org/cancer/oral-cavity-and-oropharyngeal-cancer/causes-risks-prevention/risk-factors.html

“Marijuana use on its own does not merit definitive oral cancer development, according to research. In fact, cannabis also contains cannabinoids, such as THC, which contain anticancer properties. Some of these anticancer properties include the slowing of the inflammatory arm of the immune system designed to slow free-radical growths. Some researchers link medicinal marijuana to these anticancer properties.” http://www.dentistryiq.com/articles/2014/04/should-marijuana-users-be-worried-that-smoking-causes-oral-cancer.html

“Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells.” http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/chemotherapyeffects/marijuana-and-cancer

“Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory. Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all

“Marijuana Kills Cancer Cells, Admits The U.S. National Cancer Institute” http://naturalsociety.com/marijuana-kills-cancer-cells-admits-the-u-s-national-cancer-institute/

“US government says cannabis kills cancer cells”  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/11820620/US-government-says-cannabis-kills-cancer-cells.html

“US government finally admits that cannabis kills cancer cells”  http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/government-finally-admits-cannabis-kills-6303176

“Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863913

“Cannabinoids Offer Some Hope for Oral Cancer Pain”  https://www.practicalpainmanagement.com/meeting-summary/cannabinoids-offer-some-hope-oral-cancer-pain

“Cannabinoids Attenuate Cancer Pain and Proliferation in a Mouse Model.  Our results suggest that systemic administration of cannabinoids decease oral cancer pain. Our findings suggest a direct role for cannabinoid mechanisms in oral cancer pain and proliferation. The systemic administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists may have important therapeutic implications wherein cannabinoid receptor agonists may reduce morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. The present findings suggest that cannabinoid treatment may be a promising alternative therapy for oral cancer pain management.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099480/

“Cannabinoids Inhibit Cellular Respiration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. The primary cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC) are known to disturb the mitochondrial function and possess antitumor activities. These observations prompted us to investigate their effects on the mitochondrial O2 consumption in human oral cancer cells (Tu183). This epithelial cell line overexpresses bcl-2 and is highly resistant to anticancer drugs. A rapid decline in the rate of respiration was observed when Δ9-THC or Δ8-THC was added to the cells. These results show the cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of Tu183 cellular respiration and are toxic to this highly malignant tumor.” https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/312686

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“CANNABINOIDS INHIBIT ORAL CANCER CELLS”  https://pharmotech.ch/cannabinoids-inhibit-oral-cancer-cells/

“Evaluation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients’ survival. The present study provides evidence that CB1R and CB2R may play a role in the pathophysiological aspects of the mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and even each molecule may constitute a potential target for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs for this type of malignancy.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459312

“Review: cannabidiol may be beneficial for oral mucositis. The researchers found evidence that oxidative stress control could prevent and relieve oral mucositis. Cannabidiol was found to be safe to use and demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties,” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-02-cannabidiol-beneficial-oral-mucositis.html

“Salivary bacteria linked to oral cancers”  http://middleeast.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(05)70266-7/abstract

“Antibacterial Cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: A Structure−Activity Study”  http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/np8002673

“Targeting Id1 reduces proliferation and invasion in aggressive human salivary gland cancer cells.  Id1 suppression could represent a novel and effective approach for the treatment of salivary gland cancer.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639030/

“Suppression of invasion and metastasis in aggressive salivary cancer cells through targeted inhibition of ID1 gene expression.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087608

“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells.  Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers because Id-1 expression was found to be up-regulated during the progression of almost all types”  http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long

“Anticancer effects of anandamide on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the production of receptor-independent reactive oxygen species.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24797795

“The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids are efficacious in reducing cancer progression (i.e. inhibition of tumour growth and metastases as well as induction of apoptosis and other anti-cancer properties) in breast, prostate and bone cancer. Although this review focuses on these three types of cancer, activation of the endocannabinoid signalling system produces anti-cancer effects in other types of cancer.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x/full

“Medical marijuana use in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The purpose of the study was to better understand why patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy are using medical marijuana (MM). HNC patients report MM use to help with long-term side effects of radiotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27005465

“Head and neck cancer among marijuana users: A meta-analysis of matched case–control studies. No association between lifetime marijuana use and the development of head and neck cancer was found.”  http://www.aobjournal.com/article/S0003-9969(15)30041-8/abstract

“A Population-based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Our study suggests that moderate marijuana use is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC). In fact, many of these studies reported non-significant protective estimates of effect, consistent with a possible anticarcinogenic action of cannabinoids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812803/

“Smoking Marijuana Regularly May Reduce Risk of Some Neck, Head Cancers” http://www.foxnews.com/story/2009/08/26/smoking-marijuana-regularly-may-reduce-risk-some-neck-head-cancers.html

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http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-hnscc/

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