Employment and Marijuana Use Among Washington State Adolescents Before and After Legalization of Retail Marijuana

 Journal of Adolescent Health Home“The purpose of the study was to describe associations between employment and marijuana use among adolescents 2 years before passage of 2012 ballot initiative and 2 years after the implementation of retail recreational marijuana sales took place in Washington.

Working adolescents in all grades had higher prevalence of recent marijuana use compared with nonworking adolescents.

Working youth were more likely to use marijuana before and after Washington’s legalization of retail marijuana.”

https://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(19)30020-5/fulltext

“Study shows working teens more likely to try marijuana. Employed adolescents are more likely to use marijuana than those who don’t work, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Adolescent Health.”
“Teens with jobs are more likely to use cannabis than those who aren’t employed: study” https://www.thegrowthop.com/cannabis-news/teens-with-jobs-are-more-likely-to-use-cannabis-than-those-who-arent-employed-study
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Association of Marijuana Laws With Teen Marijuana Use

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“In the United States, 33 states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs), while 10 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the recreational use of marijuana.

A 2018 meta-analysis concluded that the results from previous studies do not lend support to the hypothesis that MMLs increase marijuana use among youth, while the evidence on the effects of recreational marijuana laws (RMLs) is mixed.

Here, we report estimates of the association between the legalization of marijuana and its use, simultaneously considering both MMLs and RMLs.

Consistent with the results of previous researchers, there was no evidence that the legalization of medical marijuana encourages marijuana use among youth.

Moreover, the estimates reported in the Table showed that marijuana use among youth may actually decline after legalization for recreational purposes.

This latter result is consistent with findings by Dilley et al and with the argument that it is more difficult for teenagers to obtain marijuana as drug dealers are replaced by licensed dispensaries that require proof of age.”

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/fullarticle/2737637?guestAccessKey=5e4e41eb-ec96-4641-86f9-b5c89cc7cc48&utm_source=For_The_Media&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=ftm_links&utm_content=tfl&utm_term=070819

“New JAMA study shows legalizing pot might discourage teen use”  https://www.cnbc.com/2019/07/08/new-jama-study-shows-legalizing-pot-might-discourage-teen-use.html

“Recreational marijuana legalization tied to decline in teens using pot, study says”  https://www.cnn.com/2019/07/08/health/recreational-marijuana-laws-teens-study/index.html

“Recreational marijuana legalization tied to decline in teens using pot, study says”  https://wtvr.com/2019/07/08/recreational-marijuana-legalization-tied-to-decline-in-teens-using-pot-study-says/

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Use of Cannabis to Relieve Pain and Promote Sleep by Customers at an Adult Use Dispensary

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“Cannabis has been used for pain relief and to promote sleep for thousands of years. Over the past several decades in the United States (U.S.), a therapeutic role for cannabis in mainstream medicine has increasingly emerged. Medical cannabis patients consistently report using cannabis as a substitute for prescription medications. Both pain relief and sleep promotion are common reasons for cannabis use, and the majority of respondents who reported using cannabis for these reasons also reported decreasing or stopping their use of prescription or over-the-counter analgesics and sleep aids. While adult-use laws are frequently called “recreational,” implying that cannabis obtained through the adult use system is only for pleasure or experience-seeking, our findings suggest that many customers use cannabis for symptom relief.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31264536

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02791072.2019.1626953

“Cannabis Is An Effective Treatment Option For Pain Relief And Insomnia, Study Finds” https://www.inquisitr.com/5509672/cannabis-pain-medications-sleep/

“Marijuana Could Be The Alternative Pain Reliever Replacing Opioids”  https://www.medicaldaily.com/marijuana-alternative-pain-reliever-replacing-opioids-437974

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“Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria”

1957: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa); antibiotic drug. I. Hemp in the old & popular medicine].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13484424
1958: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)–antibiotic drugs. II. Method & results of bacteriological experiments & preliminary clinical experience].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13553773
1959: “[Hemp (Cannabis sativa)-an antibiotic drug. 3. Isolation and constitution of two acids from Cannabis sativa].” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14411912
1962: “Antibiotic activity of various types of cannabis resin.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14489783
2008: “Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18681481
“Cannabis plant extracts can effectively fight drug-resistant bacteria.” http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/story?id=5787866
“According to research, the five most common cannabinoid compounds in weed—tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabinol and cannabichromene—can kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria.” https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/whoa-the-stuff-in-pot-kills-germs-2008-08-27/
“All five cannabinoids (THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, and CBN) were potent against bacteria. Notably, they performed well against bacteria that were known to be multidrug resistant, like the strains of MRSA” http://arstechnica.com/science/2008/08/killing-bacteria-with-cannabis/
2014: “Better than antibiotics, cannabinoids kill antibiotic-resistant MRSA bacteria” http://usahealthresource.blogspot.com/2014/02/marijuana-extracts-and-compounds-kill.html
2019: “Cannabis Found Effective in Fighting Drug-Resistant Bacteria” https://www.courthousenews.com/cannabis-found-effective-in-fighting-drug-resistant-bacteria/
“Cannabis oil kills bacteria better than established antibiotics… providing a possible new weapon in the war on superbugs, according to new research. It offers hope of curing killer infections – including MRSA and pneumonia, say scientists.” https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/lifestyle/cannabis-oil-kills-bacteria-better-than-established-antibiotics/24/06/ 
“CANNABIS COMPOUND COULD BE LATEST WEAPON IN WAR AGAINST SUPERBUGS”
“Marijuana skin cream kills superbugs, says Botanix” https://stockhead.com.au/health/marijuana-skin-cream-kills-superbugs-says-botanix/
“Botanix’s CBD-based product destroys superbug skin infections in another ‘world first’” https://smallcaps.com.au/botanix-cbd-based-product-destroys-skin-superbug-infections/
“Compound in cannabis found to be ‘promising’ new antibiotic that does not lose its effectiveness with use” https://www.kelownanow.com/watercooler/news/news/Cannabis/Compound_in_cannabis_found_to_be_promising_new_antibiotic_that_does_not_lose_its_effectiveness_with_use/
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Lifetime marijuana use in relation to insulin resistance in lean, overweight and obese U.S. adults.

Journal of Diabetes banner“Obese individuals are more likely to show insulin resistance (IR). However, limited population studies on marijuana use with markers of IR yield mixed results.

METHODS:

We abstracted data from the 2009-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). We estimated the minimal lifetime marijuana use using the duration of regular exposure and the frequency of use. We used generalized linear models to determine the association of marijuana use with both fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in lean, overweight and obese individuals, separately. We used interview weight years of data to account for the unequal probability of sampling and non-response.

RESULTS:

Of the total of 129,509 adults aged 18 to 59 years, 50.3% were women. In current obese consumers, the mean insulin in those with < 4 uses/months was 52% (95% CI: 19% to 71%) lower than in never users. Former obese consumers with ≥ 8 uses/month and who stopped marijuana use < 12 months showed 47% (95% CI: 18% to 66%) lower insulin. Those with last use of 12-119 months and ≥ 120 months had 36% (95% CI: 7% to 57%) and 36% (95% CI: 10% to 54%) lower insulin, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Marijuana use is associated with lower fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in obese but not in non-obese adults, even at low frequency of < 4 uses per month. Former consumers with high lifetime use had a significant lower insulin levels which persists, independent of the duration of time since last use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31152633

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/1753-0407.12958

Study: Cannabis Protective Against Diabetes Among Those Overweight”  https://norml.org/news/2019/06/20/study-cannabis-protective-against-diabetes-among-those-overweight

“Cannabis use could help prevent diabetes”  https://mogreenway.com/2019/06/24/cannabis-use-could-help-prevent-diabetes/

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The origins of cannabis smoking: Chemical residue evidence from the first millennium BCE in the Pamirs.

 Science Advances: 5 (6)“Cannabis is one of the oldest cultivated plants in East Asia, grown for grain and fiber as well as for recreational, medical, and ritual purposes. It is one of the most widely used psychoactive drugs in the world today, but little is known about its early psychoactive use or when plants under cultivation evolved the phenotypical trait of increased specialized compound production. The archaeological evidence for ritualized consumption of cannabis is limited and contentious. Here, we present some of the earliest directly dated and scientifically verified evidence for ritual cannabis smoking. This phytochemical analysis indicates that cannabis plants were burned in wooden braziers during mortuary ceremonies at the Jirzankal Cemetery (ca. 500 BCE) in the eastern Pamirs region. This suggests cannabis was smoked as part of ritual and/or religious activities in western China by at least 2500 years ago and that the cannabis plants produced high levels of psychoactive compounds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31206023

https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/6/eaaw1391

“Earliest evidence for cannabis smoking discovered in ancient tombs”  https://www.nationalgeographic.com/culture/2019/06/earliest-evidence-cannabis-marijuana-smoking-china-tombs/

“The First Evidence of Smoking Pot Was Found in a 2,500-Year-Old Pot”  https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/2500-year-old-chinese-cemetery-offers-earliest-physical-evidence-cannabis-smoking-180972410/

“Earliest Evidence of People “Smoking” Weed Found in 2,500-Year-Old Chinese Pots”  https://www.sciencealert.com/ancient-pots-from-china-reveal-humans-smoking-cannabis-2-500-years-ago

“Oldest evidence of marijuana use discovered in 2500-year-old cemetery in peaks of western China” https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2019/06/oldest-evidence-marijuana-use-discovered-2500-year-old-cemetery-peaks-western-china

“Cannabis use for medicinal purposes dates back at least 3,000 years.”  https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq#section/_7

“Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes for thousands of years.” https://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all

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The Endocannabinoid System: A New Treatment Target for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder?

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“Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness that is associated with significant functional impairment. Although evidence-based pharmacotherapies exist, currently available medications are ineffective in some patients and may cause intolerable side effects in others. There is an urgent need for new treatments.

Discussion: A growing body of basic and clinical research has showed that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a role in anxiety, fear, and repetitive behaviors. At the same time, some patients with OCD who smoke cannabis anecdotally report that it relieves their symptoms and mitigates anxiety, and several case reports describe patients whose OCD symptoms improved after they were treated with cannabinoids. Taken together, these findings suggest that the ECS could be a potential target for novel medications for OCD. In this study, we review evidence from both animal and human studies that suggests that the ECS may play a role in OCD and related disorders. We also describe findings from studies in which cannabinoid drugs were shown to impact symptoms of these conditions.

Recent studies in both humans and animals have shown a critical role for the ECS in anxiety, stress, fear, and repetitive/habitual behaviors. Moreover, many patients with OCD who use cannabis anecdotally report that it improves their symptoms and reduces anxiety.

Conclusions: An emerging body of evidence suggests that the ECS plays a role in OCD symptoms and may be a target for the development of novel medications. Further exploration of this topic through well-designed human trials is warranted.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0049

“Can cannabinoids help treat obsessive-compulsive disorder?”  https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-05/mali-cch053119.php

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Cannabidiol for the Reduction of Cue-Induced Craving and Anxiety in Drug-Abstinent Individuals With Heroin Use Disorder: A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

Image result for american journal of psychiatry“Despite the staggering consequences of the opioid epidemic, limited nonopioid medication options have been developed to treat this medical and public health crisis.

This study investigated the potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating phytocannabinoid, to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety, two critical features of addiction that often contribute to relapse and continued drug use, in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder.

Acute CBD administration, in contrast to placebo, significantly reduced both craving and anxiety induced by the presentation of salient drug cues compared with neutral cues. CBD also showed significant protracted effects on these measures 7 days after the final short-term (3-day) CBD exposure. In addition, CBD reduced the drug cue–induced physiological measures of heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. There were no significant effects on cognition, and there were no serious adverse effects.

 Conclusions:

CBD’s potential to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety provides a strong basis for further investigation of this phytocannabinoid as a treatment option for opioid use disorder.”

https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.2019.18101191

“Study finds CBD effective in treating heroin addiction”  https://www.cnn.com/2019/05/21/health/heroin-opioid-addiction-cbd-study/index.html

“CBD oil may help limit cravings and anxiety in heroin users, study finds”  https://www.nbcnews.com/health/health-news/cbd-oil-may-help-limit-cravings-anxiety-heroin-users-study-n1007856

“Cannabis Compound Eases Anxiety and Cravings of Heroin Addiction”  https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/cannabis-compound-eases-anxiety-and-cravings-of-heroin-addiction/?redirect=1

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Dissociable effects of cannabis with and without cannabidiol on the human brain’s resting-state functional connectivity.

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“Two major constituents of cannabis are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). THC is the main psychoactive component; CBD may buffer the user against the harmful effects of THC.

AIMS:

We examined the effects of two strains of cannabis and placebo on the human brain’s resting-state networks using fMRI.

CONCLUSIONS:

THC disrupts the DMN, and the PCC is a key brain region involved in the subjective experience of THC intoxication. CBD restores disruption of the salience network by THC, which may explain its potential to treat disorders of salience such as psychosis and addiction.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31013455

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0269881119841568?journalCode=jopa

“CBD in cannabis could reduce psychosis risk from high strength skunk, study shows. Buffer effect could point to a protective mechanism that may help ‘treat disorders like psychosis and addiction’. Cannabidiol (CBD), a chemical derived from the cannabis plant, can counteract the effects of high strength “skunk” strains and may help to reduce the risk of serious mental health conditions like psychosis, according to a new study.” https://www.independent.co.uk/news/health/cannabis-skunk-cbd-thc-psychosis-addiction-ucl-a8882991.html

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The New Runner’s High? Examining Relationships Between Cannabis Use and Exercise Behavior in States with Legalized Cannabis

“Results indicated that the majority (81.7%) of participants endorsed using cannabis concurrently with exercise. In addition, the majority of participants who endorsed using cannabis shortly before/after exercise reported that doing so enhances their enjoyment of and recovery from exercise, and approximately half reported that it increases their motivation to exercise.” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2019.00099/abstract
“Cannabis doesn’t make you a lazy pothead, in fact, it might actually motivate you to workout: study. A new study published in the medical journal Frontiers in Public Health has found that consuming cannabis may help motivate users to exercise and improve their workouts.” https://leaderpost.com/cannabis-health/cannabis-doesnt-make-you-a-lazy-pothead-in-fact-it-might-actually-motivate-you-to-workout-study/wcm/bb0beff4-eea0-417a-8812-c5ba10841b34
“Study finds marijuana motivates people to exercise, smashing lazy stoner stereotype. Most people who use marijuana report that consuming before or after exercising improves the experience and aids in recovery, according to a new study. And those who do use cannabis to elevate their workout tend to get a healthier amount of exercise.” https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/marijuana/2019/04/16/study-finds-marijuana-motivates-people-exercise-smashing-lazy-stoner-stereotype/FHHsXxyTrTHrSisso0GC3H/story.html
“A published scientific study claims using weed before workout either “increases motivation” to exercise or “enhances recovery from exercise.”

“Exercise activates the endocannabinoid system.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14625449

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