Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol targeting estrogen receptor signaling: the possible mechanism of action coupled with endocrine disruption.

“Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), a biologically active constituent of marijuana, possesses a wide variety of pharmacological and toxicological effects (e.g., analgesia, hypotension, reduction of inflammation, and anti-cancer effects).

Among Δ(9)-THC’s biological activities, its recognized anti-estrogenic activity has been the subject of investigations.

… Δ(9)-THC is used as both a drug of abuse (marijuana) and as a preventive therapeutic to treat pain and nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy…

…important to investigate the mechanistic basis underlying the anti-estrogenic activity of Δ(9)-THC…

We have recently reported that ERβ, a second type of ER, is involved in the Δ(9)-THC abrogation of E2/ERα-mediated transcriptional activity. Here we discuss the possible mechanism(s) of the Δ(9)-THC-mediated disruption of E2/ERα signaling by presenting our recent findings as well.”



Engineering of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol delivery systems based on surface modified-PLGA nanoplatforms.

“The objective of this work is to develop a nanoplatform that can potentiate the oral administration of Δ9-tetrahidrocannabinol, a highly lipophilic active agent with very promising antiproliferative and antiemetic activities…

Results were satisfactorily used to define the optimum engineering conditions to formulate surface modified nanoparticles for the efficient oral administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles have been formulated for Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol delivery.”


Effect of Marijuana Use on Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury.

“Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with significant morbidity (sickness) and mortality (death).

Several studies have demonstrated neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids.

The objective of this study was to establish a relationship between the presence of a positive toxicology screen for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and mortality after TBI…

After adjusting for differences between the study cohorts on logistic regression, a THC(+) screen was independently associated with survival after TBI.

A positive THC screen is associated with decreased mortality in adult patients sustaining TBI.”



Tapping into the endocannabinoid system to ameliorate acute inflammatory flares and associated pain in mouse knee joints.


“During the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there are frequent but intermittent flares in which the joint becomes acutely inflamed and painful.

Although a number of drug therapies are currently used to treat RA, their effectiveness is variable and side effects are common.

Endocannabinoids have the potential to ameliorate joint pain and inflammation, but these beneficial effects are limited by their rapid degradation.

One enzyme responsible for endocannabinoid break down is fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The present study examined whether URB597, a potent and selective FAAH inhibitor, could alter inflammation and pain in a mouse model of acute synovitis.

Conclusions: These results suggest that the endocannabinoid system of the joint can be harnessed to decrease acute inflammatory reactions and the concomitant pain associated with these episodes.”



Neuroprotective Properties of Cannabigerol in Huntington’s Disease: Studies in R6/2 Mice and 3-Nitropropionate-lesioned Mice.

“Different plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids have shown to be neuroprotective in experimental models of Huntington’s disease (HD) through cannabinoid receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms.

Herein, we studied the effects of cannabigerol (CBG), a nonpsychotropic phytocannabinoid, in 2 different in vivo models of HD.

CBG was extremely active as neuroprotectant in mice intoxicated with 3-nitropropionate (3NP), improving motor deficits and preserving striatal neurons against 3NP toxicity.

In addition, CBG attenuated the reactive microgliosis and the upregulation of proinflammatory markers induced by 3NP, and improved the levels of antioxidant defenses that were also significantly reduced by 3NP.

We also investigated the neuroprotective properties of CBG in R6/2 mice. Treatment with this phytocannabinoid produced a much lower, but significant, recovery in the deteriorated rotarod performance typical of R6/2 mice.

Using HD array analysis, we were able to identify a series of genes linked to this disease (e.g., symplekin, Sin3a, Rcor1, histone deacetylase 2, huntingtin-associated protein 1, δ subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor (GABA-A), and hippocalcin), whose expression was altered in R6/2 mice but partially normalized by CBG treatment.

We also observed a modest improvement in the gene expression for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), which is altered in these mice, as well as a small, but significant, reduction in the aggregation of mutant huntingtin in the striatal parenchyma in CBG-treated animals.

In conclusion, our results open new research avenues for the use of CBG, alone or in combination with other phytocannabinoids or therapies, for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as HD.”



Cannabinoid receptor type 2 activation in atherosclerosis and acute cardiovascular diseases.

“In the last decades, the cannabinoid system (comprising synthetic and endogenous cannabinoid agonists and antagonists, their receptors and degrading enzymes) has been shown to induce potent immunomodulatory activities in atherogenesis and acute ischemic complications.

Differently from the other cannabinoid receptors in which controversial results are reported, the selective activation of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) has been shown to play anti-inflammatory and protective actions within atherosclerotic vessels and downstream ischemic peripheral organs.

CB2 is a transmembrane receptor that triggers protective intracellular pathways in cardiac, immune and vascular cells in both in human and animal models of atherosclerosis…

medications activating CB2 function in the circulation or peripheral target organs might be a promising approach against atherogenesis.

This review updates evidence from preclinical studies on different CB2-triggered pathways in atherosclerosis and acute ischemic events.”


Down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by cannabidiolic acid in human breast cancer cells.

“Metastases are known to be responsible for approximately 90% of breast cancer-related deaths.

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved not only in inflammatory processes, but also in the metastasis of cancer cells…

…cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a selective COX-2 inhibitor found in the fiber-type cannabis plant…

Taken together, the results obtained here demonstrated that i) CBDA had dual inhibitory effects on COX-2 through down-regulation and enzyme inhibition, and ii) CBDA may possess the ability to suppress genes that are positively involved in the metastasis of cancer cells in vitro.”


“Cannabidiolic acid as a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitory component in cannabis…Taken together, these lines of evidence in this study suggest that naturally occurring CBDA in cannabis is a selective inhibitor for COX-2.”  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/36/9/1917.long

“Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration… The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009504/


Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease: An exploratory double-blind trial.

“Parkinson’s disease (PD) has a progressive course and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons.

… the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a promising target.

…Our findings point to a possible effect of CBD in improving quality of life measures in PD patients with no psychiatric comorbidities…”



Drug-resistant MS spasticity treatment with Sativex® add-on and driving ability.

“The aim of the present observational study was to determine the effects of a delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex® spray), brand name Sativex® , indicated for drug-resistant MS spasticity, on the driving ability of treated MS patients…

Treatment of MS patients with Sativex® does not negatively impact on driving ability and may improve moderate to severe treatment-resistant MS spasticity.”


Cannabidiol improves vasorelaxation in Zucker Diabetic fatty rats through cyclooxygenase activation

“Cannabidiol (CBD) decreases insulitis, inflammation, neuropathic pain and myocardial dysfunction in preclinical models of diabetes.

We recently showed that CBD also improves vasorelaxation in the Zucker Diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, and the objective of the present study was to establish the mechanisms underlying this effect…

CBD exposure enhances the ability of arteries to relax via enhanced production of vasodilator COX 1/2-derived products acting at EP4 receptors.”