The Potential of Cannabinoid-Based Treatments in Tourette Syndrome.

“Novel pharmacological treatments are needed for Tourette syndrome.

Our goal was to examine the current evidence base and biological rationale for the use of cannabis-derived medications or medications that act on the cannabinoid system in Tourette syndrome.

There is a strong biological rationale regarding how cannabis-derived medications could affect tic severity. Anecdotal case reports and series have noted that many patients report that their tics improve after using cannabis. However, only two small randomized, placebo-controlled trials of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol have been published; these suggested possible benefits of cannabis-derived agents for the treatment of tics.

Trials examining other agents active on the cannabinoid system for tic disorders are currently ongoing.

Cannabinoid-based treatments are a promising avenue of new research for medications that may help the Tourette syndrome population.”

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Impact of recreational and medicinal marijuana on surgical patients: A review.

American Journal of Surgery Home

“As medicinal and recreational marijuana use broadens across the United States, knowledge of its effects on the body will become increasingly important to all health care providers, including surgeons.

DATA SOURCES:

We performed a literature review of Pubmed for articles discussing the basic science related to cannabinoids, as well as articles regarding cannabinoid medications, and cannabis use in surgical patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

The primary components in the cannabis plant, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), have been made available in numerous forms and formulations to treat multiple medical conditions, and recreational access to marijuana is increasing. Of particular importance to the surgeon may be their effects on prolonging intestinal motility, decreasing inflammation, increasing hunger, mitigating pain, and reducing nausea and vomiting. Perioperative use of medicinal or recreational marijuana will become increasingly prevalent, and the surgeon should be aware of the positive and negative effects of these cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30471810

https://www.americanjournalofsurgery.com/article/S0002-9610(18)31123-1/fulltext

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Cannabis and cannabinoid drug development: evaluating botanical versus single molecule approaches.

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“Accumulating evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system is a promising target for the treatment of a variety of health conditions.

Two paths of cannabinoid drug development have emerged. One approach is focused on developing medications that are directly derived from the cannabis plant. The other utilizes a single molecule approach whereby individual phytocannabinoids or novel cannabinoids with therapeutic potential are identified and synthesized for pharmaceutical development.

This commentary discusses the unique challenges and merits of botanical vs single molecule cannabinoid drug development strategies, highlights how both can be impacted by legalization of cannabis via legislative processes, and also addresses regulatory and public health considerations that are important to consider as cannabinoid medicine advances as a discipline.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30179534

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09540261.2018.1474730?journalCode=iirp20

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Do Cannabinoids Confer Neuroprotection Against Epilepsy? An Overview.

Cannabinoid-based medications provide not only relief for specific symptoms, but also arrest or delay of disease progression in patients with pain, multiple sclerosis, and other conditions. Although they also seem to hold potential as anticonvulsant agents, evidence of their efficacy in epilepsy is supported by several evidences.

The data reviewed herein lend support to the notion that the endocannabinoid signalling system plays a key modulation role in the activities subserved by the hippocampus, which is directly or indirectly affected in epilepsy patients.

The notion is supported by a variety of anatomical, electrophysiological, biochemical and pharmacological findings. These data suggest the need for developing novel treatments using compounds that selectively target individual elements of the endocannabinoid signalling system.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29290836

“The data reviewed herein demonstrate that cannabinoids provide neuroprotection against brain excitability. They seem to induce at least partial restoration of neurotransmitter dysfunction, inducing an anticonvulsant effect that may be the biological substrate of the complex neurochemical effects reported in experimental and clinical studies. A large body of data suggests that cannabinoids can be harnessed as antiepileptic agents. Finally, among patients with the Dravet syndrome, cannabidiol resulted in a greater reduction in convulsive-seizure frequency than placebo and was associated with higher rates of adverse events and it might reduce seizure frequency and might have an adequate safety profile in children and young adults with highly treatment-resistant epilepsy.”
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Potential of plant-sourced phenols for inflammatory bowel disease.

“Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an uncontrolled chronic inflammatory intestinal disorder, which requires medications for long-term therapy. Facing the challenges of severe side effects and drug resistance of conventional medications, to develop the strategies meet the stringent safety and effectiveness in the long-term treatment are urgent in the clinics.

In this regard, a growing body of evidence confirms plant-sourced phenols, such as flavonoids, catechins, stilbenes, coumarins, quinones, lignans, phenylethanoids, cannabinoid phenols, tannins, phenolic acids and hydroxyphenols, exert potent protective benefits with fewer undesirable effects in conditions of acute or chronic intestinal inflammation through improvement of colonic oxidative and pro-inflammatory status, preservation of the epithelial barrier function and modulation of gut microbiota.

In this review, the great potential of plant-sourced phenols and their action mechanisms for the treatment or prevention of IBD in recent research are summarized, which may help the further development of new preventive/adjuvant regimens for IBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28990509

http://www.eurekaselect.com/156267/article

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The Endogenous Cannabinoid System: A Budding Source of Targets for Treating Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain.

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“A great need exists for the development of new medications to treat pain resulting from various disease states and types of injury. Given that the endogenous cannabinoid (ie, endocannabinoid) system modulates neuronal and immune cell function, both of which play key roles in pain, therapeutics targeting this system hold promise as novel analgesics.

Potential therapeutic targets include the cannabinoid receptors, type 1 and 2, as well as biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes of the endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Notably, cannabinoid receptor agonists as well as inhibitors of endocannabinoid-regulating enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase produce reliable antinociceptive effects, and offer opioid-sparing antinociceptive effects in myriad preclinical inflammatory and neuropathic pain models.

Emerging clinical studies show that ‘medicinal’ cannabis or cannabinoid-based medications relieve pain in human diseases, such as cancer, multiple sclerosis, and fibromyalgia.

Here, we examine the preclinical and clinical evidence of various endocannabinoid system targets as potential therapeutic strategies for inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28857069

https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/naam/abs/npp2017204a.html

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The Analgesic Potential of Cannabinoids

 

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“Cannabinoids are derivatives of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, which evolved in the temperate regions of Central Asia. Cannabis was used as a medicine in ancient China (2700 BC) and India (1000 BC). Historically and anecdotally cannabinoids have been used as analgesic agents.

In recent years, there has been an escalating interest in developing cannabis-derived medications to treat severe pain. This review provides an overview of the history of cannabis use in medicine, cannabinoid signaling pathways, and current data from preclinical as well as clinical studies on using cannabinoids as potential analgesic agents. Clinical and experimental studies show that cannabis-derived compounds act as anti-emetic, appetite modulating and analgesic agents.

Since opioids are the only therapy for severe pain, analgesic ability of cannabinoids may provide a much-needed alternative to opioids. Moreover, cannabinoids act synergistically with opioids and act as opioid sparing agents, allowing lower doses and fewer side effects from chronic opioid therapy. Thus, rational use of cannabis based medications deserves serious consideration to alleviate the suffering of patients due to severe pain.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3728280/

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The endocannabinoid system as a target for novel anxiolytic drugs.

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“The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has attracted attention for its role in various behavioral and brain functions, and as a therapeutic target in neuropsychiatric disease states, including anxiety disorders and other conditions resulting from dysfunctional responses to stress. In this mini-review, we highlight components of the eCB system that offer potential ‘druggable’ targets for new anxiolytic medications, emphasizing some of the less well-discussed options. We discuss how selectively amplifying eCBs recruitment by interfering with eCB-degradation, via fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), has been linked to reductions in anxiety-like behaviors in rodents and variation in human anxiety symptoms. We also discuss a non-canonical route to regulate eCB degradation that involves interfering with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Next, we discuss approaches to targeting eCB receptor-signaling in ways that do not involve the cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1R); by targeting the CB2R subtype and the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1). Finally, we review evidence that cannabidiol (CBD), while representing a less specific pharmacological approach, may be another way to modulate eCBs and interacting neurotransmitter systems to alleviate anxiety. Taken together, these various approaches provide a range of plausible paths to developing novel compounds that could prove useful for treating trauma-related and anxiety disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28434588

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Diuretic effects of cannabinoids.

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“These data indicate that cannabinoids have robust diuretic effects in rats that are mediated via CB1 receptor mechanisms.

Overall, our data indicate that diuresis is a CB1-mediated effect that may serve as a reliable and objective physiologic measure of cannabinoid action in rats; the circumstances under which these results represent a potential therapeutic benefit or potential liability of cannabinoids remain to be determined.

The implications of these findings currently are poorly understood, although a better understanding of mechanisms and sites of action by which cannabinoids increase urine loss may lead to the rational development of novel cannabinergic medications.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533417/

“Diuretics are medicines that help reduce the amount of water in the body. Diuretics are used to treat the buildup of excess fluid in the body that occurs with some medical conditions such ascongestive heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. Some diuretics are also prescribed to treat high bloodpressure. These drugs act on the kidneys to increase urine output. This reduces the amount of fluid in the bloodstream,which in turn lowers blood pressure.” http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/diuretics
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pain in Extrapyramidal Neurodegenerative Diseases.

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“Pain is one of the most common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease (PD) and other Parkinson plus syndromes, with a major effect on quality of life.

The aims of the study were to examine the prevalence and characteristics of pain in PD and other Parkinson plus syndromes and patient use and response to pain medications.

The most beneficial analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and medical cannabis.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27623111

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