Synthesis and In Vitro Characterization of Selective Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Agonists: Biological Evaluation against Neuroblastoma Cancer Cells

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“1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide structures were previously identified as a promising scaffold from which to obtain CB2R agonists with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity. This work describes the synthesis and functional characterization of new 1,8-naphthyridin-2(1H)-one-3-carboxamides with high affinity and selectivity for CB2R. The new compounds were able to pharmacologically modulate the cAMP response without modulating CB2R-dependent β-arrestin2 recruitment. These structures were also evaluated for their anti-cancer activity against SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE cells. They were able to reduce the cell viability of both neuroblastoma cancer cell lines with micromolar potency (IC50 of FG158a = 11.8 μM and FG160a = 13.2 μM in SH-SY5Y cells) by a CB2R-mediated mechanism. Finally, in SH-SY5Y cells one of the newly synthesized compounds, FG158a, was able to modulate ERK1/2 expression by a CB2R-mediated effect, thus suggesting that this signaling pathway might be involved in its potential anti-cancer effect.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35566369/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/9/3019


A natural product from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa inhibits homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), attenuating MPP +-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells

Bioorganic Chemistry

“Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase, which regulate transcription, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Previous evidences indicated that HIPK2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting as a novel target for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapeutic development. Herein, gene microarray analysis was performed to verify the key regulatory function of HIPK2 in PD. (Z)-methylp-hydroxycinnamate (ZMHC, 7) with other eighteen compounds were isolated from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa, growing in Bama Yao Autonomous County, one of the five largest longevity regions of the world. Intriguingly, ZMHC was identified to bind HIPK2 with high affinity through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, cell morphology, flow cytometry and western blot assay suggested that ZMHC inhibited HIPK2, which attenuated MPP+-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. In conclusion, these findings discovered a natural product that inhibited HIPK2, and highlighted that ZMHC could be a potential precursor agent for future PD therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28366826/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0045206816303972?via%3Dihub

Cannabinol Inhibits Cellular Proliferation, Invasion, and Angiogenesis of Neuroblastoma via Novel miR-34a/tRiMetF31/PFKFB3 Axis

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“High-risk neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric tumor. Despite great advances in neuroblastoma therapy and supportive care protocols, no curative treatment is available for most patients with this disease. Here, we uncover that CBN attenuated the cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis of neuroblastoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner via the inhibition of the AKT pathway and the upregulation of miR-34a that targets E2F1. Both miR-34a and a 31-nt tRNAiMet fragment (tRiMetF31) derived from miR-34a-guided cleavage were downregulated in 4 examined neuroblastoma cell lines inversely correlated with the levels of its direct target, the PFKFB3 protein. Moreover, ectopic tRiMetF31 suppressed proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis in the studied neuroblastoma cell lines. Conversely, tRiMetF31 knockdown promoted PFKFB3 expression, resulting in enhanced angiogenesis. Our findings reveal a suppressive role of CBN in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis, highlighting a novel and crucial miR-34a tumor suppressor network in CBN’s antineuroblastoma actions.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35454815/

“Cannabinol is a chemical found in the Cannabis sativa plant.”

https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-1611/cannabinol-cbn

Cannabidiol Protects Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells from Cadmium.

ijerph-logo“The protective effect of cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against neuronal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 10 μM) was investigated in a retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

CBD (1 μM) was applied 24 h before and removed during cadmium (Cd) treatment. In differentiated neuronal cells, CBD significantly reduced the Cd-dependent decrease of cell viability, and the rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase.

CBD significantly prevented the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (GRP78 increase) and the subcellular distribution of the cytochrome C, as well as the overexpression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Immunocytochemical analysis as well as quantitative protein evaluation by western blotting revealed that CBD partially counteracted the depletion of the growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and of the neuronal specific class III β-tubulin (β3 tubulin) induced by Cd treatment.

These data showed that Cd-induced neuronal injury was ameliorated by CBD treatment and it was concluded that CBD may represent a potential option to protect neuronal cells from the detrimental effects of Cd toxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31718076

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4420

Role of miRNA in the regulation of cannabidiol-mediated apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells.

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“Neuroblastoma (NBL) is one of the most common childhood cancers that originate from the immature nerve cells of the sympathetic system. Studies with NBL cancers have also shown that miRNAs are dysregulated and may play a critical role in pathogenesis.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound found in marijuana which has been previously shown by our laboratory and others to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, there are no studies reported to test if CBD mediates these effects through regulation of miRNA.

In the current study, therefore, we investigated if CBD induces apoptosis in human NBL cell lines, SH SY5Y and IMR-32, and if it is regulated by miRNA.

Our data demonstrated that CBD induces apoptosis in NBL cells through activation of serotonin and vanilloid receptors. We also found that caspase-2 and -3 played an important role in the induction of apoptosis. CBD also significantly reduced NBL cell migration and invasion in vitro.

Furthermore, CBD blocked mitochondrial respiration and caused a shift in metabolism towards glycolysis. CBD altered the expression of miRNA specifically, down-regulating hsa-let-7a and upregulating hsa-mir-1972. Downregulation of let-7a increased expression of target caspase-3, and growth arrest specific-7 (GAS-7) genes. Upregulation of hsa-mir-1972 caused decreased expression of BCL2L1 and SIRT2 genes.

Together, our studies suggest that CBD-mediated apoptosis in NBL cells is regulated by miRNA.”

Development of a Cannabinoid-Based Photoaffinity Probe to Determine the Δ8/9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Protein Interaction Landscape in Neuroblastoma Cells.

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“Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principle psychoactive ingredient in Cannabis, is widely used for its therapeutic effects in a large variety of diseases, but it also has numerous neurological side effects. The cannabinoid receptors (CBRs) are responsible to a large extent for these, but not all biological responses are mediated via the CBRs.

Objectives: The identification of additional target proteins of THC to enable a better understanding of the (adverse) physiological effects of THC.

Methods: In this study, a chemical proteomics approach using a two-step photoaffinity probe is applied to identify potential proteins that may interact with THC.

Results: Photoaffinity probe 1, containing a diazirine as a photocrosslinker, and a terminal alkyne as a ligation handle, was synthesized in 14 steps. It demonstrated high affinity for both CBRs. Subsequently, two-step photoaffinity labeling in neuroblastoma cells led to identification of four potential novel protein targets of THC. The identification of these putative protein hits is a first step towards a better understanding of the protein interaction profile of THC, which could ultimately lead to the development of novel therapeutics based on THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29992186

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0003

A natural product from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa inhibits homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), attenuating MPP+-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells.

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“Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase, which regulate transcription, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. Previous evidences indicated that HIPK2 could be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, suggesting as a novel target for Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapeutic development.

Herein, gene microarray analysis was performed to verify the key regulatory function of HIPK2 in PD. (Z)-methylp-hydroxycinnamate (ZMHC, 7) with other eighteen compounds were isolated from Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa, growing in Bama Yao Autonomous County, one of the five largest longevity regions of the world.

Intriguingly, ZMHC was identified to bind HIPK2 with high affinity through molecular modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, cell morphology, flow cytometry and western blot assay suggested that ZMHC inhibited HIPK2, which attenuated MPP+-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

In conclusion, these findings discovered a natural product that inhibited HIPK2, and highlighted that ZMHC could be a potential precursor agent for future PD therapy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28366826

Study: Cannabinoids Limit Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation

Study: Cannabinoids Limit Neuroblastoma Cell Proliferation

“The administration of the cannabinoids THC and CBD limit cancer activity in neuroblastoma cells in culture and in animals, according to preclinical data published in the journal Current Oncology.

Neuroblastoma is an aggressive form of childhood cancer that often goes inadequately addressed by conventional treatment.

Investigators reported that both types of cannabinoids reduced neuroblastoma cell viability, but that CBD demonstrated superior anti-cancer ability. The study is the first to document the anti-cancer properties of CBD in this particular cancerous cell line.

They concluded, “Our findings about the activity of CBD in nbl (neuroblastoma) support and extend previous findings about the anti-tumor activities of CBD in other tumors and suggest that cannabis extracts enriched in CBD and not in THC could be suitable for the development of novel non-psychotropic therapeutic strategies in nbl.”  http://enewspf.com/2016/04/21/study-cannabinoids-limit-neuroblastoma-cell-proliferation/

“In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791143/?report=reader

In vitro and in vivo efficacy of non-psychoactive cannabidiol in neuroblastoma.

“Neuroblastoma (nbl) is one of the most common solid cancers in children. Prognosis in advanced nbl is still poor despite aggressive multimodality therapy. Furthermore, survivors experience severe long-term multi-organ sequelae. Hence, the identification of new therapeutic strategies is of utmost importance.

Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been used for years in folk medicine and later in the field of palliative care. Recently, they were found to show pharmacologic activity in cancer, including cytostatic, apoptotic, and antiangiogenic effects.

We investigated, in vitro and in vivo, the anti-nbl effect of the most active compounds in Cannabis, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (thc) and cannabidiol (cbd)…

Both compounds have antitumourigenic activity in vitro and impeded the growth of tumour xenografts in vivo. Of the two cannabinoids tested, cbd was the more active. Treatment with cbd reduced the viability and invasiveness of treated tumour cells in vitro and induced apoptosis. Moreover, cbd elicited an increase in activated caspase 3 in treated cells and tumour xenografts.

 

Our results demonstrate the antitumourigenic action of cbd on nbl cells. Because cbd is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid that appears to be devoid of side effects, our results support its exploitation as an effective anticancer drug in the management of nbl.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27022310

“Neuroblastomas are cancers that start in early nerve cells (called neuroblasts) of the sympathetic nervous system, so they can be found anywhere along this system.”  http://www.cancer.org/cancer/neuroblastoma/detailedguide/neuroblastoma-what-is-neuroblastoma

JWH-133, a Selective Cannabinoid CB2 Receptor Agonist, Exerts Toxic Effects on Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

“Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in the regulation of diverse physiological functions.

Although cannabinoid type 2 receptors (CB2) are involved in the modulation of immune system in peripheral tissues, recent findings demonstrated that they are also expressed in the central nervous system and could constitute a new target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26842917