Including cannabinoids in the treatment of painful schwannomatosis.

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“A 47‐year‐old man, affected by Schwannomatosis, presented a very severe pain (10/10, NRS) with paroxysmal shooting episodes, allodynia, paresthesia, and dysesthesia; in parallel, the patient had lost weight (from 70 to 49 kg) and experienced fatigue and deep depression. The previous pain prescription, including opioids and antineutopathic drugs, was fully ineffective. We progressively substituted this therapy with 15 drops, 3 times/daily, of THC/CBD in a concentration ratio 5:1, equal to 15 mg of active substance each time, reaching improvement in pain intensity (6/10) and in several other aspects as mood and quality of life”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29845778  

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/brb3.1011

“Schwannomatosis is a rare genetic disorder that results in tumors (called schwannomas) that grow on the peripheral nerves throughout the body. It is recognized most often in people over the age of 30. Schwannomatosis can cause severe, debilitating pain and neurological dysfunction.”  https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/neurology_neurosurgery/centers_clinics/neurofibromatosis/schwannomatosis/index.html

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Mechanistic Potential and Therapeutic Implications of Cannabinoids in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

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“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is comprised of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is defined by histologic or radiographic evidence of steatosis in the absence of alternative etiologies, including significant alcohol consumption, steatogenic medication use, or hereditary disorders.

NAFLD is now the most common liver disease, and when NASH is present it can progress to fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Different mechanisms have been identified as contributors to the physiology of NAFLD; insulin resistance and related metabolic derangements have been the hallmark of physiology associated with NAFLD.

The mainstay of treatment has classically involved lifestyle modifications focused on the reduction of insulin resistance. However, emerging evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system and its associated cannabinoid receptors and ligands have mechanistic and therapeutic implications in metabolic derangements and specifically in NAFLD.

Cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonism has demonstrated promising effects with increased resistance to hepatic steatosis, reversal of hepatic steatosis, and improvements in glycemic control, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Literature regarding the role of cannabinoid receptor 2 in NAFLD is controversial.

Exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids have demonstrated some therapeutic impact on metabolic derangements associated with NAFLD, although literature regarding direct therapeutic use in NAFLD is limited. Nonetheless, the properties of the endocannabinoid system, its receptors, substrates, and ligands remain a significant arena warranting further research, with potential for a pharmacologic intervention for a disease with an anticipated increase in economic and clinical burden.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29843404

http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/2/47

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Investigational cannabinoids in seizure disorders, what have we learned thus far?

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“The anticonvulsant activity of cannabinoids attracted much attention in the last decade. Cannabinoids that are currently investigated with the intention of making them drugs for the treatment of epilepsy are cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid.

Areas covered. In this review, the authors look at the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies with investigational cannabinoids. Relevant literature was searched for in MEDLINE, SCOPUS, EBSCO, GOOGLE SCHOLAR and SCINDEX databases.

Expert opinion. Pre-clinical studies confirmed anticonvulsant activity of cannabidiol and cannabidivarin in a variety of epilepsy models. While the results of clinical trials with cannabidivarin are still awaited, cannabidiol showed clear therapeutic benefit and good safety in patients with therapy resistant seizures associated with Dravet syndrome and in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome who have drop seizures. However, the full therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy needs to be investigated in the near future.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29842819

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13543784.2018.1482275

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Medical Oncologists’ Beliefs, Practices, and Knowledge Regarding Marijuana Used Therapeutically: A Nationally Representative Survey Study

Journal of Clinical Oncology

“Although almost every state medical marijuana (MM) law identifies cancer as a qualifying condition, little research supports MM’s use in oncology. We hypothesized that the discrepancy between these laws and the scientific evidence base poses clinical challenges for oncologists. Oncologists’ beliefs, knowledge, and practices regarding MM were examined in this study.

In November 2016, we mailed a survey on MM to a nationally-representative, random sample of 400 medical oncologists. Main outcome measures included whether oncologists reported discussing MM with patients, recommended MM clinically in the past year, or felt sufficiently informed to make such recommendations. The survey also queried oncologists’ views on MM’s comparative effectiveness for several conditions (including its use as an adjunct to standard pain management strategies) and its risks compared with prescription opioids. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using standard statistical techniques.

The overall response rate was 63%. Whereas only 30% of oncologists felt sufficiently informed to make recommendations regarding MM, 80% conducted discussions about MM with patients, and 46% recommended MM clinically. Sixty-seven percent viewed it as a helpful adjunct to standard pain management strategies, and 65% thought MM is equally or more effective than standard treatments for anorexia and cachexia.

Our findings identify a concerning discrepancy between oncologists’ self-reported knowledge base and their beliefs and practices regarding MM. Although 70% of oncologists do not feel equipped to make clinical recommendations regarding MM, the vast majority conduct discussions with patients about MM and nearly one-half do, in fact, recommend it clinically. A majority believes MM is useful for certain indications. These findings are clinically important and suggest critical gaps in research, medical education, and policy regarding MM.”

http://ascopubs.org/doi/10.1200/JCO.2017.76.1221

“Survey: Oncologists Believe Medical Marijuana to be Equally or More Effective Than Conventional Cancer Treatments”  http://www.thedailychronic.net/2018/90645/survey-oncologists-believe-medical-cannabis-equally-effective-conventional-treatments/

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The effect of hemp seed and linseed addition on the quality of liver pâtés.

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“Liver pâtés are popular all over the world, but they usually contain high amounts of animal fats. It may be beneficial to improve their dietetic value by decreasing the saturated fatty acid content, while maintaining their sensory quality. One way to do this is to add ingredients which are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as hemp seed or linseed. Hemp seeds are valuable because of their fat and protein content and linseed is known for its high α-linolenic fatty acid (ALA) content. Both are good sources of fiber.

RESULTS:

The addition of hemp and linseed increased the fat content. The fatty acid profile improved signifi- cantly. There were more polyunsaturated fatty acids and the n-6 to n-3 ratio was reduced in both products containing oil seeds compared to the control sample, which is important from the health point of view. The color parameters were not changed. The hardness, chewiness and adhesiveness increased in products contain- ing oil seeds. Those products received higher scores in sensory analysis.

CONCLUSIONS:

The quality of the pâtés with added oil seed is comparable to or better than the traditional ones. The products with both hemp and linseed can be treated as a good source of n-3 fatty acids. The amount of ALA is high enough to label the product as a source of n-3 fatty acids.”

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Palmitoylethanolamide as adjunctive therapy for autism: Efficacy and safety results from a randomized controlled trial.

 Journal of Psychiatric Research Home

“Inflammation as well as glutamate excitotoxicity have been proposed to participate in the propagation of autism. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endocannabinoid proven to prevent glutamatergic toxicity and inhibit inflammatory responses simultaneously.

The present randomized, parallel group, double-blind placebo-controlled trial is the first study depicted to probe the efficacy of co-treatment with risperidone and PEA over 10 weeks in children with autism.

Seventy children (aged 4-12 years) with autism and moderate to severe symptoms of irritability were randomly assigned to two treatment regimens. The study outcomes were measured using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition (ABC-C). At trial endpoint (week 10), combination of PEA and risperidone had superior efficacy in ameliorating the ABC-irritability and hyperactivity/noncompliance symptoms (Cohen’s d, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94, 0.41 to 1.46, p = 0.001) compared with a risperidone plus placebo regimen. Interestingly, effect of combination treatment on hyperactivity symptoms was also observed at trial midpoint (week 5) but with a smaller effect size (d = 0.53, p = 0.04) than that at the endpoint (d = 0.94, p = 0.001). Meanwhile, there was a trend toward significance for superior effect of risperidone plus PEA over risperidone plus placebo on inappropriate speech at trial endpoint (d = 0.51, p = 0.051). No significant differences existed between the two treatment groups for the other two ABC-C subscales (lethargy/social withdrawal and stereotypic behavior).

The findings suggest that PEA may augment therapeutic effects of risperidone on autism-related irritability and hyperactivity. Future studies are warranted to investigate whether PEA can serve as a stand-alone treatment for autism.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29807317

https://www.journalofpsychiatricresearch.com/article/S0022-3956(17)31405-X/fulltext

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The role of lipid signaling in the progression of malignant melanoma.

Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

“In the past decades, a vast amount of data accumulated on the role of lipid signaling pathways in the progression of malignant melanoma, the most metastatic/aggressive human cancer type. Genomic studies identified that PTEN loss is the leading factor behind the activation of the PI3K-signaling pathway in melanoma, mutations of which are one of the main resistance mechanisms behind target therapy failures. On the other hand, illegitimate expressions of megakaryocytic genes p12-lipoxyganse, cyclooxygenase-2, and phosphodiestherase-2/autotaxin (ATX) are mostly involved in the regulation of motility signaling in melanoma through various G-protein-coupled bioactive lipid receptors. Furthermore, endocannabinoid signaling can also be a novel paracrine survival factor in melanoma. Last but not least, prenylation inhibitors acting even on mutated small GTP-ases, such as NRAS of melanoma may offer novel therapeutic opportunities. As regards melanoma, the most effective therapy nowadays is immunotherapy, with the resistance mechanisms also possibly involving the lipid signaling activities of melanoma cells, which further supports the idea of their being therapeutic targets.”

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EFFECT OF ENDOCANNABINOID SIGNALLING ON CELL FATE: LIFE, DEATH, DIFFERENTIATION AND PROLIFERATION OF BRAIN CELLS.

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“Cell fate events are regulated by different endogenous developmental factors such as cell microenvironment, external or remote signals and epigenetic regulation. Among the many regulatory factors, endocannabinoid associated signalling pathways are known to lead several of these events in the developing nervous system and in the adult brain. Interestingly, endocannabinoids exert its modulatory actions in health and pathological conditions. Endocannabinoid signalling can promote cell survival acting on non-transformed brain cells (neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes) while can either have a protumoural or antitumoural effect on transformed cells. Moreover, endocannabinoids are able to attenuate detrimental effects on neurogenesis and neuroinflammation associated with ageing. Thus, the endocannabinoid system emerges as an important regulator of cell fate to control cell survival/cell death decisions depending on the cell type and its environment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29797438

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14369

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Cannabidiol effects on prepulse inhibition in nonhuman primates.

 

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“Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle reflex is a well-established behavior paradigm to measure sensorimotor gating deficits. PPI is disrupted in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia. PPI tests can be used to screen new drugs for treatment of such disorders.

In this review, we discuss how PPI paradigm can help in screening the therapeutic effects of cannabidiol (CBD).

We look into recent literature about CBD effects on PPI response in animal models, especially in nonhuman primates. CBD has been shown to modify PPI in N-methyl d-aspartate receptor antagonist models for schizophrenia, both in rodents and in nonhuman primates.

These results show CBD as a potential drug for the treatment of neurologic disorders that present alterations in sensorimotor system, such as schizophrenia. Moreover, the PPI paradigm seems to be a useful and relative simple paradigm to test the efficacy of CBD as a potential therapeutic drug.”

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∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9 in endometrial cancer.

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“Limited therapeutic interventions are clinically available for treating aggressive endometrial cancer (EC). Therefore, effective therapies are urgently required.

Therefore, the present study investigated the role of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is reported to impact proliferative and migratory activities during impairment of cancer progression.

In the present study, cell migration in response to THC was measured using transwell assays. Using western blot analysis, the levels of cannabinoid receptors in EC tissues were detected and pathways leading to the inhibition of cell migration by THC on human EC cells were determined.

Results suggested that cannabinoid receptors were highly expressed in EC tissues.

Furthermore, THC inhibited EC cell viability and motility by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and downregulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression in aggressive human EC cells.

The results have the potential to promote the development of novel compounds for the treatment of EC metastasis. The present findings suggest that THC may inhibit human EC cell migration through regulating EMT and MMP-9 pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29805589

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2018.8407

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