Human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cell line release of endogenous anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and their antiproliferative effect via exogenous supplementation: an in vitro study

SpringerLink“The level of the major endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are altered in several types of carcinomas, and are known to regulate tumor growth. Thusly, this study hypothesized that the HEp-2 human laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cell line releases AEA and 2-AG, and aimed to determine if their exogenous supplementation has an anti-proliferative effect in vitro.

In this in vitro observational study a commercial human LSCC cell line (HEp-2) was used to test for endogenous AEA and 2-AG release via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The anti-proliferative effect of AEA and 2-AG supplementation was evaluated via WST-1 proliferation assay. It was observed that the HEp-2 LSCC cell line released AEA and 2-AG; the median quantity of AEA released was 15.69 ng mL-1 (range: 14.55-15.95 ng mL-1) and the median quantity of 2-AG released was 2.72 ng -1 (range: 2.67-2.74 ng mL-1). Additionally, both AEA and 2-AG exhibited an anti-proliferative effect. The anti-proliferative effect of 2-AG was stronger than that of AEA. These findings suggest that AEA might function via a CB1 receptor-independent pathway and that 2-AG might function via a CB2-dependent pathway.

The present findings show that the HEp-2 LSCC cell line releases the major endocannabinoids AEA and 2-AG, and that their supplementation inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro. Thus, cannabinoid ligands might represent novel drug candidates for laryngeal cancers, although functional in vivo studies are required in order to validate their potency.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33797678/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10561-021-09917-9

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Effects of standardized Cannabis sativa extract and ionizing radiation in melanoma cells in vitro

Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics “Melanoma causes the highest number of skin cancer-related deaths worldwide. New treatment methods are essential for the management of this life-threatening disease.

Aims: In this study, we investigated the efficacy of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract alone or in combination with single radiation dose (6 Gy) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells in an extract dose-dependent manner.

Results: Administration of the extract alone or alongside radiation substantially inhibited melanoma cell viability and proliferation in the extract dose response-dependent manner. The inhibition of melanoma cell viability was paralleled by an increase in necrosis but not apoptosis when melanoma cells were treated with the extract alone. Radiation alone did not have any antiproliferative effects, and radiation also did not synergize antiproliferative effects of the extract when the extract and radiation were combined.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that C. sativa extract may have significant health and physiological implications for the treatment of melanoma. The results of this study also indicate that B16F10 mouse melanoma cells are radioresistant. Taken together, these findings may lead to the identification of new therapeutic strategy for the management of melanoma.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33342819/

“This study provides the first evidence of antitumor effects of C. sativa extract, when administered alone or in combination with radiation, to mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Our results may verify the value of C. sativa extract for the treatment of melanoma and may complement the therapeutic profile of C. sativa extracts administration in the future.”

https://www.cancerjournal.net/article.asp?issn=0973-1482;year=2020;volume=16;issue=6;spage=1495;epage=1499;aulast=Naderi

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Cannabinoid Receptor Subtype 2 (CB2R) in a Multitarget Approach: Perspective of an Innovative Strategy in Cancer and Neurodegeneration

 Go to Volume 0, Issue 0“The cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) represents an interesting and new therapeutic target for its involvement in the first steps of neurodegeneration as well as in cancer onset and progression.

Several studies, focused on different types of tumors, report a promising anticancer activity induced by CB2R agonists due to their ability to reduce inflammation and cell proliferation. Moreover, in neuroinflammation, the stimulation of CB2R, overexpressed in microglial cells, exerts beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders.

With the aim to overcome current treatment limitations, new drugs can be developed by specifically modulating, together with CB2R, other targets involved in such multifactorial disorders.

Building on successful case studies of already developed multitarget strategies involving CB2R, in this Perspective we aim at prompting the scientific community to consider new promising target associations involving HDACs (histone deacetylases) and σ receptors by employing modern approaches based on molecular hybridization, computational polypharmacology, and machine learning algorithms.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33094613/

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01357

Abstract Image

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Anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect of cannabidiol on human cancer cell lines in presence of serum

 BMC Research Notes | Home page“Objective: Cannabinoids are able to reduce tumor growth in xenograft models, but their therapeutic potential as anti-cancer drugs in humans is unclear yet. In vitro studies of the effect of cannabinoids on cancer cells are often carried out in absence of serum or in low serum concentration (i.e. 0.5% serum), conditions that limit cellular growth and therefore can increase the response of cells to additional challenges such as the presence of cannabinoids. However, the tumor microenvironment can be teaming with growth factors. In this study we assessed the viability and proliferation of cancer cells treated with cannabidiol in presence of a serum concentration that commonly sustains cell growth (10% serum).

Results: The results show that cannabidiol exerts a markedly different effect on the viability of the human HT-29 cancer cell line when cultured in presence of 0.5% serum in comparison to 10% serum, displaying a cytotoxic effect only in the former situation. In presence of 10% serum, no inhibitory effect of cannabidiol on DNA replication of HT-29 cells was detected, and a weak inhibition was observed for other cancer cell lines. These results indicate that the effect of cannabidiol is cell context-dependent being modulated by the presence of growth factors.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32819436/

“The cannabis plant has a therapeutic potential to treat a wide range of diseases, including cancer.”

https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-020-05229-5

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Cannabinoid Effects on Experimental Colorectal Cancer Models Reduce Aberrant Crypt Foci (ACF) and Tumor Volume: A Systematic Review

See the source image “Colorectal cancer represents a heavy burden for health systems worldwide, being the third most common cancer worldwide. Despite the breakthroughs in medicine, current chemotherapeutic options continue to have important side effects and may not be effective in preventing disease progression.

Cannabinoids might be substances with possible therapeutic potential for cancer because they can attenuate the side effects of chemotherapy and have antiproliferative and antimetastatic effects.

We aim to determine, through a systematic review of experimental studies performed on animal CRC models, if cannabinoids can reduce the formation of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci), number, and volume of neoplastic lesions.

Results: Eight in vivo experimental studies were included in the analysis after the full-text evaluation. Seven studies were azoxymethane (AOM) colorectal cancer models, and four studies were xenograft models. Cannabidiol botanical substance (CBD BS) and rimonabant achieved high aberrant crypt foci (ACF) reduction (86% and 75.4%, respectively). Cannabigerol, O-1602, and URB-602 demonstrated a high capacity for tumor volume reduction. Induction of apoptosis, interaction with cell survival, growth pathways, and angiogenesis inhibition were the mechanisms extracted from the studies that explain cannabinoids’ actions on CRC.

Conclusions: Cannabinoids have incredible potential as antineoplastic agents as experimental models demonstrate that they can reduce tumor volume and ACF formation. It is crucial to conduct more experimental studies to understand the pharmacology of cannabinoids in CRC better.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32765628/

“Current literature findings demonstrate that cannabinoids might have potential as antineoplastic agents because they can reduce tumor volume and ACF formation.”

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2020/2371527/

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Cytotoxic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human HT-29 Colorectal Adenocarcinoma Cells: Different Mechanisms of THC, CBD, and CB83

ijms-logo “In this study, we investigated the effects of exposition to IC50 dose for 24 h of a new synthetic cannabinoid (CB83) and of phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells. Cell viability and proliferative activity evaluated using the MTT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and CyQUANT assays showed that cell viability was significantly affected when CB83, THC, and CBD were administered to cells.

The results obtained showed that the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio was significantly reduced in the cells exposed to CBD and significantly increased in the cells treated with the CB83 when compared to the controls. CBD treatment causes a significant increase in malondialdehyde content. The catalase activity was significantly reduced in HT-29 cells after incubation with CB83, THC, and CBD. The activities of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were significantly increased in cells exposed to THC and significantly decreased in those treated with CBD. The ascorbic acid content was significantly reduced in cells exposed to CB83, THC, and CBD. The ultrastructural investigation by TEM highlighted a significantly increased percentage of cells apoptotic and necrotic after CB83 exposition. The Annexin V-Propidium Iodide assay showed a significantly increased percentage of cells apoptotic after CB83 exposition and necrotic cells after CBD and THC exposition.

Our results proved that only CBD induced oxidative stress in HT-29 colorectal carcinoma cells via CB receptor-independent mechanisms and that CB83 caused a mainly CB2 receptor-mediated antiproliferative effect comparable to 5-Fuorouracil, which is still the mainstay drug in protocols for colorectal cancer.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32752303/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/15/5533

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PLGA Nanoparticles for the Intraperitoneal Administration of CBD in the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer: In Vitro and In Ovo Assessment.

pharmaceutics-logo“The intraperitoneal administration of chemotherapeutics has emerged as a potential route in ovarian cancer treatment. Nanoparticles as carriers for these agents could be interesting by increasing the retention of chemotherapeutics within the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, nanoparticles could be internalised by cancer cells and let the drug release near the biological target, which could increase the anticancer efficacy.

Cannabidiol (CBD), the main nonpsychotropic cannabinoid, appears as a potential anticancer drug. The aim of this work was to develop polymer nanoparticles as CBD carriers capable of being internalised by ovarian cancer cells.

The drug-loaded nanoparticles (CBD-NPs) exhibited a spherical shape, a particle size around 240 nm and a negative zeta potential (-16.6 ± 1.2 mV). The encapsulation efficiency was high, with values above 95%. A controlled CBD release for 96 h was achieved. Nanoparticle internalisation in SKOV-3 epithelial ovarian cancer cells mainly occurred between 2 and 4 h of incubation. CBD antiproliferative activity in ovarian cancer cells was preserved after encapsulation. In fact, CBD-NPs showed a lower IC50 values than CBD in solution. Both CBD in solution and CBD-NPs induced the expression of PARP, indicating the onset of apoptosis. In SKOV-3-derived tumours formed in the chick embryo model, a slightly higher-although not statistically significant-tumour growth inhibition was observed with CBD-NPs compared to CBD in solution.

To sum up, poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles could be a good strategy to deliver CBD intraperitoneally for ovarian cancer treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32397428

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/12/5/439

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CBD loaded microparticles as a potential formulation to improve paclitaxel and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer.

International Journal of Pharmaceutics“Cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a potential agent for breast cancer management.

In this work, the potential use of cannabidiol in solution (CBDsol) and encapsulated in polymeric microparticles when combined with paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) in breast cancer treatment has been evaluated for the first time using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. CBDsol, previously administered at suboptimal concentrations (cell death <10%), enhanced the PTX and DOX effect in both breast cancer cells.

The co-administration of CBDsol and PTX or DOX showed a synergistic effect. PLGA-502 was selected as the most suitable polymer to develop CBD-loaded microparticles. The developed formulation (CBD-Mps) was effective as monotherapy, showing extended antiproliferative activity for at least 10 days, and when combined with PTX or DOX.

In fact, the use of CBD-Mps allows the combination of both, pre and co-administration strategies, with a single administration, also showing a significant increase in PTX and DOX antiproliferative activity. Finally, the anticancer effect of both CBDsol and CBD-Mps as monotherapy or in combination with PTX was also confirmed in ovo, usingMDA-MB-231-derived tumours.

This data evidences the promising inclusion of CBD in conventional breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of CBD-Mps for the extended release of this cannabinoid, optimising the effect of the chemotherapeutic agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31811927

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517319309615?via%3Dihub

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Monocyclic Quinone Structure-Activity Patterns: Synthesis of Catalytic Inhibitors of Topoisomerase II with Potent Antiproliferative Activity.

Publication cover image“The monocyclic 1,4-benzoquinone, HU-331, the direct oxidation product of cannabidiol, inhibits the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II but without inducing DNA strand breaks or generating free radicals, and unlike many fused-ring quinones exhibits minimal cardiotoxicity. Thus, monocyclic quinones have potential as anticancer agents, and investigation of the structural origins of their biological activity is warranted. New syntheses of cannabidiol and (±)-HU-331 are here reported. Integrated synthetic protocols afforded a wide range of polysubstituted resorcinol derivatives; many of the corresponding novel 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoquinone derivatives are potent inhibitors of the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II, some more so than HU-331, whose monoterpene unit replaced by a 3-cycloalkyl unit conferred increased antiproliferative properties in cell lines with IC50 values extending below 1 mM, and greater stability in solution than HU-331. The principal pharmacophore of quinones related to HU-331 was identified. Selected monocyclic quinones show potential for the development of new anticancer agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31778038

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cmdc.201900548

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Endocannabinoid system and the expression of endogenous ceramides in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

 Journal Cover“The endogenous lipid metabolism network is associated with the occurrence and progression of malignancies.

Endocannabinoids and ceramides have demonstrated their anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties in a series of cancer studies.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression patterns of endocannabinoids and endogenous ceramides in 67 pairs of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and non-cancerous counterpart controls.

Anandamide (AEA), the major endocannabinoid, was reduced in tumor tissues, probably due to the high expression and activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase. Another important endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), was elevated in tumor tissues compared with non-tumor controls, indicating that the biosynthesis of 2-AG is faster than the degradation of 2-AG in tumor cells.

Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that cannabinoid receptor 1 was downregulated, while cannabinoid receptor 2 was elevated in HCC tissues, in accordance with the alterations in the levels of AEA and 2-AG, respectively. For HCC tissues, the expression levels of C18:0, 20:0 and 24:0-ceramides decreased significantly, whereas C12:0, 16:0, 18:1 and 24:1-ceramides were upregulated, which may be associated with cannabinoid receptor activation and stearoyl-CoA desaturase protein downregulation.

The exact role of endocannabinoids and ceramides in regulating the fate of HCC cells requires further investigation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31423220

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2019.10399

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