Assessment of Cannabinoids Agonist and Antagonist in Invasion Potential of K562 Cancer Cells

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“The prominent hallmark of malignancies is the metastatic spread of cancer cells. Recent studies have reported that the nature of invasive cells could be changed after this phenomenon, causing chemotherapy resistance.

It has been demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/MMP-9, as a metastasis biomarker, can fortify the metastatic potential of leukemia.

Furthermore, investigations have confirmed the inhibitory effect of cannabinoid and endocannabinoid on the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

Our findings clarifies that CB1 receptors are responsible for anti-invasive effects in the K562 cell line.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29883990

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The importance of 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors in cancer treatment.

Cancer and Metastasis Reviews

“Cancer-targeted therapy is an expanding and successful approach in treatment of many types of cancers. One of the main categories of targeted therapy is use of small molecule inhibitors. 15-Lipoxygenase (15-LOX) is an enzyme which reacts with polyunsaturated fatty acids and produces metabolites that are implicated in many important human diseases, such as cancer.

Considering the role of 15-LOX (mainly 15-LOX-1) in the progression of some cancers, the discovery of 15-LOX inhibitors could potentially lead to development of novel cancer therapeutics and it can be claimed that 15-LOX inhibitors might be suitable as chemotherapy agents in the near future.

This article reviews relevant publications on 15-LOX inhibitors with focus on their anticancer activities in vitro and in vivo. Many 15-LOX inhibitors have been reported for which separate studies have shown their anticancer activities. This review paves the way to further explore the mechanism of their antiproliferative effects via 15-LOX inhibition.”

“Cannabidiol-2′,6′-Dimethyl Ether, a Cannabidiol Derivative, Is a Highly Potent and Selective 15-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor”  http://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/37/8/1733.long

“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its major metabolite Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-11-oic acid as 15-lipoxygenase inhibitors.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20891010

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Anti-Tumorigenic Properties of Omega-3 Endocannabinoid Epoxides.

 Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Accumulating studies have linked inflammation to tumor progression.

Dietary omega-3 fatty acids including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been shown to suppress tumor growth through their conversion to epoxide metabolites. Alternatively, DHA is converted enzymatically into docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA), an endocannabinoid with anti-proliferative activity.

Recently, we reported a novel class of anti-inflammatory DHEA-epoxides (EDP-EAs) that contain both ethanolamide and epoxide moieties. Herein we evaluate the anti-tumorigenic properties of EDP-EAs in an osteosarcoma model.

First, we show ~80% increase in EDP-EAs in metastatic lungs versus normal mouse lungs. We found significant differences in the apoptotic and anti-migratory potency of the different EDP-EA regioisomers, which are partly mediated through cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1).

Furthermore, we synthesized derivatives of the most pro-apoptotic regioisomer. These derivatives had reduced hydrolytic susceptibility to fatty acid-amide hydrolase and increased CB1 binding.

Collectively, we report a novel class of EDP-EAs that exhibit anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic and anti-migratory properties in osteosarcoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29856219

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00243

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∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis by targeting matrix metalloproteinase-9 in endometrial cancer.

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“Limited therapeutic interventions are clinically available for treating aggressive endometrial cancer (EC). Therefore, effective therapies are urgently required.

Therefore, the present study investigated the role of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is reported to impact proliferative and migratory activities during impairment of cancer progression.

In the present study, cell migration in response to THC was measured using transwell assays. Using western blot analysis, the levels of cannabinoid receptors in EC tissues were detected and pathways leading to the inhibition of cell migration by THC on human EC cells were determined.

Results suggested that cannabinoid receptors were highly expressed in EC tissues.

Furthermore, THC inhibited EC cell viability and motility by inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and downregulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gene expression in aggressive human EC cells.

The results have the potential to promote the development of novel compounds for the treatment of EC metastasis. The present findings suggest that THC may inhibit human EC cell migration through regulating EMT and MMP-9 pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29805589

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ol.2018.8407

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Involvement of the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in cell growth inhibition and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest via the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in renal cell carcinoma.

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“The anti-tumor properties of cannabinoids have been investigated in many in vitro and in vivo studies. Many of these anti-tumor effects are mediated via cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), comprising the endocannabinoid system (ECS).

In this study, we investigated the ECS based on CB 1 and CB 2 receptor gene and protein expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines. In view of their further use for potential treatments, we thus investigated the roles of CB1 and CB2 receptors in the anti-proliferative action and signal transduction triggered by synthetic cannabinoid agonists [such as JWH-133 and WIN 55,212-2 (WIN-55)] in RCC cell lines.

RESULTS:

The CB1 and CB2 genes expression was shown by real-time PCR and flow cytometric and western blot analysis indicating a higher level of CB2 receptor as compared to CB1 in RCC cells. Immunocytochemical staining also confirmed the expression of the CB1 and CB2 proteins. We also found that the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN-55 exerted anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects by inhibiting the growth of RCC cell lines, while the CB2 agonist JWH-133 did not. Pharmacologically blocking the CB1 and CB2 receptors with their respective antagonists SR141716A and AM-630, followed by the WIN-55 treatment of RCC cells allowed uncovering the involvement of CB2, which led to an arrest in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study elucidated the involvement of CB2 in the in vitro inhibition of RCC cells, and future applications of CB2agonists in the prevention and management of RCC are discussed.

In summary, our study shows the involvement of CB2 receptor in the in vitro inhibition of RCC cells. This knowledge will be useful to unravel the future applications of CB2receptor and its agonists in the prevention and management of RCC.”

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Targeting cannabinoid receptors in gastrointestinal cancers for therapeutic uses: current status and future perspectives

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“A number of studies have consistently shown that cannabinoids are able to prevent or reduce carcinogenesis in different animal models of colon cancer.

Cannabinoids, via CB1 and possibly CB2 receptors, suppress proliferation and migration and stimulate apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.

Convincing scientific evidence suggests that cannabinoids, in addition to their well-known use in palliative care in oncology (e.g. improvement of appetite, attenuation of nausea associated to antitumoral medicines, alleviation of moderate neuropathic pain) can reduce, via antiproliferative and proapoptotic as well as by inhibiting angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis or by attenuating inflammation, the growth of cancer cells and hinder the development of experimental colon carcinogenesis in vivo.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17474124.2017.1367663?src=recsys

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Cannabinoids as potential new therapy for the treatment of gliomas

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“Gliomas constitute the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumors. Current standard therapeutic strategies (surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapeutics, e.g., temozolomide, carmustin or carboplatin) for their treatment are only palliative and survival diagnosis is normally 6-12 months.
The development of new therapeutic strategies for the management of gliomas is therefore essential.
Interestingly, cannabinoids have been shown to exert antiproliferative effects on a wide spectrum of cells in culture.
Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed a great potency in reducing glioma tumor growth either in vitro or in animal experimental models, curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intratecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice.
Moreover, cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of nontransformed counterparts.
A pilot clinical trial on patients with glioblastoma multiforme demonstrated their good safety profile together and remarkable antitumor effects, and may set the basis for further studies aimed at better evaluating the potential anticancer activity of cannabinoids.”
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Cannabinoids as a Promising Therapeutic Approach for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Literature Review

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“Gliobalstoma multiforme (GBM) or grade 4 astrocytoma is the most malignant form of primary brain tumor. Treatment of glioblastoma is difficult despite of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Patients with glioblastoma survive for less than 12 months.

Considering to biology function of glioblastoma, researchers have recently offered new therapeutic approaches such as cannabinoid therapy for glioblastoma.

Cannabinoids are active compounds of Cannabis sativa that operate in the body similar to endogenous canabinoids –the endocannabinoids- through cell surface receptors.

It is interesting that cannabinoids could exert a wide spectrum from antiproliferative effects in condition of the cell culture, animal models of glioblastoma and clinical trials.

As a result, Cannabinoids seem to modulate intracellular signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in glioma cells.

Those play antitumoral effects through apoptosis induction and inhibition of glioblastoma angiogenesis.

The goal of this study was to discuss cannabinoid therapy and also what cellular mechanisms are involved in the tumoricidal effect of the cannabinoids.

In this review article, we will focus on cannabinoids, their receptor dependent functional roles against glioblastoma acccording to growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and future purposes in exploring new possible therapeutic opportunities.”

http://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/Neuroscience/article/view/13655

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Effects of CB2 and TRPV1 receptors’ stimulation in pediatric acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia

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“T-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) is less frequent than B-ALL, but it has poorer outcome. For this reason new therapeutic approaches are needed to treat this malignancy.

The Endocannabinoid/Endovanilloid (EC/EV) system has been proposed as possible target to treat several malignancies, including lymphoblastic diseases. The EC/EV system is composed of two G-Protein Coupled Receptors (CB1 and CB2), the Transient Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, their endogenous and exogenous ligands and enzymes. CB1 is expressed mainly in central nervous system while CB2 predominantly on immune and peripheral cells, therefore we chose to selectively stimulate CB2 and TRPV1.

We treated T-ALL lymphoblasts derived from 4 patients and Jurkat cells with a selective agonist at CB2 receptor: JWH-133 [100 nM] and an agonist at TRPV1 calcium channel: RTX [5 uM] at 6, 12 and 24 hours. We analyzed the effect on apoptosis and Cell Cycle Progression by a cytofluorimetric assays and evaluated the expression level of several target genes (Caspase 3, Bax, Bcl-2, AKT, ERK, PTEN, Notch-1, CDK2, p53) involved in cell survival and apoptosis, by Real-Time PCR and Western Blotting.

We observed a pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative effect of these compounds in both primary lymphoblasts obtained from patients with T-ALL and in Jurkat cell line. Our results show that both CB2 stimulation and TRPV1 activation, can increase the apoptosis in vitro, interfere with cell cycle progression and reduce cell proliferation, indicating that a new therapeutic approach to T-cell ALL might be possible by modulating CB2 and TRPV1 receptors.”

http://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path%5B%5D=25052

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Cannabis sativa Extract Reduces Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins in Breast Cancer Cell Line

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