The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 in the Immunopathology of Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Endocannabinoid system plays an important role in pathophysiologic processes such as immune functions and impacts on disease severity.

Our previous study showed that cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) affects clinical course of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. In this study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) in RSV immunopathology and its therapeutic potential in mice model.

This study and our previous finding indicated that endocannabinoid signaling regulates the inflammatory response to RSV infection, and is a potential therapeutic candidate for alleviation of RSV-associated immunopathology.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29461930

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/vim.2017.0098

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The Endocannabinoid System and Heart Disease: The Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2.

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“Decades of research has provided evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease. This versatile system, consisting of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer.

CB2 has gained much interest for its beneficial immunomodulatory role that can be obtained without eliciting psychotropic effects through CB1. Recent studies have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in cardiovascular disease, an ailment which currently takes more lives each year in Western countries than any other disease or injury.

By use of CB2 knockout mice and CB2-selective ligands, knowledge of how CB2 signaling affects atherosclerosis and ischemia has been acquired, providing a major stepping stone between basic science and translational clinical research.

Here, we summarize the current understanding of the endocannabinoid system in human pathologies and provide a review of the results from preclinical studies examining its function in cardiovascular disease, with a particular emphasis on possible CB2-targeted therapeutic interventions to alleviate atherosclerosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29412125

“Researchers suggest that THC and other cannabinoids, which are active at CB2, the cannabinoid receptor expressed on immune cells, may be valuable in treating atherosclerosis.” https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/787468

“Cardiovascular disease: New use for cannabinoids”  https://www.nature.com/articles/nrd1733

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Analysis of endocannabinoid receptors and enzymes in the post-mortem motor cortex and spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

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“We have investigated the endocannabinoid system in the motor cortex of motor neuron disease (MND) patients.

CONCLUSION:

We have confirmed that CB2 receptors are elevated in the motor cortex of MND patients associated with the reactive gliosis. This phenomenon is previous to neuronal losses. We also found CB2 receptors in cortical and spinal motor neurons.

These observations support that targeting this receptor may serve for developing neuroprotective therapies in MNDs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29334787

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21678421.2018.1425454?journalCode=iafd20

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Betacaryophyllene – A phytocannabinoid as potential therapeutic modality for human sepsis?

Medical Hypotheses Home

“Sepsis is a clinical condition resulting from a dysregulated immune response to an infection that leads to organ dysfunction. Despite numerous efforts to optimize treatment, sepsis remains to be the main cause of death in most intensive care units.

The endogenous cannabinoid system (ECS) plays an important role in inflammation. Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) activation is immunosuppressive, which might be beneficial during the hyper-inflammatory phase of sepsis.

Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a non-psychoactive natural cannabinoid (phytocannabinoid) found in Cannabis sativa and in essential oils of spices and food plants, that acts as a selective agonist of CB2R.

We propose BCP administration as novel treatment to reduce hyper-inflammation in human sepsis.”

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Prospects for the Use of Cannabinoid Receptor Ligands for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherosclerosis: Analysis of Experimental and Clinical Data.

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“An antagonist of central cannabinoid CB1 receptors rimonabant causes weight loss in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome, improves blood lipid parameters, increases the adiponectin level, decreases the rate of glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in patients with diabetes mellitus type-2. However, rimonabant adverse effects include depression, anxiety, nausea, and dizziness which are apparently due to the blockade of central CB1 receptors.

In mice with a high-calorie diet, we defined that the blockade of peripheral CB1 receptors prevents obesity, steatosis of the liver, improves lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Experimental studies suggest that peripheral CB2 receptor agonists have antiatherogenic effect. To validate the expediency of clinical research of CB2 receptor agonists in patients with atherosclerosis the comparative analysis of antiatherogenic properties of cannabinoids should be performed. In addition, experiments are needed on the combination use of cannabinoids with well-known antiatherogenic agents, such as statins.”

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Anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoid receptor 2 ligands in primary hPDL fibroblasts.

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“Approximately 65 million adults in the US have periodontitis, causing tooth loss and decreased quality of life.

 Cannabinoids modulate immune responses, and endocannabinoids are prevalent during oral cavity inflammation. Targets for intervention in periodontal inflammation are cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R, CB2R), particularly CB2R because its levels increase during inflammation.

We previously demonstrated that SMM-189 (CB2R inverse agonist) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary microglial cells. The hypothesis of this study was that cannabinoids anandamide (AEA), HU-308 (CB2R selective agonist), and SMM-189 decrease pro-inflammatory IL-6 and MCP-1 production by primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS, TNF-α, or IL-1β.

CONCLUSION:

The effective inhibition of LPS, TNF-α, IL-1β stimulated IL-6 and MCP-1 production by CB2R ligands in hPDLFs suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system may lead to development of novel drugs for periodontal therapy, aiding strategies to improve oral health.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29274621

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 by JWH133 alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

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“Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 has been shown to have anti-fibrosis function in skin and heart.

In this research, we aimed to investigate the role of cannabinoid receptor type 2 in pulmonary fibrosis in vitro and in vivo.

Our research indicated that activating cannabinoid receptor type 2 by a pharmacological method might be a potential strategy for pulmonary fibrosis.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29262578

“In conclusion, we demonstrate that activating cannabinoid receptor type 2 by selective agonist JWH133 is a potential strategy for pulmonary fibrosis. Our researches offer a new choice for this life-threatening disease.” http://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&page=article&op=view&path[]=21975&path[]=69664

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Restoration of osteogenic differentiation by overexpression of cannabinoid receptor 2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells isolated from osteoporotic patients.

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“Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CNR2) has a critical role in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). CNR2 expression was found to be downregulated in osteoporotic patients.

The present study aimed to investigate the functionality of CNR2 in restoring osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of BMSCs isolated from osteoporotic patients.

The results demonstrated that overexpression of CNR2 in osteoporotic BMSCs increased ALP activity, promoted expression of osteogenic genes and enhanced deposition of mineralized extracellular matrix. In addition, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was found to be increased by overexpression of CNR2.

In conclusion, the present study indicated that restoration of CNR2 recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs isolated from osteoporotic patients. This finding may provide a novel strategy for a treatment approach for osteoporosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29250156

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/etm.2017.5369

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Selective cannabinoid 2 receptor stimulation reduces tubular epithelial cell damage following renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics “Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is an increasing problem in the clinic and has been associated with increased rates of mortality. Currently, therapies to treat AKI are not available, so identification of new targets which, upon diagnosis of AKI, can be modulated to ameliorate renal damage is essential.

In this study, a novel cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist, SMM-295, was designed, synthesized, and tested in vitro and in silico.

These data suggests that selective CB2 receptor activation could be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment for AKI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29187590

http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2017/11/29/jpet.117.245522

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Involvement of cannabinoid receptor type 2 in light-induced degeneration of cells from mouse retinal cell line in vitro and mouse photoreceptors in vivo.

Experimental Eye Research

“Earlier studies showed that the expressions of the agonists of the cannabinoid receptors are reduced in the vitreous humor of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is present in the retinas of rats and monkeys. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is involved in the light-induced death of cultured 661W cells, an immortalized murine retinal cell line, and in the light-induced retinal degeneration in mice.

Time-dependent changes in the expression and location of retinal cannabinoid type 2 receptor were determined by Western blot and immunostaining. The cannabinoid type 2 receptor was down-regulated in murine retinae and cone cells. In the in vitro studies, HU-308, a cannabinoidtype 2 receptor agonist, had a protective effect on the light-induced death of 661W cells, and this effect was attenuated by SR144528, a cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist.

Because the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is a G-protein coupled receptor and is coupled with Gi/o protein, we investigated the effects of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). HU-308 and H89, a PKA inhibitor, deactivated PKA in retinal cone cells, and H89 also suppressed light-induced cell death. For the in vivo studies, a cannabinoid type 2 receptor agonist, HU-308, or an antagonist, SR144528, was injected intravitreally into mouse eyes before the light exposure. Electroretinography was used to determine the physiological status of the retinas. Injection of HU-308 improved the a- and b-waves of the ERGs and also the thickness of the outer nuclear layer of the murine retina after light exposure.

These findings indicate that the cannabinoid type 2 receptor is involved in the light-induced retinal damage through PKA signaling. Thus, activation of cannabinoidtype 2 receptor may be a therapeutic approach for light-associated retinal diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29133122

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014483516304456?via%3Dihub

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