The effect of cannabidiol on canine neoplastic cell proliferation and MAP Kinase activation during autophagy and apoptosis

“Low tetrahydrocannabinol Cannabis sativa products, also known as hemp products, have become widely available and their use in veterinary patients has become increasingly popular. Despite prevalence of use, the veterinary literature is lacking and evidence-based resource for cannabinoid efficacy.

The most prevailing cannabinoid found in hemp is cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and becomes cannabidiol (CBD) during heat extraction; CBD has been studied for its direct anti-neoplastic properties alone and in combination with standard cancer therapies, yielding encouraging results.

The objectives of our study were to explore the anti-proliferative and cell death response associated with in vitro treatment of canine cancer cell lines with CBD alone and combination with common chemotherapeutics, as well as investigation into major proliferative pathways (e.g. p38, JNK, AKT, mTOR) potentially involved in the response to treatment with CBD.

CBD significantly reduced canine cancer cell proliferation far better than cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) across five canine neoplastic cell lines when treated with concentrations ranging from 2.5-10 μg/mL. Combinatory treatment with CBD and vincristine reduced cell proliferation in a synergistic or additive manner at anti-proliferative concentrations with less clear results using doxorubicin in combination with CBD. The cellular signaling effects of CBD treatment, showed that autophagy supervened induction of apoptosis and may be related to prompt induction of ERK and JNK phosphorylation prior to autophagy.

In conclusion, CBD is effective at hindering cell proliferation and induction of autophagy and apoptosis rapidly across neoplastic cell lines and further clinical trials are needed to understand its efficacy and interactions with traditional chemotherapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33247539/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/vco.12669

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Cannabis and its Constituents for Cancer: History, Biogenesis, Chemistry and Pharmacological Activities

Pharmacological Research “Cannabis has long been used for healing and recreation in several regions of the world. Over 400 bioactive constituents, including more than 100 phytocannabinoids, have been isolated from this plant. The non-psychoactive cannabidiol (CBD) and the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the major and widely studied constituents from this plant.

Cannabinoids exert their effects through the endocannabinoid system (ECS) that comprises cannabinoid receptors (CB1, CB2), endogenous ligands, and metabolizing enzymes. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated the potential of cannabinoids against leukemia, lymphoma, glioblastoma, and cancers of the breast, colorectum, pancreas, cervix and prostate.

Cannabis and its constituents can modulate multiple cancer related pathways such as PKB, AMPK, CAMKK-β, mTOR, PDHK, HIF-1α, and PPAR-γ. Cannabinoids can block cell growth, progression of cell cycle and induce apoptosis selectively in tumour cells. Cannabinoids can also enhance the efficacy of cancer therapeutics. These compounds have been used for the management of anorexia, queasiness, and pain in cancer patients.

Cannabinoid based products such as dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, and epidyolex are now approved for medical use in cancer patients. Cannabinoids are reported to produce a favourable safety profile. However, psychoactive properties and poor bioavailability limit the use of some cannabinoids. The Academic Institutions across the globe are offering training courses on cannabis. How cannabis and its constituents exert anticancer activities is discussed in this article. We also discuss areas that require attention and more extensive research.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33246167/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661820316108?via%3Dihub

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Cannabis in Parkinson’s Disease: The Patients’ View

IOS Press | Impacting the World of ScienceLittle is known about the patients’ view on treatment with medical cannabis (MC) for Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Objective: To assess the PD community’s perception of MC and patients’ experience with MC.

Results: Overall, 1.348 questionnaires (1.123 nationwide, 225 local) were analysed. 51% of participants were aware of the legality of MC application, 28% of various routes of administration (ROA) and 9% of the difference between delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). PD-related cannabis use was reported by 8.4% of patients and associated with younger age, living in large cities and better knowledge about the legal and clinical aspects of MC. Reduction of pain and muscle cramps was reported by more than 40% of cannabis users. Stiffness/akinesia, freezing, tremor, depression, anxiety and restless legs syndrome subjectively improved for more than 20% and overall tolerability was good. Improvement of symptoms was reported by 54% of users applying oral CBD and 68% inhaling THC-containing cannabis. Compared to CBD intake, inhalation of THC was more frequently reported to reduce akinesia and stiffness (50.0% vs. 35.4%; p < 0.05). Interest in using MC was reported by 65% of non-users.

Conclusion: MC is considered as a therapeutic option by many PD patients. Nevertheless, efficacy and different ROA should further be investigated.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33216043/

https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-parkinsons-disease/jpd202260

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The Effects of Cannabis Use on Cognitive Function in Healthy Aging: A Systematic Scoping Review

Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology“Background: Older adults (≥50 years) represent the fastest-growing population of people who use cannabis, potentially due to the increasing promotion of cannabis as medicine by dispensaries and cannabis websites. Given healthy aging and cannabis use are both associated with cognitive decline, it is important to establish the effects of cannabis on cognition in healthy aging.

Objective: This systematic scoping review used preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines to critically examine the extent of literature on this topic and highlight areas for future research.

Results: Six articles reported findings for older populations (three human and three rodent studies), highlighting the paucity of research in this area. Human studies revealed largely null results, likely due to several methodological limitations. Better-controlled rodent studies indicate that the relationship between ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cognitive function in healthy aging depends on age and level of THC exposure. Extremely low doses of THC improved cognition in very old rodents. Somewhat higher chronic doses improved cognition in moderately aged rodents. No studies examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) or high-CBD cannabis on cognition.

Conclusions: This systematic scoping review provides crucial, timely direction for future research on this emerging issue. Future research that combines neuroimaging and cognitive assessment would serve to advance understanding of the effects of age and quantity of THC and CBD on cognition in healthy aging.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33159510/

“THC; the main psychoactive cannabis compound; exerted pro-cognitive effects on memory and learning in older populations.”

https://academic.oup.com/acn/advance-article/doi/10.1093/arclin/acaa105/5960018

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Cannabinoids Inhibited Pancreatic Cancer via P-21 Activated Kinase 1 Mediated Pathway

ijms-logo“The anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids including CBD (Cannabidiol) and THC ((-)-trans-∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol) have been reported in the case of pancreatic cancer (PC).

The connection of these cannabinoids to KRas oncogenes that mutate in more than 90% of PC, and their effects on PD-L1, a key target of immune checkpoint blockade, have not been thoroughly investigated. Using cell lines and mouse models of PC, the effects of CBD and THC on cancer growth, the interaction between PC cells and a stromal cell, namely pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), and the mechanism(s) involved were determined by cell-based assays and mouse study in vivo.

CBD and THC inhibited the proliferation of PC, PSC, and PSC-stimulated PC cells. They also suppressed pancreatic tumour growth in mice. Furthermore, CBD and/or THC reduced the expression of PD-L1 by either PC or PSC cells. Knockout of p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1, activated by KRas) in PC and PSC cells and, in mice, dramatically decreased or blocked these inhibitory effects of CBD and/or THC.

These results indicated that CBD and THC exerted their inhibitions on PC and PSC via a p-21 activated kinase 1 (PAK1)-dependent pathway, suggesting that CBD and THC suppress Kras activated pathway by targeting PAK1. The inhibition by CBD and THC of PD-L1 expression will enhance the immune checkpoint blockade of PC.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33126623/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/21/8035

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Ingestion of a THC-Rich Cannabis Oil in People with Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Issue Cover “Objective: To determine the benefit of a tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-rich cannabis oil on symptoms and quality of life of fibromyalgia patients.

Conclusions: Phytocannabinoids can be a low-cost and well-tolerated therapy to reduce symptoms and increase the quality of life of patients with fibromyalgia. Future studies are still needed to assess long-term benefits, and studies with different varieties of cannabinoids associated with a washout period must be done to enhance our knowledge of cannabis action in this health condition.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33118602/

“To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate the benefit of cannabis oil—a THC-rich whole plant extract—on symptoms and on quality of life of people with fibromyalgia. We conclude that phytocannabinoids can be a low-cost and well-tolerated therapy for symptom relief and quality of life improvement in these patients, and we suggest that this therapy could be included as an herbal medicine option for the treatment of this condition”

https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article/21/10/2212/5942556

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A Critical Review of the Role of the Cannabinoid Compounds Δ 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) and their Combination in Multiple Sclerosis Treatment

molecules-logo“Many people with MS (pwMS) use unregulated cannabis or cannabis products to treat the symptoms associated with the disease. In line with this, Sativex, a synthetic combination of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) has been approved to treat symptoms of spasticity.

In animals, CBD is effective in reducing the amounts of T-cell infiltrates in the spinal cord, suggesting CBD has anti-inflammatory properties. By doing this, CBD has shown to delay symptom onset in animal models of multiple sclerosis and slow disease progression. Importantly, combinations of CBD and Δ9-THC appear more effective in treating animal models of multiple sclerosis.

While CBD reduces the amounts of cell infiltrates in the spinal cord, Δ9-THC reduces scores of spasticity. In human studies, the results are less encouraging and conflict with the findings in animals. Drugs which deliver a combination of Δ9-THC and CBD in a 1:1 ratio appear to be only moderately effective in reducing spasticity scores, but appear to be almost as effective as current front-line treatments and cause less severe side effects than other treatments, such as baclofen (a GABA-B receptor agonist) and tizanidine (an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist).

The findings of the studies reviewed suggest that cannabinoids may help treat neuropathic pain in pwMS as an add-on therapy to already established pain treatments.

Long term double-blind placebo studies are greatly needed to further our understanding of the role of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis treatment.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33113776/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/21/4930

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Update on cannabis and cannabinoids for cancer pain

Current Issue Cover Image “The prevalence of cancer pain will continue to rise as pain is common among the survivorship and general cancer population. As interest in cannabis and cannabinoids for medicinal use including pain management continues to rise, there is growing need to update and review the current state of evidence for their use. The literature was searched for articles in English with key words cannabis, cannabinoids, and cancer pain. The sources of articles were PubMed, Embase, and open Google search.

Recent findings: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial including a 3-week treatment period of nabiximol for advanced cancer patients with pain refractory to optimized opiate therapy, improvements in average pain were seen in the intention to treat population (P = 0.0854) and per- protocol population (P = 0.0378).

Summary: To date, preclinical data has demonstrated evidence to suggest promising potential for cancer pain and the urgent need to translate this into clinical practice. Unfortunately, due to limited data, for adults with advanced cancer being treated with opiate therapy, the addition of cannabis or cannabinoids is not currently supported to address cancer pain effectively.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33110020/

https://journals.lww.com/co-anesthesiology/Abstract/2020/12000/Update_on_cannabis_and_cannabinoids_for_cancer.19.aspx

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Attenuation of Oxidative Stress by Cannabinoids and Cannabis Extracts in Differentiated Neuronal Cells

pharmaceuticals-logo“In this proof-of-concept study, the antioxidant activity of phytocannabinoids, namely cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), were investigated using an in vitro system of differentiated human neuronal SY-SH5Y cells.

We showed that THC had a high potency to combat oxidative stress in both in vitro models, while CBD did not show a remarkable antioxidant activity. The cannabis extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant activity, which depended on the ratio of the THC and CBD. However, our results did not suggest any antagonist effect of the CBD on the antioxidant activity of THC. The effect of cannabis extracts on the cell viability of differentiated human neuronal SY-SH5Y cells was also investigated, which emphasized the differences between the bioactivity of cannabis extracts due to their composition.

Our preliminary results demonstrated that cannabis extracts and phytocannabinoids have a promising potential as antioxidants, which can be further investigated to develop novel pharmaceuticals targeting oxidative stress therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33105840/

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/13/11/328

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Cannabinoid Combination Induces Cytoplasmic Vacuolation in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

molecules-logo“This study evaluated the synergistic anti-cancer potential of cannabinoid combinations across the MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines. Cannabinoids were combined and their synergistic interactions were evaluated using median effect analysis.

The most promising cannabinoid combination (C6) consisted of tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD), and displayed favorable dose reduction indices and limited cytotoxicity against the non-cancerous breast cell line, MCF-10A. C6 exerted its effects in the MCF-7 cell line by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase, followed by the induction of apoptosis.

Morphological observations indicated the induction of cytoplasmic vacuolation, with further investigation suggesting that the vacuole membrane was derived from the endoplasmic reticulum. In addition, lipid accumulation, increased lysosome size, and significant increases in the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression were also observed.

The selectivity and ability of cannabinoids to halt cancer cell proliferation via pathways resembling apoptosis, autophagy, and paraptosis shows promise for cannabinoid use in standardized breast cancer treatment.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33066359/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/20/4682

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