“Selective CB2 agonists represent an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of a variety of diseases without psychiatric side effects mediated by the CB1 receptor.
We carried out a rational optimization of a black market designer drug SDB-001 that led to the identification of potent and selective CB2 agonists. A 7-methoxy or 7-methylthio substitution at the 3-amidoalkylindoles resulted in potent CB2 antagonists (27 or 28, IC50 = 16-28 nM). Replacement of the amidoalkyls from 3-position to the 2-position of the indole ring dramatically increased the agonist selectivity on the CB2 over CB1 receptor. Particularly, compound 57 displayed a potent agonist activity on the CB2 receptor (EC50 = 114-142 nM) without observable agonist or antagonist activity on the CB1 receptor.
Furthermore, 57 significantly alleviated the clinical symptoms and protected the murine central nervous system from immune damage in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of multiple sclerosis.”
“This study investigated whether intramuscular injection of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), by acting on peripheral cannabinoid (CB) receptors, could decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced sensitization in female rat masseter muscle; a model which mimics the symptoms of myofascial temporomandibular disorders.
It was found that CB1 and CB2 receptors are expressed by trigeminal ganglion neurons that innervate the masseter muscle and also on their peripheral endings.
These results suggest that reduced inhibitory input from the peripheral cannabinoid system may contribute to NGF-induced local myofascial sensitization of mechanoreceptors. Peripheral application of THC may counter this effect by activating the CB1 receptors on masseter muscle mechanoreceptors to provide analgesic relief without central side effects.
Our results suggest THC could reduce masticatory muscle pain through activating peripheral CB1 receptors. Peripheral application of cannabinoids could be a novel approach to provide analgesic relief without central side effects.”
“The beta amyloid (Aβ) and other aggregating proteins in the brain increase with age and are frequently found within neurons. The mechanistic relationship between intracellular amyloid, aging and neurodegeneration is not, however, well understood.
We use a proteotoxicity model based upon the inducible expression of Aβ in a human central nervous system nerve cell line to characterize a distinct form of nerve cell death caused by intracellular Aβ. It is shown that intracellular Aβ initiates a toxic inflammatory response leading to the cell’s demise. Aβ induces the expression of multiple proinflammatory genes and an increase in both arachidonic acid and eicosanoids, including prostaglandins that are neuroprotective and leukotrienes that potentiate death.
Cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol stimulate the removal of intraneuronal Aβ, block the inflammatory response, and are protective.
Altogether these data show that there is a complex and likely autocatalytic inflammatory response within nerve cells caused by the accumulation of intracellular Aβ, and that this early form of proteotoxicity can be blocked by the activation of cannabinoid receptors.”
“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease that involve oligodendrocyte loss and failure to remyelinate damaged brain areas causing a progressive neurological disability.
Studies in MS mouse model suggest that cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms as spasticity, tremor and pain reducing inflammation via cannabinoid-mediated system.
The aim of our study is to investigate the changes in cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1) and 2 (CNR2) receptors mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS secondary progressive (MSS-SP) patients treated with Sativex®.
These results suggest that the different expression of cannabinoid receptors by Sativex® treatment in leukocytes might be regulated through a molecular mechanism that involve interferon modulation.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of hemp, does not bind to CB1 receptors and is therefore devoid of psychotomimetic properties. Under acidic conditions, CBD can be transformed to delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. It has been argued that this may occur also after oral administration in humans. However, the experimental conversion of CBD to THC and delta8-THC in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) is a highly artificial approach that deviates significantly from physiological conditions in the stomach; therefore, SGF does not allow an extrapolation to in vivo conditions.
Unsurprisingly, the conversion of oral CBD to THC and its metabolites has not been observed to occur in vivo, even after high doses of oral CBD. In addition, the typical spectrum of side effects of THC, or of the very similar synthetic cannabinoid nabilone, as listed in the official Summary of Product Characteristics (e.g., dizziness, euphoria/high, thinking abnormal/concentration difficulties, nausea, tachycardia) has not been observed after treatment with CBD in double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trials. In conclusion, the conversion of CBD to THC in SGF seems to be an in vitro artifact.
“Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) is a plant derived secondary natural product from the plant Cannabis sativa l. The discovery of the human endocannabinoid system in the late 1980s resulted in a growing number of known physiological functions of both synthetic and plant derived cannabinoids. Thus, manifold therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of research. Here we reconstituted the final biosynthetic cannabinoid pathway in yeasts. The use of the soluble prenyltransferase NphB from Streptomyces sp. strain CL190 enables the replacement of the native transmembrane prenyltransferase cannabigerolic acid synthase from C. sativa. In addition to the desired product cannabigerolic acid, NphB catalyzes an O-prenylation leading to 2-O-geranyl olivetolic acid. We show for the first time that the bacterial prenyltransferase and the final enzyme of the cannabinoid pathway tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase can both be actively expressed in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Komagataella phaffii simultaneously. While enzyme activities in S. cerevisiae were insufficient to produce THCA from olivetolic acid and geranyl diphosphate, genomic multi-copy integrations of the enzyme’s coding sequences in K. phaffii resulted in successful synthesis of THCA from olivetolic acid and geranyl diphosphate. This study is an important step toward total biosynthesis of valuable cannabinoids and derivatives and demonstrates the potential for developing a sustainable and secure yeast bio-manufacturing platform.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28694184http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168165617315201
“Production of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid from cannabigerolic acid by whole cells of Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris expressing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25994576
“Limited efficacy for current pharmacotherapy for PTSD indicates that improved pharmacological treatments are needed. Neurobiological research points to cannabinoids as possible therapeutic agents of interest. Moreover, observational reports indicate that there is growing popular interest in therapeutic use of cannabinoids for the alleviation of trauma symptoms. The aim of this review was to present an up-to-date look at current research on the possible therapeutic value of cannabinoids for PTSD. Experimental, preclinical, and clinical findings are discussed.
Neurobiological research indicates cannabis as possible pharmacological intervention for PTSD.
CBD and THC + CBD modulate fear memory in rodents.
Experimental data suggest CBD has acute anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects.
Data suggest THC reduces nightmares and OSA, while THC + CBD could reduce insomnia.
Randomized placebo-controlled human trials of cannabinoids for PTSD are underway.”
“The acute effects of smoked 2 per cent natural marijuana (7 mg per kg) and 15 mg of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on plethysmographically determined airway resistance (Raw) and specific airway conductance (SGaw) were compared with those of placebo in 10 subjects with stable bronchial asthma using a double-blind crossover technique.
After smoked marijuana, SGaw increased immediately and remained significantly elevated (33 to 48 per cent above initial control values) for at least 2 hours, whereas SGaw did not change after placebo. The peak bronchodilator effect of 1,250 µg of isoproterenol was more pronounced than that of marijuana, but the effect of marijuana lasted longer.
After ingestion of 15 mg of THC, SGaw was elevated significantly at 1 and 2 hours, and Raw was reduced significantly at 1 to 4 hours, whereas no changes were noted after placebo.
“After experimental induction of acute bronchospasm in 8 subjects with clinically stable bronchial asthma, effects of 500 mg of smoked marijuana (2.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) on specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume were compared with those of 500 mg of smoked placebo marijuana (0.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), 0.25 ml of aerosolized saline, and 0.25 ml of aerosolized isoproterenol (1,250 mug).
After methacholine-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline inhalation produced minimal changes in specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol each caused a prompt correction of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation. After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1099949
“After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.”
“Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a chronic and sometimes severe sensorimotor disorder of still unclear pathophysiology. Usually symptoms respond well to dopamine agonists (DA), opiates, or anticonvulsants, used either alone or in combination. However, a subset of patients remains refractory to medical therapy, and serious side effects such as augmentation and impulse control disorder have been observed with DA. We present six patients’ spontaneous reports of a remarkable and total remission of RLS symptoms following cannabis use.”