Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Cardiovascular Dysfunction in STZ-Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats.

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“The aim of this study was to determine if chronic, low-dose administration of a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administration to diabetic animals significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations and attenuated pathological changes in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Positive changes to biochemical indices in diabetic animals conferred improvements in myocardial and vascular function.

This study demonstrates that chronic, low-dose administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol can elicit antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects in diabetic animals, leading to improvements in end organ function of the cardiovascular system. Implications from this study suggest that cannabinoid receptors may be a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29181404

“The aim of this study was to determine if a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus. Outcomes from this study indicate that THC administration to STZ improved functional parameters of cardiovascular health by reducing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and blood glucose levels. These results indicate that activation of cannabinoid receptors may be a viable experimental target for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced complications in type I diabetes mellitus.”  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7974149/

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor type II by AM1241 protects adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells from oxidative damage and enhances their therapeutic efficacy in myocardial infarction mice via Stat3 activation.

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“The poor survival of cells in ischemic sites diminishes the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy. Previously we and others have reported that Cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) is protective during heart ischemic injury for its anti-oxidative activity. However, whether CB2 activation could improve the survival and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in ischemic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.

Here, we showed evidence that CB2 agonist AM1241 treatment could improve the functional survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, AD-MSCs adjuvant with AM1241 improved cardiac function, and inhibited cardiac oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. To unveil possible mechanisms, AD-MSCs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation to simulate the ischemic environmentin myocardium. Results delineated that AM1241 blocked the apoptosis, oxidative damage and promoted the paracrine effects of AD-MSCs. Mechanistically, AM1241 activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) through the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the administration of AM630, LY294002, U0126 and AG490 (inhibitors for CB2, Akt, ERK1/2 and Stat3, respectively) could abolish the beneficial actions of AM1241.

Our result support the promise of CB2 activation as an effective strategy to optimize stem cell-based therapy possibly through Stat3 activation.”

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Endocannabinoids: new targets for drug development.

“The possible therapeutic use of marijuana s active principles, the cannabinoids, is currently being debated.

It is now known that these substances exert several of their pharmacological actions by activating specific cell membrane receptors, the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor subtypes.

This knowledge led to the design of synthetic cannabinoid agonists and antagonists with high therapeutic potential.

The recent discovery of the endocannabinoids, i.e. endogenous metabolites capable of activating the cannabinoid receptors, and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to their biosynthesis and inactivation, opened a new era in research on the pharmaceutical applications of cannabinoids.

Ongoing studies on the pathological and physiological conditions regulating the tissue levels of endocannabinoids, and on the pharmacological activity of these compounds and their derivatives, may provide a lead for the development of new drugs for the treatment of nervous and immune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and cancer.

These studies are reviewed in this article with special emphasis on the chemical features that determine the interaction of endocannabinoids with the proteins mediating their activity and degradation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10903398

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Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy

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“CBD, the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, exerts antiinflammatory effects in various disease models and alleviates pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans.

In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, cell death and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose.

 A previous study has demonstrated cardiac protection by CBD in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury; therefore, we have investigated the potential protective effects of CBD in diabetic hearts and in primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose.
Our findings underscore the potential of CBD for the prevention/treatment of diabetic complications.
Collectively, these results coupled with the excellent safety and tolerability profile of cannabidiol in humans, strongly suggest that it may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.”
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Effects of activation of endocannabinoid system on myocardial metabolism.

“Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases – hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27333924

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Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: a Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise.

“β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is natural bicyclic sesquiterpene abundantly found in essential oils from various spices, fruits and medicinal as well as ornamental plants. It is approved by United States Food and Drug Administration and European agencies as food additive, taste enhancer and flavoring agent and termed as a phytocannabinoid.

Various pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immune-modulator have been reported in experimental studies. It has shown potent therapeutic promise in neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.

CONCLUSION:

The present review provides a comprehensive insight of pharmacological and therapeutic potential of BCP, its molecular mechanism and signaling pathways in different pathological conditions. The review also examines the possibility of its further development as a novel candidate for various pathologies considering the polypharmacological and multifaceted therapeutic properties potential along with favorable oral bioavailability, lipophilicity and physicochemical properties.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965491

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

 

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Prospects for Creation of Cardioprotective Drugs Based on Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists.

“Cannabinoids can mimic the infarct-reducing effect of early ischemic preconditioning, delayed ischemic preconditioning, and ischemic postconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. They do this primarily through both CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Cannabinoids are also involved in remote preconditioning of the heart.

The cannabinoid receptor ligands also exhibit an antiapoptotic effect during ischemia/reperfusion of the heart.

The acute cardioprotective effect of cannabinoids is mediated by activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 kinase.

The delayed cardioprotective effect of cannabinoid anandamide is mediated via stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway and enhancement of heat shock protein 72 expression.

The delayed cardioprotective effect of another cannabinoid, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is associated with augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, but data on the involvement of NO synthase in the acute cardioprotective effect of cannabinoids are contradictory.

The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K+ channel is involved in the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210-induced cardiac resistance to ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Cannabinoids inhibit Na+/Ca2+ exchange via peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) activation that may also be related to the antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of cannabinoids.

The cannabinoid receptor agonists should be considered as prospective group of compounds for creation of drugs that are able to protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the clinical setting.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26487546

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Endocannabinoids and the Cardiovascular System in Health and Disease.

“The endocannabinoid system is widely distributed throughout the cardiovascular system.

Endocannabinoids play a minimal role in the regulation of cardiovascular function in normal conditions, but are altered in most cardiovascular disorders.

In shock, endocannabinoids released within blood mediate the associated hypotension through CB1 activation. In hypertension, there is evidence for changes in the expression of CB1, and CB1 antagonism reduces blood pressure in obese hypertensive and diabetic patients.

The endocannabinoid system is also upregulated in cardiac pathologies.

This is likely to be cardioprotective, via CB2 and CB1 (lesser extent).

In the vasculature, endocannabinoids cause vasorelaxation through activation of multiple target sites, inhibition of calcium channels, activation of potassium channels, NO production and the release of vasoactive substances. Changes in the expression or function of any of these pathways alter the vascular effect of endocannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids have positive (CB2) and negative effects (CB1) on the progression of atherosclerosis. However, any negative effects of CB1 may not be consequential, as chronic CB1 antagonism in large scale human trials was not associated with significant reductions in atheroma.

In neurovascular disorders such as stroke, endocannabinoids are upregulated and protective, involving activation of CB1, CB2, TRPV1 and PPARα.

Although most of this evidence is from preclinical studies, it seems likely that cannabinoid-based therapies could be beneficial in a range of cardiovascular disorders.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408169

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Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity.

“The potential protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats.

Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury.

Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in cardiac tissue of doxorubicin-treated rats.

These results indicate that cannabidiol represents a potential protective agent against doxorubicin cardiac injury.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721741

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The endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system: a new protective mechanism against myocardial ischemia.

“The pharmacological (and recreational) effects of cannabis have been known for centuries.

However, it is only recently that one has identified two subtypes of G-protein-coupled receptors, namely CB1 and CB2-receptors, which mediate the numerous effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids.

Logically, the existence of cannabinoid-receptors implies that endogenous ligands for these receptors (endocannabinoids) exist and exert a physiological role.

Hence, arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide) and sn-2 arachidonoylglycerol, the first two endocannabinoids identified, are formed from plasma membrane phospholipids and act as CB1 and/or CB2 agonists.

The presence of both CB1 and CB2-receptors in the rat heart is noteworthy.

This endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system is involved in several phenomena associated with cardioprotective effects.

Endocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, the latter through either CB1 or CB2-receptors, exert direct cardioprotective effects in rat isolated hearts.

The ability of cannabinoids to reduce infarct size has been confirmed in vivo in anesthetized mice and rats.

This latter effect appears to be mediated through CB2-receptors.

Thus, the endogenous cardiac cannabinoid system, through activation of CB2-receptors, appears to be an important mechanism of protection against myocardial ischemia.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618028

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