“Beta (β)-caryophyllene (BCAR) is a major sesquiterpene of various plant essential oils reported for several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, and immune-modulatory activity. Recent studies suggest that it also possesses neuroprotective effect.
This study reviews published reports pertaining to the neuropharmacological activities of BCAR. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MedLine Plus, and Google Scholar with keywords “beta (β)-caryophyllene” and other neurological keywords were searched. Data were extracted by referring to articles with information about the dose or concentration/route of administration, test system, results and discussion, and proposed mechanism of action.
A total of 545 research articles were recorded, and 41 experimental studies were included in this review, after application of exclusion criterion. Search results suggest that BCAR exhibits a protective role in a number of nervous system-related disorders including pain, anxiety, spasm, convulsion, depression, alcoholism, and Alzheimer’s disease.
Additionally, BCAR has local anesthetic-like activity, which could protect the nervous system from oxidative stress and inflammation and can act as an immunomodulatory agent. Most neurological activities of this natural product have been linked with the cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), especially the CB2R. This review suggests a possible application of BCAR as a neuroprotective agent.”
“Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a global epidemic representing the leading cause of death in some Western countries. Endocannabinoids and cannabinoid‐related compounds may be a promising approach as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular diseases. This review highlights the potential of cannabinoids and their receptors as targets for intervention.
In summary, the endocannabinoid system is highly active in cardiovascular disease states. Modulation of the ECS, CB1, and TRPV1 antagonism, as well as CB2 agonism, have proven to modulate disease state and severity in CVD. Studies are underway to develop drugs to change the course of cardiovascular diseases.
“Left ventricular dysfunction triggers the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, providing inotropic support to the failing heart and concomitantly increasing the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). The cardiovascular effects of cannabis have been characterized as biphasic on the autonomic nervous system with an increased sympathetic effect at low doses and an inhibitory sympathetic activity at higher doses. It is unknown if the autonomic effect of cannabis impacts the occurrence of AF in patients with heart failure (HF).
We used data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-National Inpatient Sample for patients admitted with a diagnosis of HF in 2014. The outcome variable was the diagnosis of AF, with the main exposure being cannabis use. We identified a cannabis user group and a 1:1 propensity-matched non-cannabis user group, each having 3,548 patients. We then estimated the odds of AF diagnosis in cannabis users. An estimated 3,950,392 patients were admitted with a diagnosis of HF in the United States in 2014. Among these, there were 17,755 (0.45%) cannabis users. In the matched cohort, cannabis users were less likely to have AF (19.08% vs 21.39%; AOR 0.87 [0.77 to 0.98]).
In conclusion, cannabis users have lower odds of AF when compared with nonusers, which was not explained by co-morbid conditions, age, insurance type, and socioeconomic status.”
“Decades of research has provided evidence for the role of the endocannabinoid system in human health and disease. This versatile system, consisting of two receptors (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and metabolic enzymes has been implicated in a wide variety of disease states, ranging from neurological disorders to cancer.
CB2 has gained much interest for its beneficial immunomodulatory role that can be obtained without eliciting psychotropic effects through CB1. Recent studies have shed light on a protective role of CB2 in cardiovascular disease, an ailment which currently takes more lives each year in Western countries than any other disease or injury.
By use of CB2 knockout mice and CB2-selective ligands, knowledge of how CB2 signaling affects atherosclerosis and ischemia has been acquired, providing a major stepping stone between basic science and translational clinical research.
Here, we summarize the current understanding of the endocannabinoid system in human pathologies and provide a review of the results from preclinical studies examining its function in cardiovascular disease, with a particular emphasis on possible CB2-targeted therapeutic interventions to alleviate atherosclerosis.”
“Researchers suggest that THC and other cannabinoids, which are active at CB2, the cannabinoid receptor expressed on immune cells, may be valuable in treating atherosclerosis.” https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/787468
“Chronic GPR18 activation by its agonist abnormal cannabidiol (trans-4-[3-methyl-6-(1-methylethenyl)-2-cyclohexen-1-yl]-5-pentyl-1,3-benzenediol; abn-cbd) improves myocardial redox status and function in healthy rats.
Here, we investigated the ability of abn-cbd to alleviate diabetes-evoked cardiovascular pathology and the contribution of GPR18 to this effect.
Collectively, the current findings present evidence for abn-cbd alleviation of diabetes-evoked cardiovascular anomalies likely via GPR18 dependent restoration of cardiac adiponectin-Akt-eNOS signaling and the diminution of myocardial oxidative stress.”
“The aim of this study was to determine if chronic, low-dose administration of a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus.
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administration to diabetic animals significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations and attenuated pathological changes in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Positive changes to biochemical indices in diabetic animals conferred improvements in myocardial and vascular function.
This study demonstrates that chronic, low-dose administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol can elicit antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects in diabetic animals, leading to improvements in end organ function of the cardiovascular system. Implications from this study suggest that cannabinoid receptors may be a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29181404
“The aim of this study was to determine if a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus. Outcomes from this study indicate that THC administration to STZ improved functional parameters of cardiovascular health by reducing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and blood glucose levels. These results indicate that activation of cannabinoid receptors may be a viable experimental target for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced complications in type I diabetes mellitus.” https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7974149/
“The poor survival of cells in ischemic sites diminishes the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy. Previously we and others have reported that Cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2) is protective during heart ischemic injury for its anti-oxidative activity. However, whether CB2 activation could improve the survival and therapeutic efficacy of stem cells in ischemic myocardium and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive.
Here, we showed evidence that CB2 agonist AM1241 treatment could improve the functional survival of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) in vitro as well as in vivo. Moreover, AD-MSCs adjuvant with AM1241 improved cardiac function, and inhibited cardiac oxidative stress, apoptosis and fibrosis. To unveil possible mechanisms, AD-MSCs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide/serum deprivation to simulate the ischemic environmentin myocardium. Results delineated that AM1241 blocked the apoptosis, oxidative damage and promoted the paracrine effects of AD-MSCs. Mechanistically, AM1241 activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (Stat3) through the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, the administration of AM630, LY294002, U0126 and AG490 (inhibitors for CB2, Akt, ERK1/2 and Stat3, respectively) could abolish the beneficial actions of AM1241.
Our result support the promise of CB2 activation as an effective strategy to optimize stem cell-based therapy possibly through Stat3 activation.”
“The possible therapeutic use of marijuana s active principles, the cannabinoids, is currently being debated.
It is now known that these substances exert several of their pharmacological actions by activating specific cell membrane receptors, the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptor subtypes.
This knowledge led to the design of synthetic cannabinoid agonists and antagonists with high therapeutic potential.
The recent discovery of the endocannabinoids, i.e. endogenous metabolites capable of activating the cannabinoid receptors, and the understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to their biosynthesis and inactivation, opened a new era in research on the pharmaceutical applications of cannabinoids.
Ongoing studies on the pathological and physiological conditions regulating the tissue levels of endocannabinoids, and on the pharmacological activity of these compounds and their derivatives, may provide a lead for the development of new drugs for the treatment of nervous and immune disorders, cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and cancer.
These studies are reviewed in this article with special emphasis on the chemical features that determine the interaction of endocannabinoids with the proteins mediating their activity and degradation.”
“CBD, the most abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) plant, exerts antiinflammatory effects in various disease models and alleviates pain and spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis in humans.
In this study, we have investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD) on myocardial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, cell death and interrelated signaling pathways, using a mouse model of type I diabetic cardiomyopathy and primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose.
A previous study has demonstrated cardiac protection by CBD in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury; therefore, we have investigated the potential protective effects of CBD in diabetic hearts and in primary human cardiomyocytes exposed to high glucose.
Our findings underscore the potential of CBD for the prevention/treatment of diabetic complications.
Collectively, these results coupled with the excellent safety and tolerability profile of cannabidiol in humans, strongly suggest that it may have great therapeutic potential in the treatment of diabetic complications, and perhaps other cardiovascular disorders, by attenuating oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation, cell death and fibrosis.”
“Endocannabinoids exert their effect on the regulation of energy homeostasis via activation of specific receptors. They control food intake, secretion of insulin, lipids and glucose metabolism, lipid storage. Long chain fatty acids are the main myocardial energy substrate. However, the heart exerts enormous metabolic flexibility emphasized by its ability to utilzation not only fatty acids, but also glucose, lactate and ketone bodies. Endocannabinoids can directly act on the cardiomyocytes through the CB1 and CB2 receptors present in cardiomyocytes. It appears that direct activation of CB1 receptors promotes increased lipogenesis, pericardial steatosis and bioelectrical dysfunction of the heart. In contrast, stimulation of CB2 receptors exhibits cardioprotective properties, helping to maintain appropriate amount of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, the effects of endocannabinoids at both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues, such as liver, pancreas, or adipose tissue, resulting indirectly in plasma availability of energy substrates and affects myocardial metabolism. To date, there is little evidence that describes effects of activation of the endocannabinoid system in the cardiovascular system under physiological conditions. In the present paper the impact of metabolic diseases, i. e. obesity and diabetes, as well as the cardiovascular diseases – hypertension, myocardial ischemia and myocardial infarction on the deregulation of the endocannabinoid system and its effect on the metabolism are described.”