Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors in Myometrium and its Correlation With Dysmenorrhea in Adenomyosis.

 

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“The myometrium, especially the junctional zone (JZ), is now well documented to have a role in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. Cannabinoid receptors have been shown to participate in the establishment of endometriosis and its pain perception. However, its relation to adenomyosis has not been identified yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of cannabinoid receptor type I (CB1) and type II (CB2) in myometrium of uteri with and without adenomyosis and determine the correlation between their levels and clinical parameters of adenomyosis. We collected tissue samples of JZ and the outer myometrium from 45 premenopausal women with adenomyosis and 34 women without adenomyosis. CB1 and CB2 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression levels were evaluated by the use of Western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction from all samples. Clinical information on the severity of dysmenorrhea and other data were collected. We found both CB1 and CB2 mRNA and protein levels in women with adenomyosis were significantly higher than those of controls, and CB1 expression levels in JZ were positively correlated with the severity of dysmenorrhea. These data suggest that cannabinoid receptor CB1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of dysmenorrhea in adenomyosis and may be a potential therapeutic target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30832539

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1933719119833483?journalCode=rsxb

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Decreased Expression of Cannabinoid Receptors in the Eutopic and Ectopic Endometrium of Patients with Adenomyosis.

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“Adenomyosis is a common gynecologic benign disease that may have a life-long negative impact on women.

Previous studies have indicated that the endocannabinoid system may participate in the progress of endometriosis.

Our research aims to analyze the expression patterns of the typical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), the main constituents of the endocannabinoid system, in endometrial samples derived from patients diagnosed as adenomyosis or not.

RESULTS:

In either the proliferative or the secretory phase, CB1 and CB2 protein and mRNA levels were both significantly lower in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of adenomyosis when compared with normal endometrium. For women with adenomyosis, CB1 and CB2 protein and mRNA levels were much lower in the ectopic endometrium than the eutopic in both phases of the cycle. Both CB1 and CB2 protein and mRNA levels were increased during the secretory phase in normal endometrium, while CB1 lost its cyclic variation in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients diagnosed as adenomyosis.

CONCLUSION:

The decreased expression of CB1 and CB2 in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium from patients diagnosed as adenomyosis suggests that cannabinoid receptors may participate in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30800671

“In conclusion, we found a significant decrease in the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of patients with adenomyosis, regardless of the menstrual phase, suggesting that CB1 and CB2 participate in the pathogenesis of this condition.”

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2019/5468954/

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Self-management strategies amongst Australian women with endometriosis: a national online survey.

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“Endometriosis has a significant negative impact on the lives of women, and current medical treatments often do not give sufficient pain relief or have intolerable side effects for many women. The majority of women with primary dysmenorrhea use self-management strategies (including self-care techniques or lifestyle choices) to help manage period related symptoms, but little is known about self-management in women with endometriosis.

The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of use, safety, and self-rated effectiveness of common forms of self-management.

Cannabis, heat, hemp/CBD oil, and dietary changes were the most highly rated in terms of self-reported effectiveness in pain reduction. Physical interventions such as yoga/Pilates, stretching, and exercise were rated as being less effective.

Self-management was very commonly used by women with endometriosis and form an important part of self-management.

Women using cannabis reported the highest self-rated effectiveness.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646891

https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-019-2431-x

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The Clinical Significance of Endocannabinoids in Endometriosis Pain Management.

“Patients with endometriosis often suffer from diffuse and poorly localized severe pain. The current pain management strategies include medical and hormonal therapy, as well as surgery. Medical management of pain is often insufficient and is associated with high rate of recurrence. Better pain management is therefore of urgent need.

Methods: Among the various candidates, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) has recently emerged as a relevant pharmacological target for the management of endometriosis-related pain. A computerized literature search was performed to identify relevant studies combining the keywords “endometriosis,” “endocannabinoid,” “cannabinoid receptor,” “THC,” and “pain mechanisms.”

Conclusions: This review describes the multiple and complex pain mechanisms associated with endometriosis. Current data and theories concerning the link between the ECS and pain management for endometriosis patients are presented. Finally, we will discuss which aspects of endometriosis-associated pain can be targeted by modulation of the ECS.”

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Endocannabinoids modulate apoptosis in endometriosis and adenomyosis.

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“Adenomyosis that is a form of endometriosis is the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue within the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium), which may cause dysmenorrhea and infertility. Endocannabinoid mediated apoptotic mechanisms of endometriosis and adenomyosis are not known. We hypothesized that the down regulation of endocannabinoid receptors and/or alteration in their regulatory enzymes may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis and adenomyosis through apoptosis.

Endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, their synthesizing and catabolizing enzymes (FAAH, NAPE-PLD, DAGL, MAGL) and the apoptotic indexes were immunohistochemically assessed in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues. Findings were compared to normal endometrium and myometrium. Endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal (CRL-7566) cell lines were furthermore cultured with or without cannabinoid receptor agonists. The IC50 value for CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists was quantified. Cannabinoid agonists on cell death were investigated by Annexin-V/Propidium iodide labeling with flow cytometry. CB1 and CB2 receptor levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). FAAH, NAPE-PLD, MAGL and DAGL enzyme levels decreased in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues compared to control (p=0,001, p=0,001, p=0,001 and p=0,002 respectively). Apoptotic cell indexes both in endometriotic and adenomyotic tissues also decreased significantly, compared to the control group (p=0,001 and p=0,001). CB1 and CB2 receptor agonist mediated dose dependent fast anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were detected in Ishikawa and ovarian endometriosis cyst wall stromal cell lines (CRL-7566).

Endocannabinoids are suggested to increase apoptosis mechanisms in endometriosis and adenomyosis. CB1 and CB2 antagonists can be considered as potential medical therapeutic agents for endometriosis and adenomyosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28549792

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065128116303154

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Cannabinoid receptor 1 contributes to sprouted innervation in endometrial ectopic growth through mitogen-activated protein kinase activation.

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“The endocannabinoid system regulates neurite outgrowth and neurogenesis during development of the central nervous system.

Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is expressed in neurons, including the somata and fibers, that innervate the endometrial ectopic cyst in rats.

 

This finding may provide a new therapeutic target for patients with endometriosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28322749

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The cannabinoid receptor CB1 contributes to the development of ectopic lesions in a mouse model of endometriosis.

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“Does signaling via the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a mouse model?

The expression of components of the endocannabinoid system has been demonstrated in both mouse and human uteri. CB1 receptors are expressed in human epithelial and stromal cell lines derived from eutopic endometrium and deep infiltrating endometriosis nodules.

This was a randomized study in a mouse model of endometriosis.

We provide evidence that endocannabinoid signaling via CB1 receptor plays a role in the development of endometriosis in a mouse model.

However, the relative contribution of the CB1-mediated signaling pathways active in inflammatory, uterine and peritoneal cells remains to be ascertained. Since the study was performed in a mouse model, the significance of the findings in the human system warrants further investigation.

Clarifying the function and regulation of CB1 and its molecular interactions with endogenous ligands, and how endocannabinoids levels are regulated in women with endometriosis, represent critical areas of research for the potential development of a novel medical treatment of the disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27821707

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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Elevated Systemic Levels of Endocannabinoids and Related Mediators Across the Menstrual Cycle in Women With Endometriosis.

“Cannabinoids and modulators of the endocannabinoid system affect specific mechanisms that are critical to the establishment and development of endometriosis.

The aim of this study was to measure the systemic levels of endocannabinoids and related mediators in women with and without endometriosis and to investigate whether such levels correlated with endometriosis-associated pain.

These preliminary data suggest that the pharmacological manipulation of the action or levels of these mediators may offer an alternative option for the management of endometriosis-associated pain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26887427

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Cannabinoid receptor 1 controls nerve growth in ectopic cyst in a rat endometriosis model.

“To investigate whether cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) is involved in nerve growth in endometriosis-associated ectopic cyst…

CONCLUSIONS:

CB1R was involved in the nerve growth of ectopic cyst associated with endometriosis.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25623980

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/endometriosis/

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