Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation.

cells-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural phytocannabinoid without psychoactive effect, is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound.

The possibility of its use in cytoprotection of cells from harmful factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is an area of ongoing investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the regulatory mechanisms associated with the redox balance and inflammation in keratinocytes irradiated with UVA [30 J/cm2] and UVB [60 mJ/cm2].

Spectrophotometric results show that CBD significantly enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase in UV irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, despite decreased glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities, CBD prevents lipid peroxidation, which was observed as a decreased level of 4-HNE and 15d-PGJ2 (measured using GC/MS and LC/MS). Moreover, Western blot analysis of protein levels shows that, under stress conditions, CBD influences interactions of transcription factors Nrf2- NFκB by inhibiting the NFκB pathway, increasing the expression of Nrf2 activators and stimulating the transcription activity of Nrf2.

In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of CBD through Nrf2 activation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties as an inhibitor of NFκB should be considered during design of new protective treatments for the skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31382646

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/8/827

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Modulators of the endocannabinoid system influence skin barrier repair, epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation in a mouse model.

Experimental Dermatology banner“Endocannabinoids (ECs) are important regulators of cell signaling.

Cannabinoid receptors are involved in keratinocyte proliferation/differentiation.

Elevation of the endogenous cannabinoid tone leads to strong anti-inflammatory effects.

Here, we explored the influence of endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulators on skin permeability barrier repair, epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation in hairless mice.

We used WOBE440, a selective fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor, WOL067-531, an inhibitor of endocannabinoid reuptake with no relevant FAAH activity, which both signal via cannabinoid receptor-1and 2 (CB-1R and CB-2R) and compared them to WOBE15 which signals via CB-2R.

We found that barrier repair was significantly delayed by WOL067-531.

In summary, we showed that WOL067-531 exhibits a significant effect on skin barrier repair, epidermal proliferation/differentiation and inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31350927

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/exd.14012

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Cannabis sativa L. extract and cannabidiol inhibit in vitro mediators of skin inflammation and wound injury.

Publication cover image“The present study investigates the potential effect of a Cannabis sativa L. ethanolic extract standardized in cannabidiol as antiinflammatory agent in the skin. The extract inhibited the release of mediators of inflammation involved in wound healing and inflammatory processes occurring in the skin. Cannabis extract and cannabidiol showed different effects on the release of interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor, which are both mediators whose genes are dependent on NF-κB. Our findings provide new insights into the potential effect of Cannabis extracts against inflammation-based skin diseases.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31250491

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ptr.6400

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757311/

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders” https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303484

Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

“Extracts of the hemp plant cannabis are traditionally used as a popular remedy against inflammation.” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2007-06-cannabinoids-human-body-anti-inflammatory-effect.html

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Cannabinoid Signaling in the Skin: Therapeutic Potential of the “C(ut)annabinoid” System.

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“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has lately been proven to be an important, multifaceted homeostatic regulator, which influences a wide-variety of physiological processes all over the body. Its members, the endocannabinoids (eCBs; e.g., anandamide), the eCB-responsive receptors (e.g., CB₁, CB₂), as well as the complex enzyme and transporter apparatus involved in the metabolism of the ligands were shown to be expressed in several tissues, including the skin. Although the best studied functions over the ECS are related to the central nervous system and to immune processes, experimental efforts over the last two decades have unambiguously confirmed that cutaneous cannabinoid (“c[ut]annabinoid”) signaling is deeply involved in the maintenance of skin homeostasis, barrier formation and regeneration, and its dysregulation was implicated to contribute to several highly prevalent diseases and disorders, e.g., atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, scleroderma, acne, hair growth and pigmentation disorders, keratin diseases, various tumors, and itch. The current review aims to give an overview of the available skin-relevant endo- and phytocannabinoid literature with a special emphasis on the putative translational potential, and to highlight promising future research directions as well as existing challenges.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30845666

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/5/918

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Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of Cannabinoids in the Dermatology Community

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“Recent research has identified potential uses of cannabinoids in dermatology, including psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and wound healing.

This study examined dermatology providers’ knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions on therapeutic cannabinoids using a 20-question online survey.

The response rate was 21% (n=531). Most responders thought cannabinoids should be legal for medical treatment (86%). Nearly all (94%) believed it is worthwhile to research dermatologic uses of cannabinoids. 55% reported at least one patient-initiated discussion about cannabinoids in the last year. Yet, 48% were concerned about a negative stigma when proposing cannabinoid therapies to patients. While most responders (86%) were willing to prescribe an FDA-approved cannabinoid as a topical treatment, fewer (71%) were willing to prescribe an oral form. 64% of respondents did not know that cannabidiol is not psychoactive and 29% did not know that tetrahydrocannabinol is psychoactive.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

Dermatology providers are interested in prescribing cannabinoids and patients are speaking about cannabinoids with their dermatologists. However, providers’ fund of knowledge on this subject is lacking. These results highlight the need for further education and research to detangle the dermatologic benefits and risks of cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30586258

“Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

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Cannabinoids in dermatology: a scoping review.

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“The therapeutic applications of cannabis and cannabinoids are an increasingly conspicuous topic as de-criminalization and legalization of these products continues to expand.

A limited number of cannabinoid compounds have been approved for a specific set of conditions. However, the current role of cannabinoids for the treatment of dermatologic conditions remains to be defined.

We conducted a review of the current literature to determine the applications of cannabinoids for the therapy of various skin diseases.

After conducting our analysis, we found that cannabinoid products have the potential to treat a variety of skin conditions, including acne vulgaris, allergic contact dermatitis, asteatotic dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, hidradenitis suppurativa, Kaposi sarcoma, pruritus, psoriasis, skin cancer, and the cutaneous manifestations of systemic sclerosis. However, the majority of available data on these compounds are pre-clinical and there is a corresponding lack of high-quality randomized, controlled trials that evaluate their effects.

Cannabinoids have shown some initial promise as therapy for a variety of skin diseases. However, there is a requirement for thorough pre-clinical research and large-scale, randomized, controlled trials before cannabinoids can be considered safe and effective treatments for these conditions.”

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders”  https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303484

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The endocannabinoid system of the skin. A potential approach for the treatment of skin disorders.

Biochemical Pharmacology

“The skin is the largest organ of the body and has a complex and very active structure that contributes to homeostasis and provides the first line defense against injury and infection.

In the past few years it has become evident that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a relevant role in healthy and diseased skin.

Specifically, we review how the dysregulation of ECS has been associated to dermatological disorders such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, scleroderma and skin cancer. Therefore, the druggability of the ECS could open new research avenues for the treatment of the pathologies mentioned.

Numerous studies have reported that phytocannabinoids and their biological analogues modulate a complex network pharmacology involved in the modulation of ECS, focusing on classical cannabinoid receptors, transient receptor potential channels (TRPs), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

The combined targeting of several end-points seems critical to provide better chances of therapeutically success, in sharp contrast to the one-disease-one-target dogma that permeates current drug discovery campaigns.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30138623

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303484

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Endocannabinoid tone regulates human sebocyte biology.

JID home

“We have previously shown that i) endocannabinoids (eCB; e.g. anandamide [AEA]) are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic sebaceous lipid production (SLP) in human sebaceous glands (SG); and ii) eCB treatment dramatically increases SLP. Here, we aimed to investigate the expression of the major eCB synthesizing and degrading enzymes, and to study the effects of eCB uptake inhibitors on human SZ95 sebocytes, thus exploring the role of the putative eCB membrane transporter (EMT), which has been hypothesized to facilitate the cellular uptake and subsequent degradation of eCBs. We found that the major eCB synthesizing (NAPE-PLD, DAGLα and -β) and degrading (FAAH, MAGL) enzymes are expressed in SZ95 sebocytes, and also in SGs (except for DAGLα, whose staining was dubious in histological preparations). Interestingly, eCB uptake-inhibition with VDM11 induced a moderate increase in SLP, and also elevated the levels of various eCBs and related acylethanolamides. Finally, we found that VDM11 was able to interfere with the pro-inflammatory action of the Toll-like receptor 4 activator lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of eCB uptake exerts anti-inflammatory actions and elevates both SLP and eCB levels; thus, these inhibitors might be beneficial in cutaneous inflammatory conditions accompanied by dry skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29501385

http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(18)30147-7/pdf

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The Risks and Benefits of Cannabis in the Dermatology Clinic.

SAGE Journals

“Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa/indica), also known as marijuana, has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia.

There has been a recent trend to legalize the use of cannabis, as illustrated by the recent legalization votes in numerous states in the United States and legislation in Canada to allow recreational cannabis use. With this increasing consumption of cannabis, dermatologists will see increased pressure to prescribe cannabis and will see the side effects of cannabis use with greater frequency.

There are several approved medical indications for cannabis use, including psoriasis, lupus, nail-patella syndrome, and severe pain. In addition, very preliminary studies have suggested cannabis and its derivatives might have use in acne, dermatitis, pruritus, wound healing, and skin cancer.

In this review, we summarize some of the studies and reports regarding the medicinal uses of cannabis in the dermatology clinic and some of the side effects that might present more often to dermatologists as the use of cannabis increases.”

“Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

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Topical cannabinoids in dermatology.

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“Topical cannabinoids are increasingly utilized by dermatology patients for a range of disorders; however, the acceptance of these over-the-counter products has far outpaced scientific investigation into their safety and efficacy. Here, we review the studies of topical cannabinoids in skin conditions and assess their current place in dermatology practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28873100

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757311/

“Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

“Anti-inflammatory cannabinoids for skin diseases”  https://www.endoca.com/blog/discovery/anti-inflammatory-cannabinoids-skin-diseases/

“Topical cannabinoids may help to treat skin diseases”  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/316968.php

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