Endocannabinoid tone regulates human sebocyte biology.

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“We have previously shown that i) endocannabinoids (eCB; e.g. anandamide [AEA]) are involved in the maintenance of homeostatic sebaceous lipid production (SLP) in human sebaceous glands (SG); and ii) eCB treatment dramatically increases SLP. Here, we aimed to investigate the expression of the major eCB synthesizing and degrading enzymes, and to study the effects of eCB uptake inhibitors on human SZ95 sebocytes, thus exploring the role of the putative eCB membrane transporter (EMT), which has been hypothesized to facilitate the cellular uptake and subsequent degradation of eCBs. We found that the major eCB synthesizing (NAPE-PLD, DAGLα and -β) and degrading (FAAH, MAGL) enzymes are expressed in SZ95 sebocytes, and also in SGs (except for DAGLα, whose staining was dubious in histological preparations). Interestingly, eCB uptake-inhibition with VDM11 induced a moderate increase in SLP, and also elevated the levels of various eCBs and related acylethanolamides. Finally, we found that VDM11 was able to interfere with the pro-inflammatory action of the Toll-like receptor 4 activator lipopolysaccharide. Collectively, our data suggest that inhibition of eCB uptake exerts anti-inflammatory actions and elevates both SLP and eCB levels; thus, these inhibitors might be beneficial in cutaneous inflammatory conditions accompanied by dry skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29501385

http://www.jidonline.org/article/S0022-202X(18)30147-7/pdf

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The Risks and Benefits of Cannabis in the Dermatology Clinic.

SAGE Journals

“Cannabis ( Cannabis sativa/indica), also known as marijuana, has been used for medicinal and recreational purposes for millennia.

There has been a recent trend to legalize the use of cannabis, as illustrated by the recent legalization votes in numerous states in the United States and legislation in Canada to allow recreational cannabis use. With this increasing consumption of cannabis, dermatologists will see increased pressure to prescribe cannabis and will see the side effects of cannabis use with greater frequency.

There are several approved medical indications for cannabis use, including psoriasis, lupus, nail-patella syndrome, and severe pain. In addition, very preliminary studies have suggested cannabis and its derivatives might have use in acne, dermatitis, pruritus, wound healing, and skin cancer.

In this review, we summarize some of the studies and reports regarding the medicinal uses of cannabis in the dermatology clinic and some of the side effects that might present more often to dermatologists as the use of cannabis increases.”

“Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

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Topical cannabinoids in dermatology.

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“Topical cannabinoids are increasingly utilized by dermatology patients for a range of disorders; however, the acceptance of these over-the-counter products has far outpaced scientific investigation into their safety and efficacy. Here, we review the studies of topical cannabinoids in skin conditions and assess their current place in dermatology practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28873100

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757311/

“Cannabinoid system in the skin – a possible target for future therapies in dermatology.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19664006

“Anti-inflammatory cannabinoids for skin diseases”  https://www.endoca.com/blog/discovery/anti-inflammatory-cannabinoids-skin-diseases/

“Topical cannabinoids may help to treat skin diseases”  http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/316968.php

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Cannabidiol upregulates melanogenesis through CB1 dependent pathway by activating p38 MAPK and p42/44 MAPK.

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“Melanogenesis plays a critical role in the protection of skin against external stresses such as ultraviolet irradiation and oxidative stressors. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cannabidiol on melanogenesis and its mechanisms of action in human epidermal melanocytes. We found that cannabidiol increased both melanin content and tryrosinase activity. The mRNA levels of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP) 1, and TRP2 were increased following cannabidiol treatment. Likewise, cannabidiol increased the protein levels of MITF, TRP 1, TRP 2, and tyrosinase. Mechanistically, we found that cannabidiol regulated melanogenesis by upregulating MITF through phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p42/44 MAPK, independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. In addition, the melanogenic effect of cannabidiol was found to be mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptor, not by CB2receptor. Taken together, these findings indicate that cannabidiol-induced melanogenesis is cannabinoid CB1 receptor-dependent, and cannabidiol induces melanogenesis through increasing MITF gene expression which is mediated by activation of p38 MAPK and p42/44 MAPK. Our results suggest that cannabidiol might be useful as a protective agent against external stresses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28601556

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009279716304343

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The role of cannabinoids in dermatology

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“Twenty-eight states currently allow for comprehensive public medical cannabis programs, and this number continues to grow.  Approximately 1 in 10 adult cannabis users in the United States use it for medical purposes. Numerous studies have investigated its uses for chronic pain, spasticity, anorexia, and nausea. In recent years, researchers have also investigated its use for the treatment of dermatologic conditions including pruritus, inflammatory skin disease, and skin cancer.”

http://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622(17)30308-0/abstract

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The Inhibitory Effect of S-777469, a Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor Agonist, on Skin Inflammation in Mice.

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“We investigated the effects of S-777469 (1-[[6-Ethyl-1-[4-fluorobenzyl]-5-methyl-2-oxo-1, 2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonyl]amino]-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid), a novel cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) agonist, on 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB)-induced ear inflammation and mite antigen-induced dermatitis in mice. The oral administration of S-777469 significantly suppressed DNFB-induced ear swelling in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, S-777469 significantly alleviated mite antigen-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. A histological analysis revealed that S-777469 significantly reduced the epidermal thickness and the number of mast cells infiltrating skin lesions. We demonstrated that S-777469 inhibited mite antigen-induced eosinophil accumulation in skin lesions and an endogenous CB2 ligand, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-induced eosinophil migration in vitro. Moreover, we confirmed that 2-AG levels significantly increased in skin lesions of mite antigen-induced dermatitis model. Together, these results suggest that S-777469 inhibits skin inflammation in mice by blocking the activities of 2-AG.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28214870

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Cannabinoids: Possible agents for treatment of psoriasis via suppression of angiogenesis and inflammation.

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“Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease also affecting other sites such as joints.

This disease highly depends on inflammation and angiogenesis as well as other pathways.

At each step of the psoriasis molecular pathway, different inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic growth factors are involved such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 α (HIF-1 α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalo proteinases (MMPs), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), Angiopoitin-2, interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-17, and IL-2. Beside the mentioned growth factors and cytokines, cellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) which play roles in both angiogenesis and inflammation are also involved in the pathogenesis.

Cannabinoids are active compounds of Cannabina Sativa inducing their effects through cannabinoid receptors (CBs).

JWH-133 is a synthetic cannabinoid with strong anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. This agent is able to inhibit HIF-1 α, VEGF, MMPs, bFGF, IL-8, IL-17, and other mentioned cytokines and adhesion molecules both in vivo and in vitro.

Altogether, authors suggest using this cannabinoid for treatment of psoriasis due to its potential in suppressing the two main steps of psoriatic pathogenesis.

Of course complementary animal studies and human trials are still required.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28110689

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The Endocannabinoid System and Its Role in Eczematous Dermatoses.

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“The skin serves as the foremost barrier between the internal body and the external world, providing crucial protection against pathogens and chemical, mechanical, and ultraviolet damages. The skin is a central player in the intricate network of immune, neurologic, and endocrine systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) includes an extensive network of bioactive lipid mediators and their receptors, functions to modulate appetite, pain, mood, and memory, and has recently been implicated in skin homeostasis. Disruption of ECS homeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several prevalent skin conditions. In this review, we highlight the role of endocannabinoids in maintaining skin health and homeostasis and discuss evidence on the role of ECS in several eczematous dermatoses including atopic dermatitis, asteatotic eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, and chronic pruritus. The compilation of evidence may spark directions for future investigations on how the ECS may be a therapeutic target for dermatologic conditions.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28098721

“The endocannabinoid system of the skin in health and disease: novel perspectives and therapeutic opportunities.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757311/

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Targeting Cutaneous Cannabinoid Signaling in Inflammation – A “High”-way to Heal?

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“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a recently emerging complex regulator of multiple physiological processes. It comprises several endogenous ligands (e.g. N-arachidonoylethanolamine, a.k.a. anandamide [AEA], 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG], palmitoylethanolamide [PEA], etc.), a number of endocannabinoid (eCB)-responsive receptors (e.g. CB1 and CB2, etc.), as well as enzymes and transporters involved in the synthesis and degradation of the eCBs.

Among many other tissues and organs, various members of the ECS were shown to be expressed in the skin as well. Indeed, AEA, 2-AG, CB1 and CB2 together with the major eCB-metabolizing enzymes (e.g. fatty acid amide hydrolase [FAAH], which cleaves AEA to ethanolamine and pro-inflammatory arachidonic acid) were found in various cutaneous cell types. Importantly, the eCB-tone and cannabinoid signaling in general appear to play a key role in regulating several fundamental aspects of cutaneous homeostasis, including proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, hair growth, sebaceous lipid production, melanogenesis, fibroblast activity, etc.

Moreover, appropriate eCB-signaling through CB1 and CB2 receptors was found to be crucially important in keeping cutaneous inflammatory processes under control.

Collectively, these findings (together with many other recently published data) implied keratinocytes to be “non-classical” immune competent cells, playing a central role in initiation and regulation of cutaneous immune processes, and the “c(ut)annabinoid” system is now proven to be one of their master regulators.

Another recently emerging, fascinating possibility to manage cutaneous inflammation through the cannabinoid signaling is the administration of phytocannabinoids (pCB). Cannabis sativa contains over 100 different pCBs, the vast majority of which have no psychotropic activity, and usually possess a “favorable” side-effect profile, which makes these substances particularly interesting drug candidates in treating several inflammation-accompanied diseases.

With respect to the skin, we have recently shown that one of the best studied pCBs, (−)-cannabidiol (CBD), may have great potential in managing acne, an inflammation-accompanied, extremely prevalent cutaneous disease.

Collectively, in light of the above results, both increase/restoration of the homeostatic cutaneous eCB-tone by FAAH-inhibitors and topical administration of non-psychotropic pCBs hold out the promise to exert remarkable anti-inflammatory actions, making them very exciting drug candidates, deserving full clinical exploration as potent, yet safe novel class of anti-inflammatory agents.”

http://www.ebiomedicine.com/article/S2352-3964(17)30003-8/fulltext

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Anandamide Suppresses Proinflammatory T Cell Responses In Vitro through Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor-Mediated mTOR Inhibition in Human Keratinocytes.

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“The endocannabinoid system comprises cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and metabolic enzymes of these ligands.

The endocannabinoid system has recently been implicated in the regulation of various pathophysiological processes of the skin that include immune competence and/or tolerance of keratinocytes, the disruption of which might promote the development of skin diseases.

Recent evidence showed that CB1 in keratinocytes limits the secretion of proinflammatory chemokines, suggesting that this receptor might also regulate T cell dependent inflammatory diseases of the skin.

In this article, we sought to investigate the cytokine profile of IFN-γ-activated keratinocytes, and found that CB1 activation by AEA suppressed production and release of signature TH1- and TH17-polarizing cytokines, IL-12 and IL-23, respectively. We also set up cocultures between a conditioned medium of treated keratinocytes and naive T cells to disclose the molecular details that regulate the activation of highly proinflammatory TH1 and TH17 cells.

AEA-treated keratinocytes showed reduced an induction of IFN-γ-producing TH1 and IL-17-producing TH17 cells, and these effects were reverted by pharmacological inhibition of CB1.

Further analyses identified mammalian target of rapamycin as a proinflammatory signaling pathway regulated by CB1, able to promote either IL-12 and IL-23 release from keratinocytes or TH1 and TH17 polarization.

Taken together, these findings demonstrate that AEA suppresses highly pathogenic T cell subsets through CB1-mediated mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition in human keratinocytes.

Thus, it can be speculated that the latter pathway might be beneficial to the physiological function of the skin, and can be targeted toward inflammation-related skin diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27694494

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