Combined deficiency of the Cnr1 and Cnr2 receptors protects against age-related bone loss by osteoclast inhibition.

Aging Cell

“The endocannabinoid system plays a role in regulating bone mass and bone cell activity and inactivation of the type 1 (Cnr1) or type 2 (Cnr2) cannabinoid receptors influences peak bone mass and age-related bone loss. As the Cnr1 and Cnr2 receptors have limited homology and are activated by different ligands, we have evaluated the effects of combined deficiency of Cnr1 and 2 receptors (Cnr1/2-/- ) on bone development from birth to old age and studied ovariectomy induced bone loss in female mice. The Cnr1/2-/- mice had accelerated bone accrual at birth when compared with wild type littermates, and by 3 months of age, they had higher trabecular bone mass. They were also significantly protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss due to a reduction in osteoclast number. The Cnr1/2-/- mice had reduced age-related bone loss when compared with wild-type due to a reduction in osteoclast number. Although bone formation was reduced and bone marrow adiposity increased in Cnr1/2-/- mice, the osteoclast defect outweighed the reduction in bone formation causing preservation of bone mass with aging. This contrasts with the situation previously reported in mice with inactivation of the Cnr1 or Cnr2 receptors individually where aged-related bone loss was greater than in wild-type. We conclude that the Cnr1 and Cnr2 receptors have overlapping but nonredundant roles in regulating osteoclast and osteoblast activities. These observations indicate that combined inhibition of Cnr1 and Cnr2 receptors may be beneficial in preventing age-related bone loss, whereas blockade of individual receptors may be detrimental.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28752643

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/acel.12638/abstract

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Cannabidiol administration reduces sublesional cancellous bone loss in rats with severe spinal cord injury.

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“Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo severe loss of bone mineral below the level of lesion, and data on available treatment options after SCI is scarce.

The aim of this work was to investigate the therapeutic effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive cannabis, on sublesional bone loss in a rat model of SCI.

In conclusion, CBD administration attenuated SCI-induced sublesional cancellous bone loss.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28479140

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299917303230

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Cannabis use and bone mineral density: NHANES 2007-2010.

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“Cannabis use is rising in the USA. Its relationship to cannabinoid signaling in bone cells implies its use could affect bone mineral density (BMD) in the population. In a national survey of people ages 20-59, we found no association between self-reported cannabis use and BMD of the hip or spine.

No association between cannabis and BMD was observed for any level of use.

A history of cannabis use, although highly prevalent and related to other risk factors for low BMD, was not independently associated with BMD in this cross-sectional study of American men and women.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286929

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β-Caryophyllene promotes osteoblastic mineralization, and suppresses osteoclastogenesis and adipogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures in vitro.

 

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“Osteoporosis is induced by the reduction in bone mass through decreased osteoblastic osteogenesis and increased osteoclastic bone resorption, and it is associated with obesity and diabetes. Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health concern in aging populations. β-caryophyllene, a component of various essential oils, is a selective agonist of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 and exerts cannabimimetic anti-inflammatory effects in animals. The present study aimed to identify the effect of β-caryophyllene on adipogenesis, osteoblastic mineralization and osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cell cultures in vitro. Bone marrow cells obtained from mouse femoral tissues were cultured in the presence of β-caryophyllene (0.1-100 µM) in vitro. The results revealed that β-caryophyllene stimulated osteoblastic mineralization, and suppressed adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Thus, β-caryophyllene may be used as a therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28105093

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

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Overlapping molecular pathways between cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2 and estrogens/androgens on the periphery and their involvement in the pathogenesis of common diseases (Review).

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“The physiological and pathophysiological roles of sex hormones have been well documented and the modulation of their effects is applicable in many current treatments.

On the other hand, the physiological role of endocannabinoids is not yet clearly understood and the endocannabinoid system is considered a relatively new therapeutic target.

The physiological association between sex hormones and cannabinoids has been investigated in several studies; however, its involvement in the pathophysiology of common human diseases has been studied separately.

Herein, we present the first systematic review of molecular pathways that are influenced by both the cannabinoids and sex hormones, including adenylate cyclase and protein kinase A, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein, vascular endothelial growth factor, proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, C-Jun N-terminal kinase and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2.

Most of these influence cell proliferative activity.

Better insight into this association may prove to be beneficial for the development of novel pharmacological treatment strategies for many common diseases, including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer, osteoporosis and atherosclerosis.

The associations between cannabinoids, estrogens and androgens under these conditions are also presented and the molecular interactions are highlighted.”

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[The endocannabinoid system and bone].

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“Recent studies suggest an important role for the skeletal endocannabinoid system in the regulation of bone mass in both physiological and pathological conditions. Both major endocannabinoids (anandamid and 2-arachidonoylglycerol), endocannabinoid receptors – CB1-receptor (CB1R) a CB2-receptor (CB2R) and the endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes are present or expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Previous studies identified multiple risk and protective variants of CNR2 gene dealing with the relationship to bone density and/or osteoporosis. Selective CB1R/ CB2R-inverse agonists/antagonists and CB2R-inverse agonists/antagonists are candidates for prevention of bone mass loss and combined antiresorptive and anabolic therapy for osteoporosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27734700

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Tissue Engineering of Cartilage; Can Cannabinoids Help?

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“This review discusses the role of the cannabinoid system in cartilage tissue and endeavors to establish if targeting the cannabinoid system has potential in mesenchymal stem cell based tissue-engineered cartilage repair strategies.

The review discusses the potential of cannabinoids to protect against the degradation of cartilage in inflamed arthritic joints and the influence of cannabinoids on the chondrocyte precursors, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs).

We provide experimental evidence to show that activation of the cannabinoid system enhances the survival, migration and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, which are three major tenets behind the success of a cell-based tissue-engineered cartilage repair strategy.

These findings highlight the potential for cannabinoids to provide a dual function by acting as anti-inflammatory agents as well as regulators of MSC biology in order to enhance tissue engineering strategies aimed at cartilage repair.”

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Difference and Influence of Inactive and Active States of Cannabinoid Receptor Subtype CB2: From Conformation to Drug Discovery.

“Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is a promising target for the treatment of neuropathic pain, osteoporosis, immune system, cancer, and drug abuse.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27186994

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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A synergistic interaction of 17-β-estradiol with specific cannabinoid receptor type 2 antagonist/inverse agonist on proliferation activity in primary human osteoblasts.

“The bone remodeling process is influenced by various factors, including estrogens and transmitters of the endocannabinoid system. In osteoblasts, cannabinoid receptors 2 (CB-2) are expressed at a much higher level compared to CB-1 receptors. Previous studies have shown that estrogens could influence CB-2 receptor expression.

In the present study, the possible interactions of a specific CB-2 agonist and a specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist with 17-β-estradiol were investigated in primary human osteoblasts (HOB)…

In conclusion, for the first time a synergistic interaction between 17-β-estradiol and specific CB-2 antagonist/inverse agonist was observed in HOB.

Understanding the molecular pathways of this interaction would be of great importance in developing more efficient and safer drugs for treating or preventing bone diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26171165

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