Cannabidiol attenuates alcohol-induced liver steatosis, metabolic dysregulation, inflammation and neutrophil-mediated injury.

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive component of marijuana, which has anti-inflammatory effects. It has also been approved by FDA for various orphan diseases for exploratory trials. Herein, we investigated the effects of CBD on liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol feeding in mice. CBD may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of alcoholic liver diseases associated with inflammation, oxidative stress and steatosis, which deserves exploration in human trials.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28935932

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant non-psychoactive constituent of marijuana plant (Cannabis Sativa) with excellent safety profile in humans even after chronic use. In conclusion, we demonstrate that CBD treatment significantly attenuates liver injury induced by chronic plus binge alcohol in a mouse model and oxidative burst in human neutrophils. CBD ameliorates alcohol-induced liver injury by attenuating inflammatory response involving E-selectin expression and neutrophil recruitment, and consequent oxidative/nitrative stress, in addition to attenuation of the alcohol-induced hepatic metabolic dysregulation and steatosis. These beneficial effects, coupled with the proven safety of CBD in human clinical trials and its current orphan drug approval by FDA for various indications suggest that it may have therapeutic potential in liver disease associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic dysregulation and steatosis.” https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-10924-8

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Medical marijuana for the treatment of vismodegib-related muscle spasm

JAAD Case Reports

“Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arises from loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor patched homologue 1, which normally inhibits smoothened homologue in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Vismodegib, a smoothened homologue inhibitor, is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for metastatic or locally advanced BCC that has recurred after surgery or for patients who are not candidates for surgery and radiation. Common adverse effects of vismodegib are muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, nausea, and weight loss. Muscle spasms worsen with duration of drug administration and may lead to drug discontinuation.

We report a case of vismodegib-related muscle spasm that was successfully treated with medical marijuana (MM).

During the first week of vismodegib and radiation, the patient started MM, having heard of its indication in the treatment of muscle cramps. She smoked 3 to 4 joints daily of Trainwreck strain, containing 18.6% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 0.0% cannabidiol (CBD), and 0.0% cannabinol. Her muscle spasms resolved immediately. She continued MM for 3.5 weeks, until the cost of MM became prohibitive. She reported no adverse effects from MM. Complete resolution of muscle spasms was sustained through the remaining 3.5 weeks of vismodegib. Complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lactate dehydrogenase level were monitored throughout the study with no significant changes. As of 18 months posttreatment, the patient had a complete clinical response of her BCC.

One marijuana joint contains, on average, 0.66 g of marijuana, although the definition of a joint is highly variable. With any MM formulation, patients should start at a low dose and gradually titrate to effect. Additional studies could confirm safety and efficacy and better specify the optimal cannabinoid subtypes, preparations, and dosages that may be most beneficial for vismodegib-induced muscle spasms.”

http://www.jaadcasereports.org/article/S2352-5126(17)30124-8/fulltext

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Maternal and infant outcomes following third trimester exposure to marijuana in opioid dependent pregnant women maintained on buprenorphine.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence Home

“Analyses failed to support any significant relationship between marijuana use in the third trimester and a variety of maternal and infant outcomes.

Preliminary results indicate that marijuana exposure in the third trimester does not complicate the pregnancy or the delivery process.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28917206

http://www.drugandalcoholdependence.com/article/S0376-8716(17)30443-X/fulltext

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Olivia Newton-John champions the use of ‘magical, miracle’ medicinal cannabis

Cannabis is a "magical miracle plant" says singer Olivia Newton-John.

“Let’s get medicinal, says Olivia Newton-John, who has spoken out about the use of medicinal cannabis on a recent visit to Australia. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment and it should be available,” the singer, who announced a second battle with breast cancer in May, told News Corp Australia. The Australian entertainer said the drug – which is legal in her home state of California – had helped her during her second fight against cancer.” https://www.stuff.co.nz/entertainment/celebrities/96702731/olivia-newtonjohn-champions-the-use-of-magical-miracle-medicinal-cannabis

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN TELLS HOW MARIJUANA IS HELPING HER BEAT CANCER”.“I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,” “It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long, and has so many abilities to heal.”“I will do what I can to encourage it,” “It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful.”” http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/olivia-newtonjohn-tells-how-marijuana-is-helping-her-beat-cancer/news-story/12705dfadc0579a1139472271aa03bf8

 “It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle… as star recalls her struggle to tell daughter Chloe about heartbreaking diagnosis. In an emotional interview with Karl Stefanovic on 60 Minutes, Olivia revealed that the controversial plant has helped her immeasurably in her cancer battle. ”It’s been a maligned plant all these years and it really is a magical miracle plant.”” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4869940/Olivia-Newton-John-benefits-medical-marijuana.html

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN TELLS ALL ON HER CANCER BATTLE & WHY WEED IS HER ‘HEALING PLANT'” http://okmagazine.com/photos/olivia-newton-john-cancer-weed-today-show/

“Olivia Newton-John on Being a Cancer ‘Thriver’ and Using Weed to Cope with Her Relapse: It’s a ‘Healing Plant’” http://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-relapse-weed/

Olivia Newton-John credits weed for helping cancer battle http://pagesix.com/2017/09/21/olivia-newton-john-credits-weed-for-helping-cancer-battle/

“Olivia Newton-John’s cancer battle is going well… Thanks to cannabis oil!” http://lifestyle.one/closer/celebrity/news/olivia-newton-john-daughter-chloe-lattanzi-cannabis-oil-cancer/

“Olivia Newton-John is Using Cannabis Oil for her Breast Cancer—Here’s How It Could Help” http://www.health.com/breast-cancer/cannabis-cancer-treatment-olivia-newton-john

“Cannabis Oil Will Help Olivia Newton-John Battle Breast Cancer”  https://thefreshtoast.com/celebrity/olivia-newton-john-will-use-cannabis-oil-in-battling-second-breast-cancer-diagnosis/

“Olivia Newton-John Is Using Cannabis Oil To Treat Her Cancer”  https://www.inverse.com/article/32780-cannabis-oil-cancer-treatment-cannabinoid-chemotherapy

“OLIVIA NEWTON-JOHN USES MEDICINAL CANNABIS IN CANCER FIGHT”  http://www.wsfm.com.au/entertainment/the-feed/olivia-newton-john-uses-medicinal-cannabis-in-cancer-fight

Olivia Newton-John is using medical marijuana during her battle with breast cancer” http://www.kansascity.com/entertainment/article171116417.html
“Olivia Newton-John reveals marijuana helping her beat cancer” http://www.9news.com.au/national/2017/09/03/08/58/olivia-newton-john-backs-medicinal-cannabis

“‘I use cannabis’: Olivia Newton-John talks cancer treatment”  https://startsat60.com/health/big-issues/cancer/i-use-cannabis-olivia-newton-john-opens-up-on-cancer-treatment

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 “”I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing. It’s a plant that has been maligned for so long and has so many abilities to heal,” Newton-John told the Daily Telegraph in a recent interview. Newton-John does not have a problem with her supplies of cannabis oil as her daughter, Chloe Lattanzi, owns a cannabis farm in Oregon, and can be easily obtained in her home state of California, where the use of medical marijuana is legal. However, as many parts of the world are still pessimistic about the medical use of marijuana, Newton-John has declared that she will advocate for its use, including in her home country Australia, where obtaining permits to use it still requires a long process even after it was legalized earlier this year. “I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available. I use it for the pain and it’s also a medicinal thing to do — the research shows it’s really helpful,” Newton John said.” http://www.christianpost.com/news/olivia-newton-john-news-70s-icon-reveals-advocates-use-of-cannabis-oil-to-deal-with-cancer-pain-197915/
 “Olivia Newton-John champions use of medicinal cannabis in breast cancer battle” http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/olivia-newton-john-champions-use-medicinal-cannabis-breast-cancer-battle-1637729
“Newton-John champions medicinal cannabis use after it helped her cancer battle” https://thewest.com.au/news/health/newton-john-champions-medicinal-cannabis-use-after-it-helped-her-cancer-battle-ng-b88588000z
‘It’s really important and should be available’: Olivia Newton-John speaks for the first time about how ‘medical cannabis’ is helping her beat breast cancer” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4846664/Olivia-Newton-John-talks-cannabis-use-time.html
“Grammy-winning singer/songwriter and actor Olivia Newton-John has opened up about her use of marijuana. “I use medicinal cannabis, which is really important for pain and healing,”“I will do what I can to encourage it. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.”” https://www.civilized.life/articles/medicinal-cannabis-olivia-newton-john/
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“Olivia Newton-John Admits to Using Home-Grown Medical Marijuana to Battle Cancer” http://popculture.com/2017/09/11/olivia-newton-john-medical-marijuana-breast-cancer/

 “Grassed Lightning: Olivia Newton-John is using cannabis instead of popping pills for breast cancer pain relief” http://www.mirror.co.uk/3am/celebrity-news/grassed-lightning-olivia-newton-john-11158137

“WEED ALL ABOUT IT.  Olivia Newton-John reveals she is drinking cannabis extract to ease her back pain as she battles cancer”  https://www.thesun.co.uk/fabulous/4454398/olivia-newton-john-reveals-she-is-drinking-cannabis-extract-to-ease-her-back-pain-as-she-battles-cancer/

“Olivia Newton-John Reveals She Was Unable to Walk After Cancer Relapse – and She’s Using Marijuana to Ease Pain” http://people.com/music/olivia-newton-john-cancer-update-couldnt-walk-australian-60-minutes/

“Olivia Newton-John uses medical marijuana to treat cancer”  https://www.buzz.ie/celebs/olivia-newton-john-drinks-cannabis-extract-numb-pain-cancer-253796

“Olivia Newton-John Talks Using Medical Marijuana In Cancer Treatment. “I use medical cannabis, which is really important to pain and healing. It’s an important part of treatment, and it should be available.”” https://www.thefix.com/olivia-newton-john-talks-using-medical-marijuana-cancer-treatment

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“I’m really hoping that you will have it accessible to people. Particularly for people who are in pain. It’s not just cancer, it’s many, many illnesses. In children with epilepsy, parents are going to jail for trying to help their children, by giving them medicinal cannabis. That has to change, and I think it will. I think people are realizing this has been a maligned plant but it’s a healing plant with lots of wonderful properties. It can help alot of people. And they’re doing alot of research into the healing properties of cannabis, it’s not just for pain but to cure things. So it’s a very exciting time in the research as well.” –Olivia Newton-John http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/tvshowbiz/video-1537789/Olivia-Newton-John-wants-medical-cannabis-legal-Australia.html

 “A picture of health! Olivia Newton-John beams at the ONJ Wellness Walk and Research Run in Melbourne as she battles cancer for the second time” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4892342/Olivia-Newton-John-cancer-fun-run.html

 “‘It’s a magical miracle plant:’ Olivia Newton-John reveals husband John Easterling grows marijuana to aid her breast cancer battle” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/tvshowbiz/article-4869940/Olivia-Newton-John-benefits-medical-marijuana.html
 “Actress and singer Olivia Newton-John believes in the ‘healing properties’ of medical cannabis and hopes it will become legal, including for children.” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/video/tvshowbiz/video-1537789/Olivia-Newton-John-wants-medical-cannabis-legal-Australia.html
Bright: Dressed in a lime-coloured ONJ Cancer wellness and Research Centre track suit top over a matching T-shirt in a lighter shade of green, she seemed fit and happy
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What’s the harm? Alcohol and marijuana use and perceived risks of unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults.

Addictive Behaviors

“The link between substance use and risky sexual behavior, particularly unprotected sex, among adolescents and young adults has been well established in the literature; however, less is known regarding how different patterns and types of substance use differentially relate to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex.

The current study examined perceived risks and unprotected sex among adolescents and young adults, and examined whether marijuana use, alcohol use, and dual marijuana and alcohol use were differentially linked to unprotected sex and perceived risks of unprotected sex.

In a hierarchical logistic regression, only alcohol use was related to having unprotected sex at last intercourse (b=0.25, p<0.001). The second multinomial logistic regression showed that the interaction of alcohol and marijuana use was significantly related to lower levels of perceived risk of unprotected sex (moderate risk: b=0.06, p=0.04, OR=1.07; no/slight risk: b=0.07, p=0.03).

While dual marijuana and alcohol use was related to lower perceived risk of unprotected sex, only alcohol use only was associated with a higher likelihood of unprotected sex.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28886577

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460317303325?via%3Dihub

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Medical Marijuana Helps Kids With Cerebral Palsy, Israeli Study Finds

Medical marijuana plants (illustrative)

“Medical marijuana significantly improved the condition of children suffering from cerebral palsy, a study by Wolfson Medical Center near Tel Aviv has found. According to the interim findings, treatment with cannabis oil reduced the disorder’s symptoms and improved the children’s motor skills. It also improved the kids’ sleep quality, bowel movements and general mood.

“The THC’s effect is especially relevant to motor function, whether it’s Parkinson’s disease or other motor symptoms,” says Bar-Lev Schleider. “But the THC is also responsible for the psycho-active effect, so we picked a variety that also has a lot of CBD, which moderates the euphoric effect.”
One group of children was treated with oil with a 1:6 ratio of THC to CBD, while for another group the ratio was 1:20.
“According to the interim findings both oils are effective,” says Bar-Lev Schleider.”
http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.811010

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Clinical and Pre-Clinical Evidence for Functional Interactions of Cannabidiol and Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol.

Image result for neuropsychopharmacology

“The plant Cannabis sativa, commonly called cannabis or marijuana, has been used for its psychotropic and mind-altering side effects for millennia. There has been growing attention in recent years on its potential therapeutic efficacy as municipalities and legislative bodies in the United States, Canada, and other countries grapple with enacting policy to facilitate the use of cannabis or its constituents for medical purposes. There are over 550 chemical compounds and over 100 phytocannabinoids isolated from cannabis, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). THC is thought to produce the main psychoactive effects of cannabis, while CBD does not appear to have similar effects. Studies conflict as to whether CBD attenuates or exacerbates the behavioral and cognitive effects of THC. This includes effects of CBD on THC induced anxiety, psychosis and cognitive deficits. In this article, we review the available evidence on the pharmacology and behavioral interactions of THC and CBD from pre-clinical and human studies particularly with reference to anxiety and psychosis like symptoms. Both THC and CBD, as well as other cannabinoid molecules, are currently being evaluated for medicinal purposes, separately and in combination. Future cannabis-related policy decisions should include consideration of scientific findings including the individual and interactive effects of CBD and THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28875990

https://www.nature.com/npp/journal/vaop/naam/abs/npp2017209a.html

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Even High Doses of Oral Cannabidol Do Not Cause THC-Like Effects in Humans

Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid of the cannabis plant devoid of intoxicating effects. It may be of therapeutic value in a large number of diseases, including epilepsy, anxiety disorders, depression, schizophrenic psychosis, inflammatory diseases, dystonia, nausea, and vomiting without causing relevant or severe side effects.

No biosynthetic enzyme or pathway exists in the human body to convert CBD to THC.

This short communication examines the question whether the experimental data presented in a study by Merrick et al. are of clinical relevance. These authors found that cannabidiol (CBD), a major cannabinoid of the cannabis plant devoid of psychotropic effects and of great interest for therapeutic use in several medical conditions, may be converted in gastric fluid into the psychoactive cannabinoids delta-8-THC and delta-9-THC to a relevant degree. They concluded that “the acidic environment during normal gastrointestinal transit can expose orally CBD-treated patients to levels of THC and other psychoactive cannabinoids that may exceed the threshold for a positive physiological response.” They issued a warning concerning oral use of CBD and recommend the development of other delivery methods.

However, the available clinical data do not support this conclusion and recommendation, since even high doses of oral CBD do not cause psychological, psychomotor, cognitive, or physical effects that are characteristic for THC or cannabis rich in THC. On the contrary, in the past decades and by several groups, high doses of oral CBD were consistently shown to cause opposite effects to those of THC in clinical studies. In addition, administration of CBD did not result in detectable THC blood concentrations.

Thus, there is no reason to avoid oral use of CBD, which has been demonstrated to be a safe means of administration of CBD, even at very high doses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28861499

http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/full/10.1089/can.2016.0036

“A Conversion of Oral Cannabidiol to Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Seems Not to Occur in Humans.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28861507

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Confirmed marijuana use and lymphocyte count in black people living with HIV

Drug and Alcohol Dependence Home

“Marijuana is a commonly used recreational substance with purported analgesic and mood enhancing properties. Many people living with HIV identify marijuana as a palliative substance.

However, through its main psychoactive component, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is known to influence the immune system. The effects of marijuana use in people with HIV are still controversial, with very scant literature in Black adults.

The current study determined the differences in the lymphocyte count, specifically the number cluster differentiation 4 and 8 (CD4+ and CD8+), among patients who urine drug tested negative for THC (n = 70) and those who tested positive for THC (n = 25).”  HTTP://WWW.SCIENCEDIRECT.COM/SCIENCE/ARTICLE/PII/S037687161730412X

“After adjusting for demographic and HIV-related covariates, THC-positive patients had significantly higher CD4+ and CD8+ counts than their THC-negative counterparts.”  http://www.drugandalcoholdependence.com/article/S0376-8716(17)30412-X/fulltext

“These results extend previous HIV-related immunity findings in an underrepresented group, and suggest that THC use does not reduce immune function as measured by CD count. Further research is warranted on the overall effects of THC on immune function in HIV positive patients.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28850903

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CB1 and CB2 Receptor Pharmacology.

Advances in Pharmacology

“The CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1R, CB2R) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that were identified over 20 years ago. CB1Rs and CB2Rs mediate the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), the principal psychoactive constituent of marijuana, and subsequently identified endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol. CB1Rs and CB2Rs have both similarities and differences in their pharmacology. Both receptors recognize multiple classes of agonist and antagonist compounds and produce an array of distinct downstream effects. Natural polymorphisms and alternative splice variants may also contribute to their pharmacological diversity. As our knowledge of the distinct differences grows, we may be able to target select receptor conformations and their corresponding pharmacological responses. This chapter will discuss their pharmacological characterization, distribution, phylogeny, and signaling pathways. In addition, the effects of extended agonist exposure and how that affects signaling and expression patterns of the receptors are considered.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28826534

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1054358917300340?via%3Dihub

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