Cannabis and multiple sclerosis.

BMJ Journals

“Patients with multiple sclerosis have long turned to complementary therapies to manage symptoms that licensed products can only partially control. Around half of patients with multiple sclerosis admit to previous or current cannabis use for medicinal purposes and would endorse legalisation. Despite many governments worldwide relaxing regulations around medicinal cannabis, there remain many unanswered questions as to how clinicians should prescribe or recommend products, and access to pharmaceutical-grade products remains highly restricted. Here we address what adult neurologists need to know about cannabis and its use in multiple sclerosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31201234

https://pn.bmj.com/content/early/2019/06/14/practneurol-2018-002137

“There are many anectodal reports of multiple sclerosis (MS) sufferers using the drug and reporting beneficial effects on spasticity, pain, tremor and mood.”  https://pn.bmj.com/content/2/3/154?int_source=trendmd&int_campaign=usage-042019&int_medium=cpc

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The Endocannabinoid System and its Modulation by Cannabidiol (CBD).

Image result for Altern Ther Health Med. “The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an extensive endogenous signaling system with multiple elements, the number of which may be increasing as scientists continue to elucidate its role in human health and disease. The ECS is seemingly ubiquitous in animal species and is modulated by diet, sleep, exercise, stress, and a multitude of other factors, including exposure to phytocannabinoids, like Cannabidiol (CBD). Modulating the activity of this system may offer tremendous therapeutic promise for a diverse scope of diseases, ranging from mental health disorders, neurological and movement disorders, pain, autoimmune disease, spinal cord injury, cancer, cardiometabolic disease, stroke, TBI, osteoporosis, and others.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31202198

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Should donors who have used marijuana be considered candidates for living kidney donation?

Clinical Kidney Journal “The use of marijuana in the USA has been steadily increasing over the last 10 years. This study is the first to investigate the effect of marijuana use by live kidney donors upon outcomes in both donors and recipients.

There was no difference in donor or recipient perioperative characteristics or postoperative outcomes based upon donor marijuana use (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). There was no difference in renal function between NMUD and MUD groups and no long-term difference in kidney allograft function between NMKR and MKR groups.

 

CONCLUSIONS:

Considering individuals with a history of marijuana use for living kidney donation could increase the donor pool and yield acceptable outcomes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31198546

“There is no difference in renal function between MUD and NMUD groups following kidney donation. In addition, there is no difference between MKR and NMKR groups following transplant. If current trends persist into the future, then there will be a further increase in both recreational and medicinal marijuana use. For this reason, the growing population of marijuana users will become an even more significant segment of the potential living kidney donor pool. Subsequently, consideration of marijuana using kidney donors could increase the donor pool.”

https://academic.oup.com/ckj/article/12/3/437/5145154

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Cannabis treatment in hospitalized patients using the SYQE inhaler: Results of a pilot open-label study.

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“The objectives were to evaluate the, usability, feasibility of use, satisfaction, and safety of the Syqe Inhaler Exo (Syqe Inhaler), a metered dose, Pharmacokinetics-validated, cannabis inhaler device in a cohort of hospitalized patients that were using medical cannabis under license as a part of their ongoing medical treatment.

Before and after inhaling from the Syqe Inhaler, participants were asked to fill a questionnaire regarding pain reduction on a visual analog scale from 0 to 10 and, if relevant, reduction in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and/or spasticity. A patient satisfaction questionnaire and a usability questionnaire were filled in following the last use. Prescribed treatment included 4 daily doses of 500 μg tetrahydrocannabinol each delivered from 16 mg cannabis flos per inhalation plus up to an additional four SOS (distress code for more doses of cannabis) doses.

Result: Daily cannabis dose consumed during hospitalization with the Syqe Inhaler was 51 mg (20-96) versus 1,000 mg (660-3,300) consumed prehospitalization. Patients were easily trained and continued to use Syqe Inhaler for the duration of their hospitalization (5 [3-7] days).

Pain intensity 30-60 minutes following inhalations was reported to be significantly lower than preinhalation 4 [1-5] versus 7 [2-9]). Participants ranked their satisfaction with Syqe Inhaler as 6 (5-7). Three participants reported mild cough, which resolved spontaneously.

Significance of results: Cannabis inhalation by combustion is not feasible for hospitalized patients. The use of Syqe Inhaler during hospitalization yielded high levels of patients and staff satisfaction with no complications.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31196236

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/palliative-and-supportive-care/article/cannabis-treatment-in-hospitalized-patients-using-the-syqe-inhaler-results-of-a-pilot-openlabel-study/0C1940413E704A7EADCB949F5F49603A

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Cannabidiol Overcomes Oxaliplatin Resistance by Enhancing NOS3- and SOD2-Induced Autophagy in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

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“Although oxaliplatin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, patients often develop resistance to it. Therefore, a new strategy for CRC treatment is needed.

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cannabidiol(CBD), one of the components of the cannabis plant, in overcoming oxaliplatin resistance in CRC cells.

Taken together, these results suggest that elevated phosphorylation of NOS3 is essential for oxaliplatin resistance. The combination of oxaliplatin and CBD decreased NOS3 phosphorylation, which resulted in autophagy, by inducing the overproduction of ROS through mitochondrial dysfunction, thus overcoming oxaliplatin resistance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31195721

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/11/6/781

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Effectiveness and tolerability of THC:CBD oromucosal spray as add-on measure in patients with severe chronic pain: analysis of 12-week open-label real-world data provided by the German Pain e-Registry.

Image result for J Pain Res.

“Objective: To evaluate effectiveness, tolerability and safety of an oromucosal spray containing Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), as add-on treatment in patients with severe chronic pain (SCP).

Conclusion: THC:CBD oromucosal spray proved to be an effective and well-tolerated add-on treatment for patients with elsewhere refractory chronic pain – especially of neuropathic origin.”

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Dramatic response to Laetrile and cannabidiol (CBD) oil in a patient with metastatic low grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

Gynecologic Oncology Reports

“Complimentary alternative medicine use is common in women with gynecologic cancers. Cannabinoid receptors are potential therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. Communication with patients is critical regarding use of alternative therapies.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31193514

In this case report, we present the case of a female patient who demonstrated disease response after declining standard therapy and taking a combination of Laetrile and CBD oil. Previous clinical trials in humans have demonstrated no therapeutic effect in cancer patients taking Laetrile. However, basic science studies have identified cannabinoid receptors in ovarian cancer as potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid use in treating malignancy.

In this case report, we highlight a dramatic response to combination Laetrile and CBD oil in a patient with widely metastatic Low grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC).

Laetrile is a semi-synthetic version of amygdaline, a chemical compound found in plants and fruit seeds. Both Laetrile and amygdaline contain cyanide within a common structural component. Theoretically, Laetrile has anti-cancer effects when cyanide is released via enzymatic degradation. However, a Cochrane review published in 2015 found no randomized or quasi randomized control trials supporting the use of Laetrile in cancer patients. Further, they argued that due to the risk of cyanide poisoning, Laetrile use should be discouraged in patients seeking the compound for alternative cancer therapy. Concerns for toxicity in combination with inability to demonstrate clinical efficacy led to an effective ban on the substance by the FDA in the 1980s. Nevertheless, the substance remains available for purchase in variable formulations commercially.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a compound naturally derived from the cannabis plant.

The anti-cancer effects of CBD have been evaluated predominantly in the laboratory setting. Interestingly, ovarian cancer cell lines express GPR55, a target that is inhibited indirectly by CBD and that plays a role in prostate and ovarian cancer cell proliferation. Mouse model studies have also demonstrated cannabinoids inhibit tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis in gliomas, lymphomas, prostate, breast, lung, skin, and pancreatic cancer cells.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352578919300517?via%3Dihub

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[Cannabis for medical purposes and its prescription].

“Since 10 March 2017, physicians have been allowed to prescribe cannabis to patients with serious illnesses and in the absence of alternative therapies. Patients can obtain it as dried flowers or extracts in standardised pharmaceutical quality by prescription (narcotic prescription, except for cannabidiol) in pharmacies. When prescribing, physicians have to take a few things into account. The first step is to decide which therapeutic effects are to be achieved and which is the most suitable cannabis product. Cannabis for medical use must meet the requirements for pharmaceutical quality. An identity check must be carried out in the pharmacy on the basis of the monographs of the German Pharmacopoeia (DAB) or the German Pharmaceutical Codex/New Prescription Form (DAC/NRF). For the production of prescription drugs, e.g. capsules, drops or inhalates, there are also corresponding monographs for the preparation of prescription drugs. These standardised, quality-assured prescription formulas should be given preference in the case of a medical prescription. When prescribing an oral or inhalative form of application, it should be noted that the onset and duration of action are very different. Also, due to the complex pharmacology of cannabinoids, interindividual genetic differences in the metabolisation of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the individual structure and function of the cannabinoid receptors, as well as differences in receptor density and distribution, the dosage and frequency of application must be individually determined. Last but not least, the dosage also depends on the type of disease and individual susceptibility to side effects. When prescribed for the first time, a creeping dosage with a very low initial dose is recommended.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31187182

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00103-019-02970-6

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Investigating the Therapeutic Mechanism of Cannabidiol in a Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Call (iPSC)-Based Cellular Model of Dravet Syndrome.

Current Issue

“Dravet syndrome is an infantile epileptic encephalopathy primarily caused by loss-of-function variants of the gene SCN1A Standard treatment regimens have very limited efficacy to combat the life-threatening seizures in Dravet syndrome or the behavioral-cognitive comorbidities of the disease. Recently there has been encouraging progress in developing new treatments for this disorder.

One of the clinical advances is cannabidiol (CBD), a compound naturally found in cannabis and shown to further reduce convulsive seizures in patients when used together with existing drug regimens. Like many other natural products, the exact therapeutic mechanism of CBD remains undefined.

Previously we have established a human cellular model of Dravet syndrome by differentiating patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into telencephalic inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Here we have applied this model to investigate the antiepileptic mechanism(s) of CBD at the cellular level.

We first determined the effect of escalating the concentrations of CBD on neuronal excitability, using primary culture of rat cortical neurons. We found modulatory effects on excitability at submicromolar concentrations and toxic effects at high concentrations (15 µM). We then tested CBD at 50 nM, a concentration that corresponds to the estimated human clinical exposure, in telencephalic neurons derived from a patient iPSC line and control cell line H9. This 50 nM of CBD increased the excitability of inhibitory neurons but decreased the excitability of excitatory neurons, without changing the amplitude of sodium currents in either cell type.

Our findings suggest a cell type-dependent mechanism for the therapeutic action of CBD in Dravet syndrome that is independent of sodium channel activity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31186344

http://symposium.cshlp.org/content/early/2019/06/11/sqb.2018.83.038174

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Availability of legalized cannabis reduces demand for illegal cannabis among Canadian cannabis users: evidence from a behavioural economic substitution paradigm.

“In the context of cannabis legalization, an important question among clinicians, policymakers, and the public is whether availability of legal cannabis will significantly reduce consumption (demand) of illegal cannabis.

Using paradigms from behavioural economics, we tested the prediction that legal cannabis would be an asymmetrical substitute for illegal cannabis, with legal cannabis operating as a superior commodity based on its regulated status. In a sample of 289 adult cannabis users in Ontario, we found evidence of substitutability for both legal and illegal cannabis, but significantly lower substitutability of illegal for legal cannabis, a pattern that was also present for price elasticity (α) and Pmax.

Thus, the data indicated asymmetric substitution such that the availability of legal cannabis substantially decreased demand for illegal cannabis, but a significantly smaller effect in reverse.

These results suggest that the introduction of legal cannabis into the market may disrupt and reduce illegal purchases, contributing to the reduction of the potential harms associated with the illegal market.

However, in revealing price windows in which legal cannabis is preferred over the contraband alternative, these data also have significant implications for pricing policies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30523535

https://link.springer.com/article/10.17269%2Fs41997-018-0160-4

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