“Cannabis is a plant notorious for its psychoactive effect, but when used correctly, it provides a plethora of medicinal benefits. With more than 400 active compounds that have therapeutic properties, cannabis has been accepted widely as a medical treatment and for recreational purposes in several countries.
The compounds exhibit various clinical benefits, which include, but are not limited to, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties.
Among the vast range of compounds, multiple research papers have shown that cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, have antiviral effects. Recently, scientists found that both compounds can reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral infection by downregulating ACE2 transcript levels and by exerting anti-inflammatory properties. These compounds also act as the SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitors that block viral replication.
Apart from cannabinoids, terpenes in cannabis plants have also been widely explored for their antiviral properties. With particular emphasis on four different viruses, SARS-CoV-2, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus, and herpes simplex virus-1, this review discussed the role of cannabis compounds in combating viral infections and the potential of both cannabinoids and terpenes as novel antiviral therapeutics.”