“The aim of this work was to enhance the acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibitory activity of a pepsin-produced hemp seed protein hydrolysates (HPH) through reverse-phase HPLC separation followed by identification of peptide sequences present in the most active fraction. The HPH was separated into eight fractions (F1-F8) with F7 exhibiting significantly (p < 0.05) the strongest (97.5%) in vitro inhibition of electric eel AChE (eeAChE) activity in comparison to 53.8% for HPH. The HPH consisted mostly of low molecular weight peptides of < 11 amino acid residues and most contained at least one hydrophobic amino acid. Kinetics of enzyme inhibition revealed a mixed-type inhibition of eeAChE activity by HPH whereas F7 acted through an uncompetitive mode; in contrast inhibition of human AChE by HPH and F7 was uncompetitive. The stronger inhibitory potency of the F7 peptides fraction against both enzymes was confirmed through reduced maximal velocity, catalytic efficiency, and inhibition constant values when compared to the HPH.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The use of natural products for the prevention or treatment of human diseases continues to be an area of intense research activities. Food protein-derived peptides obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed proteins were shown in vitro to be strong inhibitors of activities of both the eel and human forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE is an important therapeutic target because excessive activity of this enzyme is a causative factor of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer’s. This work showed that peptides in the most active fraction are small in sizes, which may favor their absorption into blood circulation and possible permeation of the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the hemp seed peptides are potential agents that can be used to formulate functional foods and nutraceuticals against neurodegenerative diseases.”
“Stimulation of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) increases renal sympathetic activity (RSNA) and blood pressure (BP) in rats. Thus, we hypothesized that CB1 receptor in the RVLM may play a critical role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension.
To this end, we evaluated the levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptors in the RVLM in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertensive rats. We then used pharmacological and molecular methods to examine the role of RVLM CB1 receptors in regulation of BP, heart rate (HR), and RSNA in obesity-induced hypertensive rats.
We found that HFD-fed rats exhibited higher basal BP, HR, and RSNA than standard diet-fed rats, which were associated with increased levels of endocannabinoids and CB1 receptor expression in the RVLM. Furthermore, unilateral intra-RVLM microinjections of AM251 (0, 100, or 500 nM/0.5 μl/site) dose-dependently decreased BP, HR, and RSNA to a greater extent in HFD-fed rats than in standard diet-fed rats. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CB1 receptor expression in the RVLM robustly decreased BP, HR, and RSNA in HFD-fed rats.
Taken together, our results suggested that enhanced CB1 receptor-mediated neurotransmissions in the RVLM may play a role in the development of obesity-induced hypertension.”
“Cardiovascular disease is now recognized as the number one cause of death in the world, and the size of the population at risk continues to increase rapidly. The dysregulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system plays a central role in a wide variety of conditions including cardiovascular disorders. Cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, as well as enzymes conferring their synthesis and degradation, exhibit overlapping distributions in the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, the pharmacological manipulation of the eCB system has effects on blood pressure, cardiac contractility, and endothelial vasomotor control. Growing evidence from animal studies supports the significance of the eCB system in cardiovascular disorders.
Drugs targeting CB1R, CB2R, TRPV1 and PPARs are proven effective in animal models mimicking cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Despite the setback of two clinical trials that exhibited unexpected harmful side-effects, preclinical studies are accelerating the development of more selective drugs with promising results devoid of adverse effects.
Over the last years, increasing evidence from basic and clinical research supports the role of the eCB system in cardiovascular function. Whereas new discoveries are paving the way for the identification of novel drugs and therapeutic targets, the close cooperation of researchers, clinicians and pharmaceutical companies is needed to achieve successful outcomes.”
“Some cannabinoids, a family of compounds derived from Cannabis sativa (marijuana), have previously shown vasodilator effects in several studies, a feature that makes them suitable for the generation of a potential treatment for hypertension.
The mechanism underlying this vasodilator effect in arteries is still controversial. In this report, we explored how the synthetic cannabinoids ACPA (CB1-selective agonist) and JWH-133 (CB2-selective agonist) regulate the vascular tone of rat superior mesenteric arteries.
CB1 and CB2 receptor activation in superior mesenteric artery causes vasorelaxation by mechanisms involving BKCachannels and NO release.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid used in multiple sclerosis and intractable epilepsies. Preclinical studies show CBD has numerous cardiovascular benefits, including a reduced blood pressure (BP) response to stress. The aim of this study was to investigate if CBD reduces BP in humans.
This data shows that acute administration of CBD reduces resting BP and the BP increase to stress in humans, associated with increased HR. These hemodynamic changes should be considered for people taking CBD. Further research is required to establish whether CBD has a role in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.”
“Our data show that a single dose of CBD reduces resting blood pressure and the blood pressure response to stress. This may reflect the anxiolytic and analgesic effects of CBD, as well as any potential direct cardiovascular effects. CBD has multiple desirable effects on the cardiovascular system” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5470879/
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is the second most abundant phytocannabinoid, after Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and was first isolated from the cannabis extract in 1940.
Given the increasing clinical use of CBD, and the numerous effects of CBD in the cardiovascular system, the aim of the present study was to systematically review and analyse in vivo studies evaluating the effects of CBD on alterations in haemodynamics.
From the limited data available, we conclude that acute and chronic administration of CBD had no effect on BP or HR under control conditions, but reduces BP and HR in stressful conditions, and increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) in mouse models of stroke.
This meta-analysis and systematic review has highlighted the haemodynamic effects of CBD administration in vivo.
The positive effects induced by CBD include maintaining the fall in BP after global hypoxia, reducing the increase in MBP and HR post-stress, and increasing BF in ischaemia-reperfusion models.
It is possible that beneficial effects of CBD on haemodynamics occurs when the cardiovascular system is abnormally altered, suggesting that CBD may be used as a treatment for various cardiovascular disorders, such as hypertension, myocardial infarction and stroke.”