Dosage, Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol Administration in Adults: A Systematic Review of Human Trials.

“Considering data from in vitro and in vivo studies, cannabidiol (CBD) seems to be a promising candidate for the treatment of both somatic and psychiatric disorders.

The aim of this review was to collect dose(s), dosage schemes, efficacy and safety reports of CBD use in adults from clinical studies.

From the controlled trials, we identified anxiolytic effects with acute CBD administration, and therapeutic effects for social anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder and substance use disorders.

There was evidence to support single dose positive effect on social anxiety disorder, short medium-term effects on symptomatic improvement in schizophrenia and lack of effect in the short medium-term on cognitive functioning in psychotic disorders.

Overall, the administration was well tolerated with mild side effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32231748

https://www.jocmr.org/index.php/JOCMR/article/view/4090

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Adolescent treatment admissions for marijuana following recreational legalization in Colorado and Washington.

Drug and Alcohol Dependence“There is concern that recreational marijuana legalization (RML) may lead to increased cannabis use disorder (CUD) among youth due to increased marijuana use.

This study investigates whether adolescent substance use disorder treatment admissions for marijuana use increased in Colorado and Washington following RML.

RESULTS:

Over all states in the analysis, the rate of adolescent treatment admissions for marijuana use declined significantly over the study period (β=-3.375, 95 % CI=-4.842, -1.907), with the mean rate falling nearly in half. The decline in admissions rate was greater in Colorado and Washington compared to non-RML states following RML, though this difference was not significant (β=-7.671, 95 % CI=-38.798, 23.456).

CONCLUSION:

Adolescent treatment admissions for marijuana use did not increase in Colorado and Washington following RML. This may be because youth marijuana use did not increase, CUD did not increase (even if use did increase), or treatment seeking behaviors changed due to shifts in attitudes and perceptions of risk towards marijuana use.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32222560

“Youth treatment admissions in Colorado and Washington did not increase after RML. Admissions for 2008–2017 declined in both Colorado/Washington and non-RML states.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871620301253?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids Rescue Cocaine-Induced Seizures by Restoring Brain Glycine Receptor Dysfunction.

Cover image volume 30, Issue 12“Cannabinoids are reported to rescue cocaine-induced seizures (CISs), a severe complication in cocaine users. However, the molecular targets for cannabinoid therapy of CISs remain unclear.

Here, we report that the systemic administration of cannabinoids alleviates CISs in a CB1/CB2-receptor-independent manner.

These findings suggest that using GlyR-hypersensitive cannabinoids may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for treating CISs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32209479

“Cannabinoids alleviate cocaine-induced seizures (CISs) by glycine receptors (GlyRs).”

https://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(20)30287-4?_returnURL=https%3A%2F%2Flinkinghub.elsevier.com%2Fretrieve%2Fpii%2FS2211124720302874%3Fshowall%3Dtrue

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Matched pilot study examining cannabis-based dronabinol for acute pain following traumatic injury.

BMJ Journals“To determine whether adjunctive dronabinol, a licensed form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, reduces opioid consumption when used off-label for managing acute pain following traumatic injury.

CONCLUSIONS:

The results of this study suggest adjunctive dronabinol reduces opioid consumption following traumatic injury.

The opioid-sparing effect of dronabinol may be greater in patients who are marijuana users.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32154376

https://tsaco.bmj.com/content/5/1/e000391

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The role of the cannabinoid system in opioid analgesia and tolerance.

“Opioid receptor agonist drugs, such as morphine, are very effective for treating chronic and severe pain; but, tolerance can develop with long-term use. Although there is a lot of information about the pathophysiological mechanisms of opioid tolerance, it is still not fully clarified. Suggested mechanisms for opioid tolerance include opioid receptor desensitisation, reduction of sensitivity G-proteins, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), altered intracellular signaling pathway including nitric oxide, and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

One way to reduce opioid tolerance and increase the analgesic potential is to use low doses. Combination of cannabinoids with opioids has been shown to manifest reduce the opioid dose. Experimental studies revealed an interaction of the endocannabinoid system and opioid antinociception.

Cannabinoid and opioid receptor systems use common pathways in the formation of analgesic effect and demonstrate their activity via G protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Cannabinoid drugs modulate opioid analgesic activity at a number of distinct levels within the cell, ranging from direct receptor associations, to post-receptor interactions through shared signal transduction pathways.

This review summarizes the data indicating that with combining cannabinoids and opioids drugs may be able to produce long-term analgesic effects, while preventing the opioid analgesic tolerance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32167427

http://www.eurekaselect.com/180186/article

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Possible therapeutic applications of cannabis in the neuropsychopharmacology field.

European Neuropsychopharmacology“Cannabis use induces a plethora of actions on the CNS via its active chemical ingredients, the so-called phytocannabinoids.

These compounds have been frequently associated with the intoxicating properties of cannabis preparations. However, not all phytocannabinoids are psychotropic, and, irrespective of whether they are psychotropic or not, they have also shown numerous therapeutic properties.

These properties are mostly associated with their ability to modulate the activity of an intercellular communication system, the so-called endocannabinoid system, which is highly active in the CNS and has been found altered in many neurological disorders.

Specifically, this includes the neuropsychopharmacology field, with diseases such as schizophrenia and related psychoses, anxiety-related disorders, mood disorders, addiction, sleep disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, anorexia nervosa and other feeding-related disorders, dementia, epileptic syndromes, as well as autism, fragile X syndrome and other neurodevelopment-related disorders.

Here, we gather, from a pharmacological and biochemical standpoint, the recent advances in the study of the therapeutic relevance of the endocannabinoid system in the CNS, with especial emphasis on the neuropsychopharmacology field. We also illustrate the efforts that are currently being made to investigate at the clinical level the potential therapeutic benefits derived from elevating or inhibiting endocannabinoid signaling in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32057592

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924977X20300365?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol treatment in an adolescent with multiple substance abuse, social anxiety and depression.

 “In this report, we present a case of a 16,9-year-old patient with multiple substance use disorder (cannabis, MDMA, cocaine, ecstacy), severe depression, social phobia and narcissistic personality disorder.We administered Cannabidiol (CBD) capsules in different dosages (starting dosage 100 mg up to 600 mg over 8 weeks) after unsuccessful treatment with antidepressants.

CBD was a safe and well tolerated medication for this patient. Upon treatment with CBD and cessation of the antidepressant medication, the patient improved regarding depressive as well as anxiety symptoms including simple phobias and symptoms of paranoia and dissociation.

Furthermore, the patient quit abusing illegal drugs including THC without showing withdrawal symptoms. This is the first report of CBD medication in a patient with multiple substance use disorder with a positive outcome.Until today it is not clear if CBD holds promise as a therapeutic option in substance use disorder as RCTs are lacking, but in this single case the substance seems to work in various domains.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32052321

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40211-020-00334-0

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Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats.

“Neuropsychiatric disorders, such as addiction, are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning and memory deficits.

Previous research has demonstrated that the chronic use of methamphetamine (METH) induces long-term cognitive impairment and cannabidiol (CBD), as a neuroprotectant, can reverse spatial memory deficits induced by drug abuse.

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of CBD on METH-induced memory impairment in rats chronically exposed to METH (CEM).

For the induction of CEM, animals received METH (2 mg/kg, twice/day) for 10 days. Thereafter, the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CBD (32 and 160 nmol) during the (10 days) abstinence period on spatial memory was evaluated using the Y-Maze test, while recognition memory was examined using the novel object recognition (NOR) test.

The results revealed a significant increase in the motor activity of METH-treated animals compared with the control group and, after the 10-day abstinence period, motor activity returned to baseline. Notably, the chronic administration of METH had impairing effects on spontaneous alternation performance and recognition memory, which was clearly observed in the NOR test.

Additionally, although the ICV administration of CBD (160 nmol) could reverse long-term memory, a lower dose (32 nmol) did not result in any significant increase in exploring the novel object during short-term memory testing.

These novel findings suggest that the chronic administration of METH induces memory impairment and presents interesting implications for the potential use of CBD in treating impairment deficits after chronic exposure to psychostimulant drugs such as METH.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32032100

https://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/publishahead/Neuroprotective_effect_of_chronic_administration.99194.aspx

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Can prescribed medical cannabis use reduce the use of other more harmful drugs?

SAGE Journals“There is growing recognition of the potential utility of medical cannabis as a harm reduction intervention.

Although used for this indication in other countries, there is an absence of UK clinical guidelines that supports such an approach. We administered a short survey to gain a better understanding of the potential role of medical cannabis by 39 people who were currently using illicit cannabis and accessing a specialist substance misuse treatment service.

It was identified that 36 (92.3%) respondents found that cannabis positively impacted upon their physical and/or mental wellbeing and 56.4% reported that they used less of other substances which are known to be more harmful as a result.

Therefore, while we acknowledge the small sample size, given the notable potential positive impact that medical cannabis could have as a harm reduction intervention, we propose that the use should be trialled within a specialist drug treatment setting.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050324519900067 

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Beta‐caryophyllene, a dietary terpenoid, inhibits nicotine‐taking and nicotine‐seeking in rodents

British Journal of Pharmacology banner“Beta-caryophyllene (BCP) is a dietary plant-derived terpenoid that has been used as a food additive for many decades.

Recent studies indicate that BCP is a cannabinoid CB2 receptor (CB2R) agonist with medical benefits for a number of human diseases. However, little is known about its therapeutic potential for drug abuse and addiction.

The present findings suggest that BCP has significant anti-nicotine effects via both CB2 and non-CB2 receptor mechanisms, and therefore, deserves further study as a potential new pharmacotherapy for cigarette smoking cessation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31883107

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14969

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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