“Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids have been shown to provide neuroprotection to retinal neurons in acute animal models of retinopathy.
Chronic exposure to cannabinoid receptor (CB1R) agonists has been reported to induce downregulation of the CB1R in brain and behavioral tolerance.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subchronic/chronic cannabinoid administration on CB1R downregulation in normal rat retina, its downstream prosurvival signaling and subsequent effect on retinal neuroprotection against AMPA excitotoxicity.
This study provides novel information regarding agonist-induced CB1R downregulation in rat retina after subchronic/chronic cannabinoid treatment, and its effect on downstream prosurvival signaling and neuroprotection.”
“The endocannabinoid system is an endogenous pathway comprised of the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2), their endogenous ligands known as endocannabinoids, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. The endocannabinoidome extends this system to include other receptors such as TRPV1, PPARα, GPR55 and 5-HT1A. An extensive amount of research is now linking the endocannabinoidome to intestinal health through fascinating mechanisms that include endocannabinoid receptor expression in the gut and interplay with the intestinal microbiota. A dysregulated endocannabinoid system may lead to inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.”
“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is an extensive endogenous signaling system with multiple elements, the number of which may be increasing as scientists continue to elucidate its role in human health and disease. The ECS is seemingly ubiquitous in animal species and is modulated by diet, sleep, exercise, stress, and a multitude of other factors, including exposure to phytocannabinoids, like Cannabidiol (CBD). Modulating the activity of this system may offer tremendous therapeutic promise for a diverse scope of diseases, ranging from mental health disorders, neurological and movement disorders, pain, autoimmune disease, spinal cord injury, cancer, cardiometabolic disease, stroke, TBI, osteoporosis, and others.”
“Neuropathic pain is caused by a lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system, and it may arise from illness, be drug-induced or caused by toxin exposure. Since the discovery of two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2) nearly three decades ago, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of cannabinoid pharmacology. This is currently one of the most active fields of neuropharmacology, and interest has emerged in developing cannabinoids and other small molecule modulators of CB1 and CB2 as therapeutics for neuropathic pain. This short review article provides an overview of the chemotypes currently under investigation for the development of novel neuropathic pain treatments targeting CB1 receptors.”
“Nabilone (marketed as Cesamet) is a synthetic form of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ⁹-THC), the primary psychoactive component of cannabis (marijuana). Although structurally distinct from THC, nabilone mimics THC’s structure and pharmacological activity through weak partial agonist activity at Cannabinoid-1 (CB1R) and Cannabinoid-2 (CB2R) receptors, however it is considered to be twice as active as Δ⁹-THC. Nabilone is approved by the FDA for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy in patients who have failed to respond adequately to conventional antiemetic treatments.” https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB00486
“Several studies have verified the important role of cannabinoid and cannabinoid receptor agonists in tumor progression. However, little is known about the precise role of CB2 expression level in the progression of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
The expression of CB2 in NSCLC tissues and corresponding paracancerous tissues was examined using immunohistochemical staining assay.
Our data suggested that targeting CB2 may inhibit the growth and survival of NSCLC cells, which the Akt/mTOR/P70S6K pathway may be involved in. These results confer the pro-oncogenic role of CB2 in the progression of NSCLC, thus improving our understanding of CB2 in tumor progression.”
“Cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, as novel targets for inhibition of non-small cell lung cancer growth and metastasis. These results suggest that CB1 and CB2 could be used as novel therapeutic targets against NSCLC.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21097714
“Age-related cognitive decline has been associated with proinflammatory cytokines, yet the precise relationship between cognitive decline and cytokine load remains to be elucidated. β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonist with established anti-inflammatory effects that is known to improve memory and increase lifespan. It is of interest to explore the potential of BCP to reduce age-related cognitive decline and proinflammatory cytokine load. In this study, we assessed changes in circulating cytokines across the lifespan, memory performance in young and aged mice, and the effects of BCP on memory function and cytokine load. The plasma levels of 12 cytokines were assessed in male Swiss-Webster mice at 3, 12, and 18 months of age using multiplexed flow cytometry. Working memory was compared in 3 and 12 month-old mice using spontaneous alternations. A dose-response function (100-300 mg/kg, subchronic administration) for BCP-induced memory restoration was determined in 3 and 12 month-old mice. Finally, the effects on cytokine levels of the peak memory enhancing dose of BCP was assessed in 18 month-old mice. Circulating levels of several cytokines significantly increased with age. Multilinear regression analysis showed that IL-23 levels were most strongly associated with age. Aged mice showed deficits in working memory and higher levels of IL-23, both of which were reversed by BCP treatment. BCP appears to reverse age-associated impairments in memory and modulates cytokine production. IL-23 may play a significant role in the aging process, and future research should determine whether it has utility as a biomarker for novel anti-aging therapeutics.”
“Mammalian ω3- and ω6-PUFAs are synthesized from essential fatty acids (EFAs) or supplied by the diet. PUFAs are constitutive elements of membrane-architecture and precursors of lipid signaling molecules. EFAs and long chain PUFAs are precursors in the synthesis of endocannabinoid-ligands of the Gi/o-protein coupled cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 in the endocannabinoid-system, which critically regulates energy homeostasis, as metabolic signaling system in hypothalamic neuronal circuits, and behavioral parameters. We utilized the auxotrophic fatty acid desaturase 2 deficient (fads2-/-) mouse, deficient in long chain PUFA-synthesis, to follow the age dependent dynamics of the PUFA pattern in the CNS-phospholipidome in unbiased dietary studies of three cohorts on sustained long chain PUFA-free, ω6-arachidonic and ω3-docosahexaenoic acid supplemented diets and their impact on the precursor pool of CB1 ligands. We discovered the transformation of eicosa-all cis-5,11,14-trienoic acid, uncommon in mammalian lipidomes, into two novel endocannabinoids, 20:35,11,14-ethanolamide and 2-20:35,11,14-glycerol, acting as ligands of CB1 in HEK293-cells. Labeling experiments excluded a Δ8-desaturase activity and proved the position-specificity of FADS2. The fads2 -/- mutant might serve as an unbiased model in vivo in the development of novel CB1-agonists and antagonists.”
“The phospholipid l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), an endogenous ligand for GPR55, is elevated in patients with acute coronary syndrome, and a GPR55 antagonist cannabidiol (CBD) reduces experimental ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.”
“Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating, lifelong neuropsychiatric illness characterised by unsteady mood states which vacillate from (hypo)mania to depression. Despite the availability of pharmaceutical agents which can be effective in ameliorating the acute affective symptoms and prevent episodic relapse, BD is inadequately treated in a subset of patients.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert neuromodulatory effects on other neurotransmitter systems critical in governing emotions. Several studies ranging from clinical to molecular, as well as anecdotal evidence, have placed a spotlight on the potential role of the ECS in the pathophysiology of BD. In this perspective, we present advantages and disadvantages of cannabis use in the management of illness course of BD and provide mechanistic insights into how this system might contribute to the pathophysiology of BD.
We highlight the putative role of selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in BD and briefly discuss findings which provide a rationale for targeting the ECS to assuage the symptoms of BD. Further, data encourage basic and clinical studies to determine how cannabis and cannabinoids (CBs) can affect mood and to investigate emerging CB-based options as probable treatment approaches.
The probable role of the ECS has been almost neglected in BD; however, from data available which suggest a role of ECS in mood control, it is justified to support conducting comprehensive studies to determine whether ECS manipulation could positively affect BD. Based on the limited available data, we suggest that activation of CB2 may stabilise mood in this disorder.”