Cannabidiol Modulates Mitochondrial Redox and Dynamics in MCF7 Cancer Cells: A Study Using Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy of NAD(P)H

Archive of "Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences".“The cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), is part of the plant’s natural defense system that when given to animals has many useful medicinal properties, including activity against cancer cells, modulation of the immune system, and efficacy in epilepsy.

Our results support the use of NAD(P)H autofluorescence as an investigative tool and provide further evidence that CBD can modulate mitochondrial function and morphology in a dose-dependent manner, with clear evidence of it inducing oxidative stress at higher concentrations.

This continues to support emerging data in the literature and may provide further insight into its overall mode of action, not only in cancer, but potentially its function in the plant and why it can act as a medicine.”

“Uncontrolled cell growth, or cancer, is frequently associated with increased aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) and alterations in mitochondrial function.

A plant’s ability to develop tumors could explain why so many secondary plant phenolic compounds appear to have anticancer activity in both plant and animal models; over 3,000 species of plants have anticancer activity in animals, with many modulating mitochondrial function and apoptosis

CBD, along with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is a major phytocannabinoid and both are well described components of medicines.

A growing number of studies have demonstrated the anticancer properties of CBD, in both in vitro and in vivo models.”

Cannabis and cannabinoid use in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review

SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) | UOC LibraryAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction, associated with the presence of restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. Cannabis has been used to alleviate symptoms associated with ASD.

Method: We carried out a systematic review of studies that investigated the clinical effects of cannabis and cannabinoid use on ASD, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA checklist). The search was carried out in four databases: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Scopus, and Web of Science. No limits were established for language during the selection process. Nine studies were selected and analyzed.

Results: Some studies showed that cannabis products reduced the number and/or intensity of different symptoms, including hyperactivity, attacks of self-mutilation and anger, sleep problems, anxiety, restlessness, psychomotor agitation, irritability, aggressiveness perseverance, and depression. Moreover, they found an improvement in cognition, sensory sensitivity, attention, social interaction, and language. The most common adverse effects were sleep disorders, restlessness, nervousness and change in appetite.

Conclusion: Cannabis and cannabinoids may have promising effects in the treatment of symptoms related to ASD, and can be used as a therapeutic alternative in the relief of those symptoms. However, randomized, blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are necessary to clarify findings on the effects of cannabis and its cannabinoids in individuals with ASD.”


“Cannabis and cannabinoids have very promising effects in the treatment of autistic symptoms and can be used in the future as an important therapeutic alternative to relieve those symptoms, especially bouts of self-mutilation and anger, hyperactivity, sleep problems, anxiety, restlessness, psychomotor agitation, irritability, and aggressiveness; as well as improve sensory sensitivity, cognition, attention, social interaction, language, perseverance, and depression.”

Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines – A Novel Adjuvant Treatment for Venous Leg Ulcers: An Open-Label Trial

“Venous Leg Ulcers are highly prevalent lower limb integumentary wounds that remain challenging to heal despite the use of evidence-based compression therapies. A multitude of adjuvant treatments have been studied but none have demonstrated enough efficacy to gain adoption into treatment guidelines.

Global attention on cannabis-based therapies is increasing and has been driven by quantum scientific advancements in the understanding of the endocannabinoid signalling system. Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines represent a novel treatment paradigm for venous leg ulcers in terms of promoting wound closure.

Fourteen complex patients with sixteen recalcitrant leg ulcers were treated with Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines in conjunction with compression bandaging, every second day, to both wound bed and peri-wound tissues. The cohort had a mean age of 75.8 years and was medically complex as reflected by a mean M3 multimorbidity index score of 2.94 and a mean Palliative Performance Scale score of 67.1%.

Complete wound closure, defined being fully epithelialized, was achieved among 11 patients (79%) and 13 wounds (81%) within a median of 34 days. All three remaining patients demonstrated progressive healing trends but were lost to follow-up. The treatments were well tolerated, and no significant adverse reactions were experienced.

The rapid wound closure of previously non-healing venous leg ulcers among elderly and highly complex patients suggests that Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines may become effective adjuvants in conjunction with compression therapy. This may also indicate that they may have an even broader role within integumentary and wound management. Therefore, this treatment paradigm warrants being subjected to controlled trials.”

Cannabis Seed Oil Alleviates Experimental Atherosclerosis by Ameliorating Vascular Inflammation in Apolipoprotein-E-Deficient Mice

Go to Volume 0, Issue 0“In recent decades, epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that a diet with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory function plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis (AS).

The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of Cannabis seed oil (CO) administration on in vitro antioxidant capacity as well as blood lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation, inflammatory response, and endothelial cell integrity. Female ApoE-/- mice were fed a high-cholesterol diet and administrated with CO or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and seal oil by gavage for 8 weeks.

The results show that CO administration reduced the levels of serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 6. Additionally, a decrease in serum tumor necrosis factor α and nitric oxide was also observed. Moreover, results from CD31 staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that CO treatment alleviated the endothelial cell damage and lipid deposition induced by a high-cholesterol diet. The ratio of lesion area to the total aorta area was 19.57% for the CO group, which was lower than the PBS control group (24.67%).

Collectively, CO exerted anti-atherosclerotic effects by modulating serum lipid profiles and inflammatory responses and improving endothelial cell integrity and arterial lipid deposition. The results provide a promising preventive strategy for the early progression of AS.”

Therapeutic Prospects of Cannabinoids in the Immunomodulation of Prevalent Autoimmune Diseases

View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover image“Cannabinoids such as ▵-9-THC and CBD can downregulate the immune response by modulating the endocannabinoid system. This modulation is relevant for the treatment of prevalent autoimmune diseases (ADs), such as multiple sclerosis (MS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), diabetes mellitus type 1 (DMT1), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These conditions require new therapeutic options with fewer side effects for the control of the autoimmune response. Objective: to conduct a literature review of preclinical scientific evidence that supports further clinical investigations for the use of cannabinoids (natural or synthetic) as potential immunomodulators of the immune response in ADs. 

Methodology: A systematic search was carried out in different databases using different MeSH terms, such as Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids, immunomodulation, and ADs. Initially, 677 journal articles were found. After filtering by publication date (from 2000 to 2020 for SLE, DMT1, and RA; and 2010 to 2020 for MS) and removing the duplicate items, 200 articles were selected and analyzed by title and summary associated with the use of cannabinoids as immunomodulatory treatment for those diseases. 

Results: Evidence of the immunomodulatory effect of cannabinoids in the diseases previously mentioned, but SLE that did not meet the search criteria, was summarized from 24 journal articles. CBD was found to be one of the main modulators of the immune response. This molecule decreased the number of Th1 and Th17 proinflammatory cells and the production of the proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-12, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, in mouse models of MS and DMT1. Additionally, new synthetic cannabinoid-like molecules, with agonist or antagonist activity on CB1, CB2, TRPV1, PPAR-α, and PPAR-γ receptors, have shown anti-inflammatory properties in MS, DMT1, and RA. 

Conclusion: Data from experimental animal models of AD showed that natural and synthetic cannabinoids downregulate inflammatory responses mediated by immune cells responsible for AD chronicity and progression. Although synthetic cannabinoid-like molecules were evaluated in just two clinical trials, they corroborated the potential use of cannabinoids to treat some ADs. Notwithstanding, new cannabinoid-based approaches are required to provide alternative treatments to patients affected by the large group of ADs.”

CBG, CBD, Δ9-THC, CBN, CBGA, CBDA and Δ9-THCA as antioxidant agents and their intervention abilities in antioxidant action

Fitoterapia“Positive effect of some cannabinoids in the treatment and prophylaxis of a wide variety of oxidation-associated diseases and growing popularity of supplements containing cannabinoids, mainly cannabinoid oils (e.g. CBD oil, CBG oil), in the self-medication of humans cause a growing interest in the antioxidant properties of these compounds, especially those not showing psychotropic effects.

Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiol (CBD), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabinolic acid (CBDA) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA) estimated by spectrophotometric methods: ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, beta-carotene CUPRAC and FRAP.

The presented data prove that all the examined cannabinoids exhibit antioxidant activity manifested in their ability to scavenge free radicals, to prevent the oxidation process and to reduce metal ions. Although the intensity of these activities is not the same for the individual cannabinoids it is comparable for all of them with that of E vitamin.”

“The present paper discusses the antioxidant properties of CBG, CBN, CBDA, CBGA and Δ9-THCA which, beside CBD and Δ9-THC, are also supposed to be bioactive compounds useful in the therapeutic treatment of different diseases. According to the literature, CBD and Δ9-THC exhibit strong antioxidant activity, stronger than vitamins C, A and E.

The presented data prove that all the examined cannabinoids – CBG, CBD, Δ9-THC, CBN, CBGA CBDA and Δ9-THCA – exhibit antioxidant activity manifesting itself in their ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect oxidation process and to reduce metal ions. Although, the intensity of these activities for individual cannabinoids is not the same, it is generally comparable to that of E vitamin.”

Anti-Bacterial Properties of Cannabigerol Toward Streptococcus mutans

Frontiers in Microbiology: Multidrug Resistance in Pasteurellaceae“Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is a gram-positive facultatively anaerobic bacterium and the most common pathogen associated with tooth caries. The organism is acid tolerant and can undergo physiological adaptation to function effectively in acid environments such as carious dental plaque.

Some cannabinoids have been found to have potent anti-microbial activity against gram-positive bacteria. One of these is the non-psychoactive, minor phytocannabinoid Cannabigerol (CBG). Here we show that CBG exhibits anti-bacterial activities against S. mutans.

In summary, we present here data showing the mechanisms by which CBG exerts its anti-bacterial effect against S. mutans.”

“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid (CB). In summary, the present study demonstrates an anti-bacterial effects of the Cannabis component CBG toward the cariogenic bacteria S. mutans. The interference of CBG with the caries causative S. mutans may provide a novel innovative way to combat dental caries.”

Cannabidiol Isolated From Cannabis sativa L. Protects Intestinal Barrier From In Vitro Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

Frontiers in Pharmacology (@FrontPharmacol) | Twitter“The relevance and incidence of intestinal bowel diseases (IBD) have been increasing over the last 50 years and the current therapies are characterized by severe side effects, making essential the development of new strategies that combine efficacy and safety in the management of human IBD. Herbal products are highly considered in research aimed at discovering new approaches for IBD therapy and, among others, 

Cannabis sativa L. has been traditionally used for centuries as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy also in different gastrointestinal disorders. This study aims to investigate the effects of different C. sativa isolated compounds in an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium. The ability of treatments to modulate markers of intestinal dysfunctions was tested on Caco-2 intestinal cell monolayers.

Our results, obtained by evaluation of ROS production, TEER and paracellular permeability measurements and tight junctions evaluation show Cannabidiol as the most promising compound against intestinal inflammatory condition. Cannabidiol is able to inhibit ROS production and restore epithelial permeability during inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting its possible application as adjuvant in IBD management.”

Protective Effects of Cannabidivarin and Cannabigerol on Cells of the Blood-Brain Barrier Under Ischemic Conditions

View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover image“Preclinical studies have shown cannabidiol is protective in models of ischemic stroke. Based on results from our recent systematic review, we investigated the effects of two promising neuroprotective phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), on cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), namely human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), pericytes, and astrocytes.

Results: In astrocytes CBG and CBDV attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas CBDV (10 nM-10 μM) also decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. CBDV (300 nM-10 μM) attenuated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in HBMECs. In astrocytes, CBG decreased levels of DNA damage proteins, including p53, whereas CBDV increased levels of DNA damage markers. Antagonists for CB1, CB2, PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, 5-HT1A, and TRPV1 had no effect on CBG (3 μM) or CBDV (1 μM)-mediated decreases in LDH in astrocytes. GPR55 and GPR18 were partially implicated in the effects of CBDV, but no molecular target was identified for CBG.

Conclusions: We show that CBG and CBDV were protective against OG mediated injury in three different cells that constitute the BBB, modulating different hallmarks of ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These data enhance our understanding of the protective effects of CBG and CBDV and warrant further investigation into these compounds in ischemic stroke. Future studies should identify other possible neuroprotective effects of CBG and CBDV and their corresponding mechanisms of action.”

“This study provides novel data on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of CBG and CBDV in an in vitro model of IR. These data, together with evidence from other studies, corroborate the protective properties of these compounds and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of CBG and CBDV and whether they can modulate BBB permeability in more clinically relevant in vivo models of ischemic stroke. There is lack of effective treatments for ischemic stroke, a condition that will increase in prevalence in coming years, to which cannabinoids may offer a unique therapeutic strategy.”

The effectiveness of inhaled Cannabis flower for the treatment of agitation/irritability, anxiety, and common stress

Special Issue Springer/Nature BMC Medical Informatics & Decision Making -  Explainable-AI |“An observational research design was used to evaluate which types of commonly labeled Cannabis flower product characteristics are associated with changes in momentary feelings of distress-related symptoms.

Results: In total, a decrease in symptom intensity levels was reported in 95.51% of Cannabis usage sessions, an increase in 2.32% of sessions, and no change in 2.16% of sessions. Fixed effects models showed, on average, respondents recorded a maximum symptom intensity reduction of 4.33 points for agitation/irritability (SE = 0.20, p < 0.01), 3.47 points for anxiety (SE = 0.13, p < 0.01), and 3.98 for stress (SE = 0.12, p < 0.01) on an 11-point visual analog scale. Fixed effects regressions showed that, controlling for time-invariant user characteristics, mid and high tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels were the primary independent predictor of increased symptom relief, and that when broken out by symptom type, this effect was only statistically significant for our largest sample of users, those reporting anxiety rather than agitation/irritability or stress. Cannabidiol (CBD) levels were generally not associated with changes in symptom intensity levels. In a minority of cannabis use sessions (< 13%), cannabis users reported anxiogenic-related negative side effects (e.g., feeling anxious, irritable, paranoid, rapid pulse, or restless), whereas in a majority of sessions (about 66%), users reported positive anxiolytic side effects (e.g., feeling chill, comfy, happy, optimistic, peaceful, or relaxed).

Conclusions: The findings suggest the majority of patients in our sample experienced relief from distress-related symptoms following consumption of Cannabis flower, and that among product characteristics, higher THC levels were the strongest predictors of relief.”

“Our findings suggest that self-directed use of Cannabis flower, especially that with higher THC levels, is associated with significant improvements in at least short-term feelings of distress in many users, likely a contributing factor to its widespread popularity and consumption in the U.S.”