“Preclinical studies have shown cannabidiol is protective in models of ischemic stroke. Based on results from our recent systematic review, we investigated the effects of two promising neuroprotective phytocannabinoids, cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), on cells of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), namely human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), pericytes, and astrocytes.
Results: In astrocytes CBG and CBDV attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), whereas CBDV (10 nM-10 μM) also decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. CBDV (300 nM-10 μM) attenuated levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in HBMECs. In astrocytes, CBG decreased levels of DNA damage proteins, including p53, whereas CBDV increased levels of DNA damage markers. Antagonists for CB1, CB2, PPAR-γ, PPAR-α, 5-HT1A, and TRPV1 had no effect on CBG (3 μM) or CBDV (1 μM)-mediated decreases in LDH in astrocytes. GPR55 and GPR18 were partially implicated in the effects of CBDV, but no molecular target was identified for CBG.
Conclusions: We show that CBG and CBDV were protective against OG mediated injury in three different cells that constitute the BBB, modulating different hallmarks of ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These data enhance our understanding of the protective effects of CBG and CBDV and warrant further investigation into these compounds in ischemic stroke. Future studies should identify other possible neuroprotective effects of CBG and CBDV and their corresponding mechanisms of action.”
“This study provides novel data on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of CBG and CBDV in an in vitro model of IR. These data, together with evidence from other studies, corroborate the protective properties of these compounds and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of CBG and CBDV and whether they can modulate BBB permeability in more clinically relevant in vivo models of ischemic stroke. There is lack of effective treatments for ischemic stroke, a condition that will increase in prevalence in coming years, to which cannabinoids may offer a unique therapeutic strategy.”