“Cannabinoid receptor activation is involved in homeostatic regulation of the body. These receptors are activated by cannabinoids, that include the active constituents of Cannabis sativa as well as endocannabinoids (eCBs). The eCBs are endogenously synthesized from the omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In summary, we outline the novel findings regarding a growing class of signaling molecules, omega-3 eCBs, that can control the physiological and pathophysiological processes in the body.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31085370
“Diabetes mellitus is a complex, multifactorial disorder that is attributed to pancreatic β cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β cell dysfunction results in declining utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues as kidney and it leads to nephropathy. Excessive production and accumulation of free radicals and incapable antioxidant defense system lead to impaired redox status. Macromolecular damage may occur due to impaired redox status and also immune imbalance.
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient in cannabis. THC acts as an immunomodulator and an antioxidant agent.
Our aim was to evaluate the effects of THC in the diabetic kidney.
According to our data, THC has ameliorative effects on the impaired redox status of diabetic kidney and also it acts as an immunomodulator. Therefore, THC might be used as a therapeutic agent for diabetic kidneys but its usage in the healthy kidney may show adverse effects.”
“Cannabidiol, a major non-psychotomimetic compound derived from Cannabis sativa, is a potential therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases such as inflammatory diseases, chronic neurodegenerative diseases, and cancers.
Here, we found that the combination of cannabidiol and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) produces synergistic antitumor effects in vitro. However, this synergistic effect was not observed in normal colonic cells. The levels of ER stress-related proteins, including C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and phosphorylated protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) were increased in treatment of cannabidiol.
Cannabidiol enhanced significantly DR5 expression by ER stress. Knockdown of DR5 decreased the combined effect of cannabidioland TRAIL. Additionally, the combination of TRAIL and cannabidiol decreased tumor growth in xenograft models.
Our studies demonstrate that cannabidiol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis by upregulating DR5 and suggests that cannabidiol is a novel agent for increasing sensitivity to TRAIL.”
“Cannabis use is frequent among people living with HIV and is associated with reduced systemic inflammation. We observed a faster HIV DNA decay during antiretroviral therapy among cannabis users, compared to no drug use. No cannabis-effect was observed on cellular HIV RNA transcription.”
“We aimed to examine, for the first time, the effect of cannabidiol (CBD) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on the permeability of the human gastrointestinal tract in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo.
In vitro, PEA, and CBD decreased the inflammation-induced flux of dextrans (P < 0.0001), sensitive to PPARα and CB1 antagonism, respectively. Both PEA and CBD were prevented by PKA, MEK/ERK, and adenylyl cyclase inhibition (P < 0.001). In human mucosa, inflammation decreased claudin-5 mRNA, which was prevented by CBD (P < 0.05). Palmitoylethanolamide and cannabidiol prevented an inflammation-induced fall in TRPV1 and increase in PPARα transcription (P < 0.0001). In vivo, aspirin caused an increase in the absorption of lactulose and mannitol, which were reduced by PEA or CBD (P < 0.001).
Cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide reduce permeability in the human colon. These findings have implications in disorders associated with increased gut permeability, such as inflammatory bowel disease.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD), an abundant nonpsychoactive constituent of marijuana, has been reported previously to protect against hepatic steatosis.
In this study, we studied further the functions and mechanisms of CBD on liver inflammation induced by HFC diet.
Mice feeding an HFC diet for 8 weeks were applied to test the protective effect of CBD on livers. RAW264.7 cells were incubated with LPS + ATP ± CBD to study the mechanisms of the effect of CBD against inflammasome activation.
We found that CBD alleviated liver inflammation induced by HFC diet.
CBD significantly inhibited the nuclear factor-κappa B (NF-κB) p65 nuclear translocation and the activation of nucleotide-binding domain like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome both in vivo and in vitro studies, which lead to the reduction of the expression of inflammation-related factors in our studies.
In addition, Inhibitor of activation of NF-κB partly suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while adding CBD further inhibited NF-κB activation and correspondingly suppressed the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages.
In conclusion, the suppression of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome through deactivation of NF-κB in macrophages by CBD might be one mechanism of its anti-inflammatory function in the liver.”
“Cannabis and cannabinoids offer significant therapeutic benefits for a wide scope of pathological conditions. Among them, the clinical issues rooted in inflammation stand out, nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms are not yet plainly understood. Circumstantial evidence points to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) as targets for the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the effects of CM5, a novel Cannabis sativa L. extract standardized in 5% cannabidiol (CBD), on human PMN functions, including cell migration, oxidative metabolism and production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We then sought to investigate whether such effects could be ascribed to its content in CBD. Cell migration was assessed by the Boyden chamber assay, oxidative metabolism by means of spectrofluorimetric measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and TNF-α was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results show that both CM5 and CBD inhibit PMN migration, ROS and TNF-α production, indicating that CBD may be the main item responsible for the effects of CM5. CM5 is however more potent than CBD on cell migration and TNF-α production, and less effective on ROS production, suggesting that beyond CBD, other components of the cannabis plant may contribute to the biological effects of the extract. As a whole, such results support the use of cannabis standardized extract and CBD to stem inflammation; however, they also warrant in-depth investigation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms to better exploit their therapeutic potential.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the cannabinoids with non-psychotropic action, extracted from Cannabis sativa. CBD is a terpenophenol and it has received a great scientific interest thanks to its medical applications. This compound showed efficacy as anti-seizure, antipsychotic, neuroprotective, antidepressant and anxiolytic. The neuroprotective activity appears linked to its excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the use of CBD, in addition to common anti-epileptic drugs, in the severe treatment-resistant epilepsy through an overview of recent literature and clinical trials aimed to study the effects of the CBD treatment in different forms of epilepsy. The results of scientific studies obtained so far the use of CBD in clinical applications could represent hope for patients who are resistant to all conventional anti-epileptic drugs.”
“Challenges in the management of ocular pain are an underappreciated topic. Currently available therapeutics lack both efficacy and clear guidelines for their use, with many also possessing unacceptable side effects. Promising novel agents would offer analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and possibly neuroprotective actions; have favorable ocular safety profiles; and show potential in managing neuropathic pain.
Growing evidence supports a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and a range of physiological and disease processes, notably those involving inflammation and pain. Both preclinical and clinical data suggest analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids and ECS-modifying drugs in chronic pain conditions, including those of neuropathic origin.
The ECS is present ubiquitously through the body, including a range of ocular tissues, and represents a promising target in the treatment of several physiological and pathophysiologic processes in the eye including, but not limited to, pain, inflammation, and neuronal damage. ”
“The cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays a pleiotropic role in the innate immunity and is considered a crucial mediator of liver disease.
Cannabinoid CB2 receptor activation has been reported to attenuate liver fibrosis in CCl4 exposed mice and also plays a potential role in liver regeneration in a mouse model of I/R and protection against alcohol-induced liver injury.
In this study, we investigated the impact of CB2 receptors on the antifibrotic and regenerative process associated with cholestatic liver injury.
Following bile duct ligation (BDL) for 3 weeks, there was increased aminotransferase levels, marked inflammatory infiltration and hepatocyte apoptosis with induced oxidative stress, as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation. Conversely, following treatment with the CB2 agonist, AM-1241, BDL rats displayed a reduction in liver injury and attenuation of fibrosis as reflected by expression of hydroxyproline and α-smooth muscle actin. AM1241 treatment also significantly attenuated lipid peroxidation end-products, p53-dependent apoptosis and also attenuated inflammatory process by stimulating IL-10 production. Moreover, AM1241 treated rats were associated with significant expression of hepatic progenitor/oval cell markers.
In conclusion, this study points out that CB2 receptors reduce liver injury and promote liver regeneration via distinct mechanisms including IL-10 dependent inhibition of inflammation, reduction of p53-reliant apoptosis and through stimulation of oval/progenitor cells. These results suggest that CB2 agonists display potent hepatoregenrative properties, in addition to their antifibrogenic effects.”