Structure-Effect Relationships of Novel Semi-Synthetic Cannabinoid Derivatives.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“As a library of cannabinoid (CB) derivatives with (-)-transcannabidiol (CBD) or (-)-trans-cannabidivarin (CBDV) scaffold, we synthesized nine novel cannabinoids: 2-hydroxyethyl cannabidiolate (2-HEC), 2-hydroxypentyl cannabidiolate (2-HPC), 2,3-dihydroxypropyl cannabidiolate (GCBD), cyclohexyl cannabidiolate (CHC), n-hexyl-cannabidiolate (HC), 2-(methylsulfonamido)ethyl cannabidiolate (NMSC), 2-hydroxyethyl cannabidivarinolate (2-HECBDV), cyclohexyl cannabidivarinolate (CHCBDV), and n-hexyl cannabidivarinolate (HCBDV). Their binding and intrinsic effects at the CB1- and CB2-receptors and the effects on inflammatory signaling cascades were investigated in in vitro and ex vivo cell models.

Materials and Methods: Binding affinity was studied in membranes isolated from CB-receptor-transfected HEK293EBNA cells, intrinsic functional activity in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin (IO)-treated Jurkat T-cells. Inhibition of interleukin (IL)-17-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines [IL-6, IL-1β, CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α] was studied in RAW264.7 macrophages at the RNA level. Pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) expression were investigated at the protein level in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated primary human monocytes.

Results: Derivatives with long aliphatic side chains at the ester position at R1 [HC (5)] as well as the ones with polar side chains [2-HECBDV (7), NMSC (6), and 2-HEC (1)] can be selective for CB2-receptors. The CBDV-derivatives HCBDV and CHCBDV demonstrated specific binding at CB1- and CB2-receptors at nanomolar concentrations. 2-HEC, 2-HPC, GCBD, and NMSC were agonists at CB2-receptor and antagonists at CB1-receptor. CHC bound both receptors at submicromolar ranges and was an agonist for these receptors. 2-HECBDV was an agonist at CB2-receptor and an antagonist at the CB1-receptor despite its modest affinity at this receptor (micromolar range). NMSC inhibited NF-κB and NFAT activity, and 2-HEC, 2-HPC, and GCBD dose-dependently inhibited PMA/IO-stimulated NFAT activation. CHC and HC dose-dependently reduced IL-1β and CCL2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. NMSC inhibited IL-1β, CCL2, and TNF-α at lower doses. At higher doses, it induced a pronounced increase in IL-6 mRNA. 2-HEC, 2-HPC, and GCBD dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 synthesis. NMSC further increased LPS-stimulated IL-1β release but inhibited IL-8, TNF-α, and PGE2.

Conclusion: The CBD- and CBDV-derivatives studied are suitable for targeting CB-receptors. Some may be used as selective CB2 agonists. The length of the aliphatic rest at R2 of CBD (pentyl) and CBDV (propyl) did not correlate with the binding affinity. Higher polarity at R1 appeared to favor the agonistic activity at CB2-receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31824305

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01284/full

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The Interplay between the Endocannabinoid System, Epilepsy and Cannabinoids.

ijms-logo“Epilepsy is a neurological disorder that affects approximately 50 million people worldwide.

There is currently no definitive epilepsy cure. However, in recent years, medicinal cannabis has been successfully trialed as an effective treatment for managing epileptic symptoms, but whose mechanisms of action are largely unknown.

Lately, there has been a focus on neuroinflammation as an important factor in the pathology of many epileptic disorders. In this literature review, we consider the links that have been identified between epilepsy, neuroinflammation, the endocannabinoid system (ECS), and how cannabinoids may be potent alternatives to more conventional pharmacological therapies.

We review the research that demonstrates how the ECS can contribute to neuroinflammation, and could therefore be modulated by cannabinoids to potentially reduce the incidence and severity of seizures. In particular, the cannabinoid cannabidiol has been reported to have anti-convulsant and anti-inflammatory properties, and it shows promise for epilepsy treatment.

There are a multitude of signaling pathways that involve endocannabinoids, eicosanoids, and associated receptors by which cannabinoids could potentially exert their therapeutic effects. Further research is needed to better characterize these pathways, and consequently improve the application and regulation of medicinal cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31810321

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/6079

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Cannabinoid receptor 2 promotes the intracellular degradation of HMGB1 via the autophagy-lysosome pathway in macrophage.

International Immunopharmacology“High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a late phase inflammatory mediator in many inflammatory diseases. Extracellular HMGB1 could bind to many membrane receptors to activate downstream signaling molecules and promote inflammation resulting in cell and tissue damage.

In our previous work, we found cannabinoid receptor Ⅱ(CB2R) inhibited the expression of HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic models in vivo and in vitro, but the underlying mechanism is still unclear.

The present study was aimed to explore the possible pathway through which CB2R suppressed HMGB1.

Here, we found that the specific agonist of CB2R, GW405833 (GW) could induce intracellular HMGB1 degradation without influencing HMGB1 mRNA in peritoneal macrophages. Then we observed that autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) but not proteasome inhibitor MG-132 (MG) could block GW-induced HMGB1 degradation, which indicated that the autophagy-lysosome but not the ubiquitination pathway was involved in this process.

Further study showed that GW could promote the integrity of autophagy flux in macrophages in terms of increased level of LC3Ⅱand decreased expression of p62 protein. It also observed that inhibition of autophagy blocked GW-induced nuclear translocation of HMGB1 in macrophages. GW could up-regulate expression of Cathepsin B (CTSB), and inhibition of CTSB blocked GW-induced HMGB1 degradation.

In summary, all the data showed that activation of CB2R could promote the intracellular degradation of HMGB1 via the autophagy-lysosome pathway in macrophage.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31806570

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567576919321186?via%3Dihub

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Cannabis Exposure is Associated With a Lower Likelihood of Neurocognitive Impairment in People Living With HIV.

Image result for ovid journal “Aging and HIV have adverse effects on the central nervous system, including increased inflammation and neural injury and confer risk of neurocognitive impairment (NCI).

Previous research suggests the nonacute neurocognitive effects of cannabis in the general population are adverse or null. However, in the context of aging and HIV, cannabis use may exert beneficial effects due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

In the current study, we examined the independent and interactive effects of HIV and cannabis on NCI and the potential moderation of these effects by age.

METHODS:

Participants included 679 people living with HIV (PLHIV) and 273 people living without HIV (HIV-) (18-79 years old) who completed neurocognitive, neuromedical, and substance use assessments. NCI was defined as a demographically corrected global deficit score ≥ 0.5. Logistic regression models examined the effects of age, HIV, cannabis (history of cannabis substance use disorder and cannabis use in past year), and their 2-way and 3-way interactions on NCI.

RESULTS:

In logistic regression models, only a significant interaction of HIV X cannabis was detected (P = 0.02). Among PLHIV, cannabis was associated with a lower proportion of NCI (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = 0.33-0.85) but not among HIV- individuals (P = 0.40). These effects did not vary by age.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings suggest cannabis exposure is linked to a lower odds of NCI in the context of HIV. A possible mechanism of this result is the anti-inflammatory effect of cannabis, which may be particularly important for PLHIV. Further investigations are needed to refine the effects of dose, timing, and cannabis compound on this relationship, which could inform guidelines for cannabis use among populations vulnerable to cognitive decline.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31809361

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00126334-202001010-00008

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Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research banner“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged in recent years as a potential treatment target for alcohol use disorders (AUD).

In particular, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown preclinical promise in ameliorating numerous clinical symptoms of AUD.

There are several proposed mechanism(s) through which cannabinoids (and CBD in particular) may confer beneficial effects in the context of AUD. First, CBD may directly impact specific brain mechanisms underlying AUD to influence alcohol consumption and the clinical features of AUD. Second, CBD may influence AUD symptoms through its actions across the digestive, immune, and central nervous systems, collectively known as the microbiota-gut-brain-axis (MGBA).

Notably, emerging work suggests that alcohol and cannabinoids exert opposing effects on the MGBA.

Alcohol is linked to immune dysfunction (e.g., chronic systemic inflammation in the brain and periphery) as well as disturbances in gut microbial species (microbiota) and increased intestinal permeability. These MGBA disruptions have been associated with AUD symptoms such as craving and impaired cognitive control.

Conversely, existing preclinical data suggest that cannabinoids may confer beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal and immune system, such as reducing intestinal permeability, regulating gut bacteria and reducing inflammation. Thus, cannabinoids may exert AUD harm-reduction effects, at least in part, through their beneficial actions across the MGBA.

This review will provide a brief introduction to the ECS and the MGBA, discuss the effects of cannabinoids (particularly CBD) and alcohol in the brain, gut, and immune system (i.e., across the MGBA), and put forth a theoretical framework to inform future research questions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31803950

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14256

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Effects of O-1602 and CBD on TNBS-induced colonic disturbances.

Neurogastroenterology & Motility banner“This study attempted to provide the effects and mechanisms of two cannabinoids, O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), on colonic motility of 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis.

METHODS:

TNBS was used to induce the model of motility disorder. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) expression was detected using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in colon. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase were also measured. The colonic motility was measured by upper GI transit in vivo and recorded using electrical stimulation organ bath technique in vitro. Freshly isolated smooth muscle from the rat colon were applied to determine the membrane potential and Ca2+ -ATPase activity, respectively.

KEY RESULTS:

CBD or O-1602 separately improved inflammatory conditions significantly in TNBS-induced colitis rats. However, sole CBD pretreatment reduced GPR55 expression, which was up-regulated in TNBS colitis. O-1602 and CBD each lowered MPO and IL-6 levels remarkably in TNBS colitis, while TNF-α levels experienced no change. CBD rescued the downward colonic motility in TNBS colitis in vivo; however, it decreased the upward contraction of the smooth muscle strip under electrical stimulation in vitro. Pretreatment with CBD prevented against TNBS-induced changes of Ca2+ -ATPase activity of smooth muscle cells. However, membrane potential of the smooth muscle cells decreased by TNBS experienced no change after O-1602 or CBD import.

CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:

The present study suggested that CBD participated in the regulation of colonic motility in rats, and the mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of inlammatory factors and Ca2+ -ATPase activity through GPR55.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31802588

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nmo.13756

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Stem Cells Treated with Moringin or Cannabidiol: Analogies and Differences in Inflammation Pathways.

ijms-logo“Inflammation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases.

The treatment of stem cells as a therapeutic approach to repair damage in the central nervous system represents a valid alternative.

In this study, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) treated with Moringin [4-(α-l-ramanosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate] (hGMSCs-MOR) or with Cannabidiol (hGMSCs-CBD) at dose of 0.5 or 5 µM, respectively. Moreover, we compared their transcriptomic profiles in order to evaluate analogies and differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways.

The hGMSCs-MOR selectively downregulate TNF-α signaling from the beginning, reducing the expression of TNF-α receptor while hGMSCs-CBD limit its activity after the process started.

The treatment with CBD downregulates the pro-inflammatory pathway mediated by the IL-1 family, including its receptor while MOR is less efficient.

Furthermore, both the treatments are efficient in the IL-6 signaling. In particular, CBD reduces the effect of the pro-inflammatory JAK/STAT pathway while MOR enhances the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

In addition, both hGMSCs-MOR and hGMSCs-CBD improve the anti-inflammatory activity enhancing the TGF-β pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31801206

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/6039

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Long-term benefit from immune modulation and anti-inflammatory treatment in metastatic mesothelioma.

Respiratory Medicine Case Reports“A 64 year old male heating engineer was investigated for a persistent cough and found to have epithelioid mesothelioma with pleural effusion, lung nodules and increased thoracic lymph nodes. He declined standard of care treatment following his own research and he was enrolled in a named patient programme of IMM-101. He was advised to correct his low vitamin D3 level and to start using anti-inflammatories such as aspirin, bromelain and low dose Naltrexone. At review one year later a CT scan showed no change and he continued on the regimen. Four years after the diagnosis a CT scan showed that there was a modest but definite progression of the left malignant pleural thickening, and a new right-sided effusion, enlargement of several intrathoracic nodes which had been noted on the early scans. The chest wall lump eventually broke down and required local radiotherapy. He then developed abdominal pain and found to have peritoneal disease. Last year he obtained the cannabinoids CBD and THC which slowed down the disease and a CT scan after he had been on this for six months, showed that his disease was fairly stable with marginal progression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31788420

“The patient gave his full written consent for this report and is keen that others can benefit from this treatment.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213007119303168?via%3Dihub

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The role of the endocannabinoid system in aetiopathogenesis of endometriosis: A potential therapeutic target.

European Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Home“Endometriosis affects a large proportion of women during their reproductive years and is associated with pain and infertility, also affecting psychological wellbeing and quality of life. The pathogenesis of the disease remains unclear, although it is believed to be multifactorial.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) consists of a number of ligands, receptors and enzymes, and has gained interests in endometriosis research. This review aims to summarise all available evidence reporting the roles of the ECS in endometriosis.

A literature search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science electronic medical databases was performed. Original and review articles published in peer-reviewed journals were included. No publication date or publication status restrictions were imposed.

Significant differences in the concentrations and expressions of the components of the ECS were reported in the eutopic and ectopic endometrium, and the systemic circulation of women with endometriosis compared to controls. Endometriosis appears to be associated with downregulation of CB1 receptors and upregulation of TRPV1 receptors.

The role of CB1 and progesterone in anti-inflammatory action and the role of TRPV1 in inflammation and pain are of particular interests. Furthermore, the ECS has been reported to be involved in processes relevant to endometriosis, including cell migration, cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation, and interacts with sex steroid hormones.

The ECS may play a role in disease establishment, progression, and pain in endometriosis. However, reports are based on studies of limited size and there are inconsistencies among the definition of their control groups. There are also conflicting reports regarding precise involvement of the ECS in endometriosis. Future research with larger numbers, strict inclusion and exclusion criteria and detailed clinical information is imperative.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31785471

https://www.ejog.org/article/S0301-2115(19)30526-3/fulltext

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Cannabidiol-from Plant to Human Body: A Promising Bioactive Molecule with Multi-Target Effects in Cancer.

 ijms-logo“Cannabis sativa L. is a plant long used for its textile fibers, seed oil, and oleoresin with medicinal and psychoactive properties. It is the main source of phytocannabinoids, with over 100 compounds detected so far. In recent years, a lot of attention has been given to the main phytochemicals present in Cannabis sativa L., namely, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Compared to THC, CBD has non-psychoactive effects, an advantage for clinical applications of anti-tumor benefits. The review is designed to provide an update regarding the multi-target effects of CBD in different types of cancer. The main focus is on the latest in vitro and in vivo studies that present data regarding the anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, cytotoxic, anti-invasive, anti-antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of CBD together with their mechanisms of action. The latest clinical evidence of the anticancer effects of CBD is also outlined. Moreover, the main aspects of the pharmacological and toxicological profiles are given.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31775230

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/5905

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