CLG from Hemp Seed Inhibits LPS-Stimulated Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia by Regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 Pathways.

Go to Volume 4, Issue 15“The healthy benefits of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed have often been attributed to its oils and proteins.

Recent studies reveal that hemp seed phenylpropionamides could also show various bioactivities. Continuation of our study on hemp seed provided a phenylpropionamide, coumaroylaminobutanol glucopyranoside (CLG). This work investigated the neuroprotective effect of CLG and its underlying mechanism using lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia.

Our study demonstrated that CLG increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CLG reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species and stimulated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggested that CLG effectively and simultaneously inhibited inflammatory responses and oxidative stress through the NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AMPK was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of CLG. This study provides new insights into the diverse bioactive constituents of hemp seed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31616830

“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed has been used as food and traditional medicine for centuries. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of diverse bioactive compounds from hemp seed and the potential of hemp seed in the treatment of microglia-related neuroinflammatory diseases.”

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.9b02168

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Antitumor Activity of Abnormal Cannabidiol and Its Analog O-1602 in Taxol-Resistant Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabinoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties.

Contrary to most cannabinoids present in the Cannabis plant, some, such as O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, have no or only little affinity to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors and instead exert their effects through other receptors.

Here, we investigated whether the synthetic regioisomers of cannabidiol, abnormal cannabidiol, and a closely related compound, O-1602, display antitumorigenic effects in cellular models of breast cancer and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in vivo.

Several studies have shown the effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, but less is known about the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids in chemotherapy-resistant cell lines.

Paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were used to study the effect of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on viability, apoptosis, and migration. The effects of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on cell viability were completely blocked by the combination of GPR55 and GPR18-specific siRNAs. Both O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol decreased viability in paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through induction of apoptosis. The effect of these cannabinoids on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a zebrafish xenograft model. In this model, treatment with O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol (2 µM) significantly reduced tumor growth.

Our results suggest that atypical cannabinoids, like O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, exert antitumorigenic effects on paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Due to their lack of central sedation and psychoactive effects, these atypical cannabinoids could represent new leads for the development of additional anticancer treatments when resistance to conventional chemotherapy occurs during the treatment of breast and possibly other cancers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611800

“Our results suggest that some cannabinoids acting through the GPR55 and/or GPR18 receptors can be helpful in inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines that are unresponsive to paclitaxel. The effects of O-1602 and Abn-CBD on cell viability were observed both in vitro and in a zebrafish xenograft model. These drugs were also reducing cell migration. Taken together, even if no synergistic antitumor effect is always observed when cannabinoids and chemotherapeutic agents are combined as an anticancer treatment, cannabinoids can still provide anticancer benefits on top of their palliative effects. This is particularly important in the context of cancers that have developed resistance to current chemotherapies.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01124/full

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The potential role of cannabinoids in dermatology.

 Publication Cover“Cannabis is increasingly being used world-wide to treat a variety of dermatological conditions. Medicinal cannabis is currently legalized in Canada, 31 states in America and 19 countries in Europe. The authors reviewed the literature on the pharmacology and use of cannabinoids in treating a variety of skin conditions including acne, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, skin cancer, pruritus, and pain. Cannabinoids have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, anti-ageing, and antimalignancy properties by various mechanisms including interacting with the newly found endocannabinoid system of the skin thereby providing a promising alternative to traditional treatments.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31599175

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09546634.2019.1675854?journalCode=ijdt20

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CB1 enhanced the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells via p38 MAPK and JNK in an inflammatory environment.

Publication cover image

“Periodontitis is an inflammatory immune disease that causes periodontal tissue loss. Inflammatory immunity and bone metabolism are closely related to periodontitis.

The cannabinoid receptor I (CB1) is an important constituent of the endocannabinoid system and participates in bone metabolism and inflammation tissue healing.

It is unclear whether CB1 affects the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function involved in periodontal tissue regeneration.

In this study, we revealed the role and mechanism of CB1 in the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in an inflammatory environment.

CONCLUSIONS:

CB1 was able to enhance the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs via p38 MAPK and JNK signalling in an inflammatory environment, which might be a potential target for periodontitis treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31599069

“In conclusion, our findings revealed that CB1 could activate the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential of PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions. Our results clarified the potential role and mechanism of CB1 in PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions and provide candidate targets for enhancing MSC function and the treatment of periodontitis.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cpr.12691

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Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 and Its Role as an Analgesic: An Opioid Alternative?

 Publication Cover“Understanding how the body regulates pain is fundamental to develop rational strategies to combat the growing prevalence of chronic pain states, opioid dependency, and the increased financial burden to the medical care system.

Pain is the most prominent reason why Americans seek medical attention and extensive literature has identified the importance of the endocannabinoid pathway in controlling pain. Modulation of the endocannabinoid system offers new therapeutic opportunities for the selective control of excessive neuronal activity in several pain conditions (acute, inflammatory, chronic, and neuropathic).

Cannabinoids have a long history of medicinal use and their analgesic properties are well documented; however, there are major impediments to understanding cannabinoid pain modulation.

One major issue is the presence of psychotropic side effects associated with D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or synthetic derivatives, which puts an emphatic brake on their use. This dose-limiting effect prevents the appropriate degree of analgesia .

Animal studies have shown that the psychotropic effects are mediated via brain cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors, while analgesic activity in chronic pain states may be mediated via CB1R action in the spinal cord, brainstem, peripheral sensory neurons, or immune cells.

The development of appropriate therapies is incumbent on our understanding of the role of peripheral versus central endocannabinoid-driven analgesia. Recent physiological, pharmacological, and anatomical studies provide evidence that one of the main roles of the endocannabinoid system is the regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and/or glutamate release.

This article will review this evidence in the context of its implications for pain. We first provide a brief overview of CB1R’s role in the regulation of nociception, followed by a review of the evidence that the peripheral endocannabinoid system modulates nociception.

We then look in detail at regulation of central-mediated analgesia, followed up with evidence that cannabinoid mediated modulation of pain involves modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in key brain regions. Finally, we discuss cannabinoid action on non-neuronal cells in the context of inflammation and direct modulation of neurons.

This work stands to reveal long-standing controversies in the cannabinoid analgesia area that have had an impact on failed clinical trials and implementation of therapeutics targeting this system.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31596190

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15504263.2019.1668100?journalCode=wjdd20

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Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds.

 “Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds are well known for their potential use as a source of nutrients, fiber, and bioactive compounds.

A hemp protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp flour, was hydrolyzed by alcalase and flavourzyme under specific conditions.

The resulting hydrolysates were evaluated for the selection of potentially bioactive hemp protein hydrolysates (HPHs) owing to their DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power activity. In vitro cell-free experiments led to the identification of two bioactive HPHs, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF, which were used at 50 and 100 μg mL-1 on BV-2 microglial cells in order to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

Our results showed that HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF down-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA transcriptional levels in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. In addition, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF up-regulated the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

This study suggests for the first time that HPHs may improve the neuroinflammatory and inflammatory states, supporting the nutraceutical value of hemp seeds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31576391

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/FO/C9FO01904A#!divAbstract

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Human leukocytes differentially express endocannabinoid-glycerol lipases and hydrolyze 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol and its metabolites from the 15-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase pathways.

Publication cover image“2-Arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) is an endocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory properties.

Blocking 2-AG hydrolysis to enhance CB2 signaling has proven effective in mouse models of inflammation. However, the expression of 2-AG lipases has never been thoroughly investigated in human leukocytes.

Herein, we investigated the expression of seven 2-AG hydrolases by human blood leukocytes and alveolar macrophages (AMs) and found the following protein expression pattern: monoacylglycerol (MAG lipase; eosinophils, AMs, monocytes), carboxylesterase (CES1; monocytes, AMs), palmitoyl-protein thioesterase (PPT1; AMs), α/β-hydrolase domain (ABHD6; mainly AMs), ABHD12 (all), ABHD16A (all), and LYPLA2 (lysophospholipase 2; monocytes, lymphocytes, AMs).

Altogether, our results indicate that human leukocytes are experts at hydrolyzing 2-AG and its metabolites via multiple lipases and probably via a yet-to-be characterized 52 kDa hydrolase. Blocking 2-AG hydrolysis in humans will likely abrogate the ability of human leukocytes to degrade 2-AG and its metabolites and increase their anti-inflammatory effects in vivo.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31556464

https://jlb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/JLB.3A0919-049RRR

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Medical cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease: real-life experience of mode of consumption and assessment of side-effects.

 

Image result for ovid journal“Use of medical cannabis for improving symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing. However, reports on long-term outcomes are lacking. This prospective, observational study assessed the effects of licensed cannabis use among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

METHODS:

Dose and mode of consumption, adverse events, use of other medications, and long-term effects were evaluated among 127 patients with inflammatory bowel disease using legalized medical cannabis. Blood count, albumin, and C-reactive protein were assessed before, 1 month, and at least 1 year after medical cannabis therapy was initiated. Questionnaires on disease activity, patient function, and signs of addiction were completed by patients and by a significant family member to assess its effects.

RESULTS:

The average dose used was 31 ± 15 g/month. The average Harvey-Bradshaw index improved from 14 ± 6.7 to 7 ± 4.7 (P < 0.001) during a median follow-up of 44 months (interquartile range, 24-56 months). There was a slight, but statistically significant, average weight gain of 2 kg within 1 year of cannabis use. The need for other medications was significantly reduced. Employment among patients increased from 65 to 74% (P < 0.05). We conclude that the majority of inflammatory bowel disease patients using cannabis are satisfied with a dose of 30 g/month. We did not observe negative effects of cannabis use on the patients’ social or occupational status.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use by inflammatory bowel disease patients can induce clinical improvement and is associated with reduced use of medication and slight weight gain. Most patients respond well to a dose of 30 g/month, or 21 mg Δ9-tetra- hydrocannabinol (THC) and 170 mg Cannabidiol (CBD) per day.”

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N-Eicosapentaenoyl Dopamine, A Conjugate of Dopamine and Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA), Exerts Anti-inflammatory Properties in Mouse and Human Macrophages.

nutrients-logo“A large body of evidence suggests that dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), contribute to a reduced inflammatory tone thereby lowering the risk for several chronic and degenerative diseases. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these anti-inflammatory effects, including those involving endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like molecules.

In this context, fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with amines or amino acids, are an emerging class of compounds. Dopamine conjugates of DHA (N-docosahexaenoyl dopamine, DHDA) and EPA (N-eicosapentaenoyl dopamine, EPDA) have previously been shown to induce autophagy, apoptosis, and cell death in different tumor lines. Additionally, DHDA has displayed anti-inflammatory properties in vitro.

Here, we tested the immune-modulatory properties of EPDA in mouse RAW 264.7 and human THP-1 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EPDA suppressed the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in both cell lines, and nitric oxide (NO), and macrophage-inflammatory protein-3α (MIP3A) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. At a transcriptional level, EPDA attenuated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in both cell lines and that of MCP-1, IL-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in THP-1 macrophages.

Although further research is needed to reveal whether EPDA is an endogenous metabolite, our data suggest that this EPA-derived conjugate possesses interesting immune-modulating properties.”

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Novel Anti-inflammatory and Vasodilatory ω-3 Endocannabinoid Epoxide Regioisomers.

 “Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) offer protection against vascular inflammation, neuroinflammation, hypertension, and thrombosis.

Recently, biochemical studies have demonstrated that these benefits are partially mediated by their conversion to ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxide metabolites. These lipid metabolites originate from the epoxidation of ω-3 endocannabinoids, docosahexanoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA) by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases to form epoxydocosapentaenoic acid-ethanolamides (EDP-EAs) and epoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-ethanolamides (EEQ-EAs), respectively.

The EDP-EAs and EEQ-EAs are endogenously produced in rat brain and peripheral organs. Additionally, EDP-EAs and EEQ-EAs dose-dependently decrease pro-inflammatory IL-6 cytokine and increased anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Furthermore, the EEQ-EAs and EDP-EAs attenuate angiogenesis and cell migration in cancer cells, induce vasodilation in bovine coronary arteries, and reciprocally regulate platelet aggregation in washed human platelets.

Taken together, the ω-3 endocannabinoid epoxides represent a new class of dual acting molecules that display unique pharmacological properties.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31562632

https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-030-21735-8_17

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