Cannabidiol converts NFκB into a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma with defined antioxidative properties

ISNO: Indian Society of Neuro-Oncology “The transcription factor NFκB drives neoplastic progression of many cancers including primary brain tumors (glioblastoma; GBM). Precise therapeutic modulation of NFκB activity can suppress central oncogenic signalling pathways in GBM, but clinically applicable compounds to achieve this goal have remained elusive.

Methods: In a pharmacogenomics study with a panel of transgenic glioma cells we observed that NFκB can be converted into a tumor suppressor by the non-psychotropic cannabinoid Cannabidiol (CBD). Subsequently, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of CBD, which is used as an anticonvulsive drug (Epidiolex) in pediatric neurology, in a larger set of human primary GBM stem-like cells (hGSC). For this study we performed pharmacological assays, gene expression profiling, biochemical and cell-biological experiments. We validated our findings using orthotopic in vivo models and bioinformatics analysis of human GBM-datasets.

Results: We found that CBD promotes DNA binding of the NFκB subunit RELA and simultaneously prevents RELA-phosphorylation on serine-311, a key residue which permits genetic transactivation. Strikingly, sustained DNA binding by RELA lacking phospho-serine 311 was found to mediate hGSC cytotoxicity. Widespread sensitivity to CBD was observed in a cohort of hGSC defined by low levels of reactive oxygen-species (ROS), while high ROS-content in other tumors blocked CBD induced hGSC death. Consequently, ROS levels served as predictive biomarker for CBD-sensitive tumors.

Conclusions: This evidence demonstrates how a clinically approved drug can convert NFκB into a tumor suppressor and suggests a promising repurposing option for GBM-therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33864076/

https://academic.oup.com/neuro-oncology/advance-article/doi/10.1093/neuonc/noab095/6231710

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The Activation of Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptor with JWH-133 Protects Uterine Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage

 Pharmacology - Home - Karger Publishers“Uterus transplantation is a complex surgical procedure. Uterine ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage occurring in this process may cause loss of function in the uterus. Cell damage must be prevented for a healthy uterine function and successful transplantation.

Cannabinoids, with their increasing clinical use, are substances with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and have a role in immune system regulation. However, their efficacy in uterine IR damage is still unknown.

This study provides information on the potential applications cannabinoids agonist JWH-133 in uterine IR damage and, hence, in the transplant process.

Results: In the uterine IR group, NF-κB expression and MDA levels were detected at high levels. Histopathological examinations and TUNEL staining revealed extensive cell damage. On the other hand, in groups treated with JWH-133, dose-dependent NF-κB expression and MDA levels decreased (p < 0.05). Depending on the dose, the rate of surviving cells increased in TUNEL staining results.

Conclusion: The results showed that JWH-133 was effective in reducing uterine IR damage. Cannabinoids may be a new alternative that may be used in the transplantation process in the future.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33105141/

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/511457

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Attenuation of Oxidative Stress by Cannabinoids and Cannabis Extracts in Differentiated Neuronal Cells

pharmaceuticals-logo“In this proof-of-concept study, the antioxidant activity of phytocannabinoids, namely cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), were investigated using an in vitro system of differentiated human neuronal SY-SH5Y cells.

We showed that THC had a high potency to combat oxidative stress in both in vitro models, while CBD did not show a remarkable antioxidant activity. The cannabis extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant activity, which depended on the ratio of the THC and CBD. However, our results did not suggest any antagonist effect of the CBD on the antioxidant activity of THC. The effect of cannabis extracts on the cell viability of differentiated human neuronal SY-SH5Y cells was also investigated, which emphasized the differences between the bioactivity of cannabis extracts due to their composition.

Our preliminary results demonstrated that cannabis extracts and phytocannabinoids have a promising potential as antioxidants, which can be further investigated to develop novel pharmaceuticals targeting oxidative stress therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33105840/

https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8247/13/11/328

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Cannabinoids as anti-ROS in Aged Pancreatic Islet Cells

Life Sciences“Cannabinoids are the chemical compounds with a high affinity for cannabinoid receptors affecting the central nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters. However, the current knowledge related to the role of such compounds in the regulation of cellular aging is limited. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol on the function of aged pancreatic islets.

Main methods: The expression of p53, p38, p21, p16, and Glut2 genes and β-galactosidase activity were measured as hallmarks of cell aging applying real-time PCR, ELISA, and immunocytochemistry techniques. Pdx1 protein expression, insulin release, and oxidative stress markers were compared between young and aged rat pancreatic islet cells.

Key findings: Upon the treatment of aged pancreatic islets cells with cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol, the expression of p53, p38, p21 and the activity of β-galactosidase were reduced. Cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol increase insulin release, Pdx1, Glut2, and thiol molecules expression, while the oxidative stress parameters were decreased. The enhanced expression of Pdx1 and insulin release in aged pancreatic islet cells reflects the extension of cell healthy aging due to the significant reduction of ROS.

Significance: This study provides evidence for the involvement of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol in the oxidation process of cellular aging.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32553926/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520307190?via%3Dihub

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen. ROS can damage lipid, DNARNA, and proteins, which, in theory, contributes to the physiology of aging.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reactive_oxygen_species

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The Critical Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in URB602-induced Protective Effects Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat.

 Image result for shock journal“Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and even induces remote organ damage.

Accumulating proofs demonstrates that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may provide a promising access for treatment strategy of renal IRI associated AKI.

In the current study, using the established renal IRI model of rat, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of URB602, 30 min before renal IRI, alleviates kidney injury and relevant distant organ damage via limiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

Taken together, our data indicate that URB602 acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and anti-inflammatory media in renal IRI mainly depending on the activation of CB2.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32004183

 

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Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol.

antioxidants-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the main pharmacologically active phytocannabinoids of Cannabis sativa L. CBD is non-psychoactive but exerts a number of beneficial pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The chemistry and pharmacology of CBD, as well as various molecular targets, including cannabinoid receptors and other components of the endocannabinoid system with which it interacts, have been extensively studied. In addition, preclinical and clinical studies have contributed to our understanding of the therapeutic potential of CBD for many diseases, including diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, we review the main biological effects of CBD, and its synthetic derivatives, focusing on the cellular, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31881765

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/1/21

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Agitation, Oxidative Stress, and Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease: Biomarker Analyses From a Clinical Trial With Nabilone for Agitation.

 Image result for journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology

“The endocannabinoid system has been a target of interest for agitation in Alzheimer disease (AD) because of potential behavioral effects and its potential impact on mechanisms implicated in AD such as oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation.

We explored whether serum markers of OS and neuroinflammation were associated with response to the cannabinoid nabilone in agitated patients with AD (N = 38).

These findings suggest that OS and neuroinflammation may be associated with agitation severity, while nabilone may have anti-inflammatory effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31547752

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0891988719874118?journalCode=jgpb

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Activation of cannabinoid type 2 receptor protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury partly via Nrf2 signaling.

Life Sciences“Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor activation has been shown to attenuate IRI in various organs. NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) is an anti-oxidative factor that plays multiple roles in regulating cellular redox homeostasis and modulating cell proliferation and differentiation. The protective effects of CB2 receptor activation on skeletal muscle IRI and the underlying mechanism that involves Nrf2 signaling remain unknown.

Our results showed that CB2 receptor activation reduced IR-induced histopathological lesions, edema, and oxidative stress 1 day post-injury and accelerated early myogenesis 4 days post-injury in mice. Nrf2 knockout mice that were treated with AM1241 exhibited deteriorative skeletal muscle oxidative damage and myogenesis. In vitro, pretreatment with AM1241 significantly increased the expression of Nrf2 and its nuclear translocation, attenuated the decrease in H2O2-induced C2C12 cell viability, and decreased reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis. CB2 receptor activation also significantly enhanced C2C12 myoblasts differentiation, which was impaired by silencing Nrf2.

Overall, CB2 receptor activation protected skeletal muscle against IRI by ameliorating oxidative damage and promoting early skeletal muscle myogenesis, which was partly via Nrf2 signaling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31128135

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320519304126?via%3Dihub

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Cannabisin F from Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglia as SIRT1 Modulator.

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“Hemp seed (Fructus cannabis) is rich in lignanamides, and initial biological screening tests showed their potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity.

This study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanism of cannabisin F, a hempseed lignanamide, against inflammatory response and oxidative stress in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Cannabisin F suppressed the production and the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in a concentration-dependent manner in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia cell. Furthermore, cannabisin F enhanced SIRT1 expression and blocked LPS-induced NF-κB (Nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway activation by inhibiting phosphorylation of IκBα (Inhibit proteins of nuclear factor kappaB) and NF-κB p65. And the SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 significantly inhibited the effect of cannabisin F on pro-inflammatory cytokines production, suggesting that the anti-inflammatory effects of cannabisin F are SIRT1-dependent. In addition, cannabisin F reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and promoted the expression of Nrf2 (Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2) and HO-1 (Heme Oxygenase-1), suggesting that the anti-oxidative effects of cannabisin F are related to Nrf2 signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggest that the neuro-protection effect of cannabisin F against LPS-induced inflammatory response and oxidative stress in BV2 microglia cells involves the SIRT1/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30691004

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/3/507

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The protective effects of Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol against inflammation and oxidative stress in rat liver with fructose-induced hyperinsulinemia.

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“A large amount of fructose is metabolized in the liver and causes hepatic functional damage. Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is known as a therapeutic agent for clinical and experimental applications.

 

The study aims to investigate the effects of THC treatment on inflammation, lipid profiles and oxidative stress in rat liver with hyperinsulinemia.

 

According to the result, long-term and low-dose THC administration may reduce hyperinsulinemia and inflammation in rats to some extent.”

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30427077

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jphp.13042

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