Association of State Marijuana Legalization Policies for Medical and Recreational Use With Vaping-Associated Lung Disease

Author Insights: Bariatric Surgery May Lead to Increases in ...“From June 2019 to January 2020, over 2500 cases of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette)– or vaping–associated lung injury (EVALI) were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Some states have legalized marijuana and THC-containing products for recreational use. Many other states allow purchases for qualifying medical purposes. In remaining states, all forms of consumption and distribution are illegal, and individuals who use THC likely obtain it from the black market. If black-market THC products are responsible for EVALI, then case rates may be lower in recreational marijuana states.

The goal of this cross-sectional study was to measure whether states where marijuana is legal have lower rates of EVALI compared with states where it is illegal.

Recreational marijuana states had among the lowest EVALI rates of all states.

The data suggest that EVALI cases were concentrated in states where consumers do not have legal access to recreational marijuana dispensaries. This association was not driven by state-level differences in e-cigarette use, and EVALI case rates were not associated with state-level prevalence of e-cigarette use.

One possible inference from our results is that the presence of legal markets for marijuana has helped mitigate or may be protective against EVALI.”

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2763966

“Legal Marijuana Tied to Lower Rates of Vaping Illness”  https://www.medpagetoday.com/pulmonology/smoking/85807

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Cannabidiol alleviates hemorrhagic shock-induced neural apoptosis in rats by inducing autophagy through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway.

Publication cover image“Recently, several studies have reported that the pharmacological effects exerted by cannabidiol (CBD) are partially related to the regulation of autophagy. Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy provides protection against ischemia-induced brain injury. However, the protective effect of CBD against mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in hemorrhagic shock (HS)-induced brain injury has not been studied.

In the present study, we observed the protective effects of CBD against neural mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in a rat model of HS. In addition, CBD increased Beclin-1 and LC3II expression and reduced P62 expression, which were indicative of autophagy. CBD treatment attenuated the neural apoptosis induced by HS, as reflected by restoring mitochondrial dysfunction, downregulation of BAX, neuro-apoptosis ratio and NF-κB signaling activation, and upregulation of BCL2 in the cerebral cortex.

Such protective effects were reversed by 3-Methyladenine, a specific autophagy inhibitor, indicating that the protective effects of CBD treatment involved autophagy. LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, significantly inhibited CBD-induced autophagy, demonstrating that PI3K/AKT signaling is involved in the CBD’s regulation of autophagy. Furthermore, we found that CBD treatment upregulated PI3K/AKT signaling via cannabinoid receptor 1.

Therefore, these findings suggested that CBD treatment protects against cerebral injury induced by HS-mediated mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis by activating the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to reinforce autophagy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32215966

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12557

“Hemorrhagic shock occurs when the body begins to shut down due to large amounts of blood loss.” https://www.healthline.com/health/hemorrhagic-shock

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Cannabidiol exerts protective effects in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease activating AKT/mTOR pathway.

Fitoterapia“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway with loss of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons and dopamine depletion. Various natural compounds showed protective actions against PD.

In this work, the protective effects of cannabidiol (CBD), obtained from Cannabis sativa, were evaluated in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y cells exposed to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), an in vitro PD model.

CBD counteracted the loss of cell viability caused by MPP+, reducing apoptosis as demonstrated by the reduction of Bax and caspase 3. Moreover, CBD reduced the nuclear levels of PARP-1. The protective effects of CBD seem to be mediated by the activation of ERK and AKT/mTOR pathways.

These data suggested the involvement of ERK in the modulation of autophagy. However, beclin 1 levels were not modified neither by MPP+ nor by CBD. These results indicated that CBD may exert preventive and protective actions in PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32184097

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0367326X20301350?via%3Dihub

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The Critical Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in URB602-induced Protective Effects Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat.

 Image result for shock journal“Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and even induces remote organ damage.

Accumulating proofs demonstrates that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may provide a promising access for treatment strategy of renal IRI associated AKI.

In the current study, using the established renal IRI model of rat, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of URB602, 30 min before renal IRI, alleviates kidney injury and relevant distant organ damage via limiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

Taken together, our data indicate that URB602 acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and anti-inflammatory media in renal IRI mainly depending on the activation of CB2.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32004183

 

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Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 reduces lung ischemia reperfusion injury through PI3K/Akt pathway.

Image result for int j clin exp pathol“Cannabinoid receptor-2 activation plays a protective role against ischemic reperfusion injury (IRI) in various organs, and exerts a protective effect against paraquat-induced acute lung injury, while the role of CB2 in lung IRI remains unclear.

Hence, the present study was designed to explore the role of CB2 in lung IRI, and whether the PI3K pathway was involved.

The study suggested that activation of CB2 receptor plays a protective role against IR-induced lung injury through reducing inflammation in mice.

The PI3K/Akt pathway might be involved in the protective effect of CB2 receptors in lung IRI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31933805

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Cannabinoid receptor 2 activation decreases severity of cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis via regulating autophagy.

Publication cover image“Cannabinoids have been shown to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, and the effects of cannabinoids are mediated primarily by cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2).

The objective of this study was to determine efficacy and mechanism of CB2 activation on cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS:

Activation of CB2 decreased severity of CYP-induced cystitis and ameliorated bladder inflammation. CB2 activation is protective in cystitis through the activation of autophagy and AMPK-mTOR pathway may be involved in the initiation of autophagy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31729056

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/nau.24205

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Cannabidiol Protects Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells from Cadmium.

ijerph-logo“The protective effect of cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against neuronal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 10 μM) was investigated in a retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

CBD (1 μM) was applied 24 h before and removed during cadmium (Cd) treatment. In differentiated neuronal cells, CBD significantly reduced the Cd-dependent decrease of cell viability, and the rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase.

CBD significantly prevented the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (GRP78 increase) and the subcellular distribution of the cytochrome C, as well as the overexpression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Immunocytochemical analysis as well as quantitative protein evaluation by western blotting revealed that CBD partially counteracted the depletion of the growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and of the neuronal specific class III β-tubulin (β3 tubulin) induced by Cd treatment.

These data showed that Cd-induced neuronal injury was ameliorated by CBD treatment and it was concluded that CBD may represent a potential option to protect neuronal cells from the detrimental effects of Cd toxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31718076

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4420

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The protective effect of cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

“Kidney ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is an important health problem resulting in acute renal failure. After IR, the inflammatory and apoptotic process is triggered.

The relation of Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor with inflammatory and apoptotic process has been determined. The CB2 receptor has been shown to be localized in glomeruli and tubules in human and rat kidney. Activation of CB2 receptor with JWH-133 has been shown to reduce apoptosis and inflammation.

In this study, it was investigated whether CB2 activation with selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was protective against renal IR injury.

We found that JWH-133 and CB2 receptor activation had a curative effect against kidney IR damage. JWH-133 may be a new therapeutic agent in preventing kidney IR damage.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31446615

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-019-03616-6

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Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation.

cells-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural phytocannabinoid without psychoactive effect, is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound.

The possibility of its use in cytoprotection of cells from harmful factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is an area of ongoing investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the regulatory mechanisms associated with the redox balance and inflammation in keratinocytes irradiated with UVA [30 J/cm2] and UVB [60 mJ/cm2].

Spectrophotometric results show that CBD significantly enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase in UV irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, despite decreased glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities, CBD prevents lipid peroxidation, which was observed as a decreased level of 4-HNE and 15d-PGJ2 (measured using GC/MS and LC/MS). Moreover, Western blot analysis of protein levels shows that, under stress conditions, CBD influences interactions of transcription factors Nrf2- NFκB by inhibiting the NFκB pathway, increasing the expression of Nrf2 activators and stimulating the transcription activity of Nrf2.

In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of CBD through Nrf2 activation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties as an inhibitor of NFκB should be considered during design of new protective treatments for the skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31382646

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/8/827

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Cannabis consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A three years longitudinal study in first episode non-affective psychosis patients.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry“Increased incidence of obesity and excess weight lead to an increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis consumption on weight gain and related metabolic alterations in psychosis patients. Overall, patients are at greater risk of presenting fatty diseases, such as NAFLD, partly due to lipid and glycemic metabolic disturbances. However, there are no previous studies on the likely effect of cannabis on liver steatosis. We aimed to explore if cannabis consumption had an effect on hepatic steatosis, in a sample of first-episode (FEP) non-affective psychosis.

RESULTS:

At 3-year follow-up, cannabis users presented significantly lower FLI scores than non-users (F = 13.874; p < .001). Moreover, cannabis users less frequently met the criteria for liver steatosis than non-users (X2 = 7.97, p = .019). Longitudinally, patients maintaining cannabis consumption after 3 years presented the smallest increment in FLI over time, which was significantly smaller than the increment in FLI presented by discontinuers (p = .022) and never-users (p = .016). No differences were seen in fibrosis scores associated with cannabis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis consumption may produce a protective effect against liver steatosis in psychosis, probably through the modulation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31228640

“Cannabis consumption is associated with a lower risk of liver steatosis in psychosis. Cannabis use is not associated with liver fibrosis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584619301393?via%3Dihub

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