The protective effect of cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

“Kidney ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is an important health problem resulting in acute renal failure. After IR, the inflammatory and apoptotic process is triggered.

The relation of Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor with inflammatory and apoptotic process has been determined. The CB2 receptor has been shown to be localized in glomeruli and tubules in human and rat kidney. Activation of CB2 receptor with JWH-133 has been shown to reduce apoptosis and inflammation.

In this study, it was investigated whether CB2 activation with selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was protective against renal IR injury.

We found that JWH-133 and CB2 receptor activation had a curative effect against kidney IR damage. JWH-133 may be a new therapeutic agent in preventing kidney IR damage.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31446615

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-019-03616-6

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Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation.

cells-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural phytocannabinoid without psychoactive effect, is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound.

The possibility of its use in cytoprotection of cells from harmful factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is an area of ongoing investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the regulatory mechanisms associated with the redox balance and inflammation in keratinocytes irradiated with UVA [30 J/cm2] and UVB [60 mJ/cm2].

Spectrophotometric results show that CBD significantly enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase in UV irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, despite decreased glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities, CBD prevents lipid peroxidation, which was observed as a decreased level of 4-HNE and 15d-PGJ2 (measured using GC/MS and LC/MS). Moreover, Western blot analysis of protein levels shows that, under stress conditions, CBD influences interactions of transcription factors Nrf2- NFκB by inhibiting the NFκB pathway, increasing the expression of Nrf2 activators and stimulating the transcription activity of Nrf2.

In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of CBD through Nrf2 activation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties as an inhibitor of NFκB should be considered during design of new protective treatments for the skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31382646

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/8/827

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Cannabis consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A three years longitudinal study in first episode non-affective psychosis patients.

Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry“Increased incidence of obesity and excess weight lead to an increased incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis consumption on weight gain and related metabolic alterations in psychosis patients. Overall, patients are at greater risk of presenting fatty diseases, such as NAFLD, partly due to lipid and glycemic metabolic disturbances. However, there are no previous studies on the likely effect of cannabis on liver steatosis. We aimed to explore if cannabis consumption had an effect on hepatic steatosis, in a sample of first-episode (FEP) non-affective psychosis.

RESULTS:

At 3-year follow-up, cannabis users presented significantly lower FLI scores than non-users (F = 13.874; p < .001). Moreover, cannabis users less frequently met the criteria for liver steatosis than non-users (X2 = 7.97, p = .019). Longitudinally, patients maintaining cannabis consumption after 3 years presented the smallest increment in FLI over time, which was significantly smaller than the increment in FLI presented by discontinuers (p = .022) and never-users (p = .016). No differences were seen in fibrosis scores associated with cannabis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis consumption may produce a protective effect against liver steatosis in psychosis, probably through the modulation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31228640

“Cannabis consumption is associated with a lower risk of liver steatosis in psychosis. Cannabis use is not associated with liver fibrosis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278584619301393?via%3Dihub

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The pharmacological reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis attenuates the protective effects of cannabidiol on cocaine voluntary intake.

Addiction Biology banner“The administration of cannabidiol has shown promising evidence in the treatment of some neuropsychiatric disorders, including cocaine addiction. However, little information is available as to the mechanisms by which cannabidiol reduces drug use and compulsive seeking.

We investigated the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in reducing cocaine voluntary intake produced by repeated cannabidiol treatment in mice.

Cannabidiol (20 mg/kg) reduced cocaine self-administration behaviour acquisition and total cocaine intake and enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

The present study confirms that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the mechanisms by which cannabidiol lowers cocaine reinforcement and demonstrates the functional implication of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in cocaine voluntary consumption in mice.

Such findings highlight the possible use of cannabidiol for developing new pharmacotherapies to manage cocaine use disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31162770

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/adb.12778

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Retrograde activation of CB1R by muscarinic receptors protects against central organophosphorus toxicity.

Neuropharmacology“The acute toxicity of organophosphorus-based compounds is primarily a result of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The resulting cholinergic crisis manifests as seizure, paralysis, respiratory failure and neurotoxicity. Though overstimulation of muscarinic receptors is the mechanistic basis of central organophosphorus (OP) toxicities, short-term changes in synapse physiology that precede OP-induced seizures have not been investigated in detail. To study acute effects of OP exposure on synaptic function, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded from Schaffer collateral synapses in the mouse hippocampus CA1 stratum radiatum during perfusion with various OP compounds. Administration of the OPs paraoxon, soman or VX rapidly and stably depressed fEPSPs via a presynaptic mechanism, while the non-OP proconvulsant tetramethylenedisulfotetramine had no effect on fEPSP amplitudes. OP-induced presynaptic long-term depression manifested prior to interictal spiking, occurred independent of recurrent firing, and did not require NMDA receptor currents, suggesting that it was not mediated by activity-dependent calcium uptake. Pharmacological dissection revealed that the presynaptic endocannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) as well as postsynaptic M1 and M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were necessary for OP-LTD. Administration of CB1R antagonists significantly reduced survival in mice after a soman challenge, revealing an acute protective role for endogenous CB1R signaling during OP exposure. Collectively these data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system alters glutamatergic synaptic function during the acute response to OP acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31132436

“CB1R activation represents a novel therapy to mitigate acute OP toxicity”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S002839081930190X?via%3Dihub

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Protective effects of specific cannabinoid receptor 2 agonist GW405833 on concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury in mice.

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“Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is highly expressed in immune cells and plays an important role in regulating immune responses. In the current study, we investigated the effects of GW405833 (GW), a specific CB2R agonist, on acute liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A).

In animal experiments, acute liver injury was induced in mice by injection of Con A (20 mg/kg, i.v.). The mice were treated with GW (20 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min after Con A injection) or GW plus the selective CB2R antagonist AM630 (2 mg/kg, i.p., 15 min after Con A injection).

We found that Con A caused severe acute liver injury evidenced by significantly increased serum aminotransferase levels, massive hepatocyte apoptosis, and necrosis, as well as lymphocyte infiltration in liver tissues. Treatment with GW significantly ameliorated Con A-induced pathological injury in liver tissue, decreased serum aminotransferase levels, and decreased hepatocyte apoptosis.

Our results suggest that GW protects against Con A-induced acute liver injury in mice by inhibiting Jurkat T-cell proliferation through the CB2Rs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30918343

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41401-019-0213-0

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Lung alveolar tissue destruction and protein citrullination in diesel exhaust exposed mouse lungs.

Basic &amp; Clinical Pharmacology &amp; Toxicology banner

“Humanity faces an increasing impact of air pollution worldwide, including threats to human health. Air pollutants prompt and promote chronic inflammation, tumourigenesis, autoimmune and other destructive processes in the human body.

Post-translational modification of proteins, e.g. citrullination, results from damaging attacks of pollutants, including smoking, air pollution and others, rendering host tissues immunogenic. Citrullinated proteins and citrullinating enzymes, deiminases, are more prevalent in patients with COPD and correlate with ongoing inflammation and oxidative stress.

In this study, we installed an in-house-designed diesel exhaust delivery and cannabidiol vaporization system where mice were exposed to relevant, urban traffic-related levels of diesel exhaust for 14 days and assessed integrity of alveolar tissue, gene expression shifts and changes in protein content in the lungs and other tissues of exposed mice. Systemic presence of modified proteins was also tested.

The protective effect of phytocannabinoids was investigated as well.

Data obtained in our study show subacute effects of diesel exhaust on mouse lung integrity and protein content. Emphysematous changes are documented in exposed mouse lungs. In parallel, increased levels of citrulline were detected in the alveolar lung tissue and peripheral blood of exposed mice.

Pretreatment with vaporized cannabidiol ameliorated some damaging effects.

Results reported hereby provide new insights into subacute lung tissue changes that follow diesel exhaust exposure and suggest possible dietary and/or other therapeutic interventions for maintaining lung health and healthy ageing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30801928

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bcpt.13213

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Effect of cannabis on weight and metabolism in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Results from a three-year longitudinal study.

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“Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis on weight gain and related metabolic alterations. However, there are no previous studies on the long-term longitudinal effects of cannabis on first-episode drug-naïve patients, which would thereby avoid the confounding effects of chronicity and previous treatment exposure.

We aimed to explore the effect of cannabis smoking on weight and lipid/glycaemic metabolic measures in a sample of first-episode non-affective psychosis patients.

RESULTS::

Cannabis users at baseline presented a lower weight ( F=14.85, p<0.001), body mass index ( F=13.14, p<0.001), total cholesterol ( F=4.85, p=0.028) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( F=6.26, p=0.013) compared to non-users. These differences were also observed after three years: weight ( F=8.07, p=0.005), body mass index ( F=4.66, p=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( F=3.91, p=0.049). Moreover, those patients discontinuing cannabis use presented a higher increase in weight ( F=2.98, p=0.052), body mass index ( F=2.73, p=0.067) and triglyceride-high-density lipoprotein ratio ( F=2.72, p=0.067) than the ‘non-users’ and ‘continuers’.

CONCLUSIONS::

The study suggests that cannabis use may produce a protective effect against weight gain and related metabolic alterations in psychosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30702972

https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881118822173

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Activation of ATP-sensitive K-channel promotes the anticonvulsant properties of cannabinoid receptor agonist through mitochondrial ATP level reduction.

“Cannabinoid receptor (CBR) agonist could act as a protective agent against seizure susceptibility in animal models of epilepsy.

Studies have shown that potassium channels could play a key role in ameliorating neuronal excitability.

In this study, we attempted to evaluate how CBRs and Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels collaborate to affect seizure susceptibility by changing the clonic seizure threshold (CST).

In conclusion, CB1 agonist accomplishes at least a part of its anticonvulsant actions through ATP-sensitive potassium channels, probably by decreasing the mitochondrial ATP level to open the potassium channel to induce its anticonvulsant effect.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30776677

https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1525505018308503

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Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System Following Central Nervous System Injury.

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“Central nervous system (CNS) injury, such as stroke or trauma, is known to increase susceptibility to various infections that adversely affect patient outcomes (CNS injury-induced immunodepression-CIDS).

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been shown to have immunoregulatory properties. Therefore, the ECS might represent a druggable target to overcome CIDS.

Evidence suggests that cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB₂R) activation can be protective during the early pro-inflammatory phase after CNS injury, as it limits neuro-inflammation and, therefore, attenuates CIDS severity. In the later phase post CNS injury, CB₂R inhibition is suggested as a promising pharmacologic strategy to restore immune function in order to prevent infection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30658442

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/2/388

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