“Background: As effective immune modulators, Endocannabinoids may suppress the inflammatory responses in periodontitis. This study assessed the expression of cannabinoid receptors in gingiva and the impact on periodontitis.
Methods: A cross-sectional study on 20 patients with more than stage II and Grade A periodontitis and a control group consisting of 19 healthy individuals was performed. The gingival biopsies were assessed for the expression of CB1 and CB2 using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, TaqMan method.
Results: The study sample consisted of 39 subjects, 31 females (79.5%) and 8 males (20.5%), including 20 periodontitis subjects (80% female and 20% male), and control groups (78.9% female and 21.1% male). The mean ages of cases and controls were 33.3 ± 4.7 and 35.7 ± 5.1 years, respectively. The gene expression of CB2 in periodontitis was 27.62 ± 7.96 and in healthy subjects was 78.15 ± 23.07. The CB2 was significantly lower than the control group (p = .008). In comparison, the gene expression index of CB1 in the periodontal group (9.42 ± 3.03) was higher than the control group (6.62 ± 1.13) but did not meet a significant value (p = .671).
Conclusion: The lower expression of CB2 receptors in the periodontitis group may be due to the reduced protective effect of anti-inflammatory agents. These elements include cannabinoids and the imbalance leading to the predominance of pro-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the local effects of cannabinoids as an immunomodulator could be useful for oral inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis.”
“In conclusion, as CB2 receptors are expressed in gingival tissues, particularly immune cells and fibroblasts, they involve in tissue and wound repair. The lower expression of these receptors in periodontitis, could be related to the inflammatory reactions and interrupts wound repair. Therefore, it seems that the use of cannabinoid CB2 agonists in the form of mouth wash contributes to the healing of periodontitis.”