CB1 enhanced the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells via p38 MAPK and JNK in an inflammatory environment.

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“Periodontitis is an inflammatory immune disease that causes periodontal tissue loss. Inflammatory immunity and bone metabolism are closely related to periodontitis.

The cannabinoid receptor I (CB1) is an important constituent of the endocannabinoid system and participates in bone metabolism and inflammation tissue healing.

It is unclear whether CB1 affects the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) function involved in periodontal tissue regeneration.

In this study, we revealed the role and mechanism of CB1 in the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in an inflammatory environment.

CONCLUSIONS:

CB1 was able to enhance the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation ability of PDLSCs via p38 MAPK and JNK signalling in an inflammatory environment, which might be a potential target for periodontitis treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31599069

“In conclusion, our findings revealed that CB1 could activate the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential of PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions. Our results clarified the potential role and mechanism of CB1 in PDLSCs under inflammatory conditions and provide candidate targets for enhancing MSC function and the treatment of periodontitis.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/cpr.12691

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Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Promote Periodontal Cell Adhesion and Migration.

Journal of Clinical Periodontology banner“Medical and recreational cannabis use is increasing significantly, but its impacts on oral health remains unclear.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component in cannabis, on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration to explore its role in periodontal regeneration and wound healing.

RESULTS:

Both CB1 and CB2 were expressed in periodontal tissues but with different expression patterns. THC promoted periodontal cell wound healing by inducing HPLF cell adhesion and migration. This was mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation and its modulation of MAPK activities. The effect of cannabinoids on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration were mainly dependent on the CB2.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggested that cannabinoids may contribute to developing new therapeutics for periodontal regeneration and wound healing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461164

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpe.13190

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Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) expression in rat dental pulp

Oral Science International“Accumulating evidence supports the role of the cannabinoid system in providing an antinociceptive effect in various painful conditions.

This effect is mediated through the Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) expressed on nociceptive afferent nerve terminals.

To investigate whether this receptor plays a similar role in dental pain, we studied the presence and distribution of CB1R in rat dental pulp.

CB1R was present on nerve fibers in rat dental pulp and possibly plays a role in dental pain mechanisms.

Interestingly, CB1R has recently been demonstrated in human dental pulp.

This strongly suggests that CB1R could be a therapeutic target for dental pain management.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1348864312000031

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Cannabinoid receptor CB1-immunoreactive nerve fibres in painful and non-painful human tooth pulp.

Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Home“The cannabinoid receptor CB1 is involved in modulation of neuronal hypersensitivity and pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate CB1 receptor levels for the first time in dental pain. A total of 19 patients due for molar extraction were divided into two groups, those with existing dental pain (n=9), and those with no history of pain (n=10). Immunohistochemistry and computer image analysis was used to evaluate CB1-positive nerve fibres in tooth pulp, with neurofilament-immunostaining as a structural nerve marker. CB1-immunoreactive nerve fibres were scattered throughout the tooth pulp and often seen in nerve bundles, but the fibres did not penetrate the subodontoblastic layer. There was no statistically significant change in the CB1 nerve fibre percentage area in the painful group compared to the non-painful group (p=0.146); the neurofilament fibres were significantly reduced in the painful group compared to the controls (p=0.028), but there was no difference in the ratio of CB1 to neurofilaments between the two groups. Thus, CB1 expression is maintained by nerve fibres in painful human dental pulp, and peripherally-restricted CB1 agonists currently in development may advance the treatment of dental pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20705472

https://www.jocn-journal.com/article/S0967-5868(10)00289-4/fulltext

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Treatment of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells with MOR and CBD Promotes Cell Survival and Neuronal Differentiation via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

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“Periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells (hPDLSCs), as well as all mesenchymal stem cells, show self-renewal, clonogenicity, and multi-tissue differentiation proprieties and can represent a valid support for regenerative medicine. We treated hPDLSCs with a combination of Moringin (MOR) and Cannabidiol (CBD), in order to understand if treatment could improve their survival and their in vitro differentiation capacity. Stem cells survival is fundamental to achieve a successful therapy outcome in the re-implanted tissue of patients. Through NGS transcriptome analysis, we found that combined treatment increased hPDLSCs survival, by inhibition of apoptosis as demonstrated by enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic genes and reduction of pro-apoptotic ones. Moreover, we investigated the possible involvement of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, emphasizing a differential gene expression between treated and untreated cells. Furthermore, hPDLSCs were cultured for 48 h in the presence or absence of CBD and MOR and, after confirming the cellular viability through MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide) assay, we examined the presence of neuronal markers, through immunofluorescence analysis. We found an increased expression of Nestin and GAP43 (growth associated protein 43) in treated cells. In conclusion, hPDLSCs treated with Moringin and Cannabidiol showed an improved survival capacity and neuronal differentiation potential.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096889

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/8/2341

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Anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoid receptor 2 ligands in primary hPDL fibroblasts.

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“Approximately 65 million adults in the US have periodontitis, causing tooth loss and decreased quality of life.

 Cannabinoids modulate immune responses, and endocannabinoids are prevalent during oral cavity inflammation. Targets for intervention in periodontal inflammation are cannabinoid type 1 and 2 receptors (CB1R, CB2R), particularly CB2R because its levels increase during inflammation.

We previously demonstrated that SMM-189 (CB2R inverse agonist) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary microglial cells. The hypothesis of this study was that cannabinoids anandamide (AEA), HU-308 (CB2R selective agonist), and SMM-189 decrease pro-inflammatory IL-6 and MCP-1 production by primary human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) stimulated with P. gingivalis LPS, TNF-α, or IL-1β.

CONCLUSION:

The effective inhibition of LPS, TNF-α, IL-1β stimulated IL-6 and MCP-1 production by CB2R ligands in hPDLFs suggests that targeting the endocannabinoid system may lead to development of novel drugs for periodontal therapy, aiding strategies to improve oral health.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29274621

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Cannabidiol decreases bone resorption by inhibiting RANK/RANKL expression and pro-inflammatory cytokines during experimental periodontitis in rats.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid component from Cannabis sativa that does not induce psychotomimetic effects and possess anti-inflammatory properties.  In the present study we tested the effects of CBD in a periodontitis experimental model in rats. Morphometrical analysis of alveolar bone loss demonstrated that CBD-treated animals presented a decreased alveolar bone loss. These results indicate that CBD may be useful to control bone resorption during progression of experimental periodontitis in rats.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19070683

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Cannabidiol: an alternative therapeutic agent for oral mucositis?

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“Chemo- and radiotherapy are therapeutic modalities often used in patients with malignant neoplasms. They kill tumour cells but act on healthy tissues as well, resulting in adverse effects. Oral mucositis is especially of concern, due to the morbidity that it causes.

We reviewed the literature on the etiopathogenesis of oral mucositis and the activity of cannabidiol, to consider the possibility of its use for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis.

The control of oxidative stress may prevent and alleviate oral mucositis. Studies have demonstrated that cannabidiol is safe to use and possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties.

The literature on the use of cannabidiol in dentistry is still scarce. Studies investigating the use of cannabidiol in oral mucositis and other oxidative stress-mediated side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on the oral mucosa should be encouraged.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28191662

“Review: cannabidiol may be beneficial for oral mucositis. The researchers found evidence that oxidative stress control could prevent and relieve oral mucositis. Cannabidiol was found to be safe to use and demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties,” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-02-cannabidiol-beneficial-oral-mucositis.html
“Cannabidiol could be beneficial for the treatment of oral mucositis, according to a review published online Feb. 12 in the Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics.” http://www.bioportfolio.com/news/article/3029295/Review-cannabidiol-may-be-beneficial-for-oral-mucositis.html
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Expression of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Human Odontoblast Cells.

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“The aim of this study was to investigate the functional expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptors in human odontoblasts (HODs) and the possible internal mechanism.

In the present study, we examined the molecular and functional expression of the CB1 receptors in cultured HOD-like cells and native HODs obtained from healthy wisdom teeth.

We conclude that HODs can express functional CB1 receptors that may play an important role in mediating the physiological function in tooth pulp.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27989582

“Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in periodontal healing.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20233580

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ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

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“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

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