Anti-tumoural actions of cannabinoids.

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“The endocannabinoid system has emerged as a considerable target for the treatment of diverse diseases.

In addition to the well-established palliative effects of cannabinoids in cancer therapy, phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoid compounds as well as inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have attracted attention as possible systemic anticancer drugs.

As a matter of fact, accumulating data from preclinical studies suggest cannabinoids elicit effects on different levels of cancer progression, comprising inhibition of proliferation, neovascularisation, invasion and chemoresistance, induction of apoptosis and autophagy as well as enhancement of tumour immune surveillance.

Although the clinical use of cannabinoid receptor ligands is limited by their psychoactivity, nonpsychoactive compounds, such as cannabidiol, have gained attention due to preclinically established anticancer properties and a favourable risk-to-benefit profile.

Thus, cannabinoids may complement the currently used collection of chemotherapeutics, as a broadly diversified option for cancer treatment, while counteracting some of their severe side effects.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30019449

“During the last few decades, a large body of evidence has accumulated to suggest endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids exert an inhibitory effect on cancer growth via blockade of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Some studies support the hypothesis that cannabinoids may enhance immune responses against the progressive growth and spread of tumours.”  https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bph.14426#bph14426-fig-0001
“Previous research has shown that cannabinoids can help lessen side effects of anti-cancer therapies. Now a new British Journal of Pharmacology review has examined their potential for the direct treatment of cancer. Studies have shown that cannabinoids may stop cancer cells from dividing and invading normal tissue, and they may block the blood supply to tumors. Some studies also indicate that cannabinoids may enhance the body’s immune response against the growth and spread of tumors.” https://www.eurasiareview.com/19072018-cannabinoids-may-have-a-vast-array-of-anti-cancer-effects/
“Cannabinoids may have a vast array of anti-cancer effects” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/07/180718082143.htm

“Cannabinoids may have a vast array of anti-cancer effects”  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-07/w-cmh071718.php

Marijuana may help fight cancer” https://nypost.com/2018/07/18/marijuana-may-help-fight-cancer/

“Cannabis stops cancer spreading and boosts immune system, say scientists. Studies show cannabinoids can stop cancer cells from dividing and spreading, and blocks blood supply to tumours” https://www.plymouthherald.co.uk/news/health/cannabis-can-cure-cancer-proof-1803485
“Cannabis stops cancer spreading and boosts immune system, say scientists. Cannabis can act as a treatment for cancer and boost the immune system, claims a new study.” https://www.devonlive.com/news/health/cannabis-can-cure-cancer-proof-1803485
“Cannabis stops cancer spreading and boosts immune system, say scientists. Cannabis can act as a treatment for cancer and boost the immune system, claims a new study.” https://www.cornwalllive.com/news/uk-world-news/cannabis-can-cure-cancer-proof-1803485
Cannabis ‘can act as a treatment for cancer’. Cannabis can enhance the immune system and act as a treatment for cancer, claims a new study. Scientists at Rostock University Medical Centre in Germany claimed the benefits following a review of more than 100 studies.” https://www.thelondoneconomic.com/news/cannabis-can-act-as-a-treatment-for-cancer/19/07/
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Enhancing the Therapeutic Efficacy of Cancer Treatment With Cannabinoids

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“Many in vitro and in vivo studies have reported on the antitumorigenic effects of plant-derived cannabinoids (CBDs) and their synthetic analogs, including effects in inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis.

Over the years, many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the antineoplastic effects of cannabinoids (CBDs), with reports advocating for investigations of combination therapy approaches that could better leverage these effects in clinical translation.

This study explores the potential of combination approaches employing CBDs with radiotherapy (RT) or smart biomaterials toward enhancing therapeutic efficacy during treatment of pancreatic and lung cancers. In in vitro studies, clonogenic assay results showed greater effective tumor cell killing, when combining CBDs and RT. Meanwhile, in vivo study results revealed major increase in survival when employing smart biomaterials for sustained delivery of CBDs to tumor cells. The significance of these findings, considerations for further research, and viable roadmap to clinical translation are discussed.

The advantage of combining CBDs with other therapies is that this may allow simultaneous targeting of tumor progression at different levels, while minimizing toxicities for these therapies relative to toxicities from higher doses when used as monotherapies.”

“Cannabis Science Announces the Second Frontiers Peer-Reviewed Publication of its Research Results on the Use of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Cancers”  https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/05/01/1493854/0/en/Cannabis-Science-Announces-the-Second-Frontiers-Peer-Reviewed-Publication-of-its-Research-Results-on-the-Use-of-Cannabinoids-in-the-Treatment-of-Cancers.html

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INSIGHT ON THE IMPACT OF ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM IN CANCER: A REVIEW.

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“In the last decades, the endocannabinoid system has attracted a great interest in medicine and cancer disease is probably one of its most promising therapeutic areas.

On the one hand, endocannabinoid system expression has been found altered in numerous types of tumours compared to healthy tissue, and this aberrant expression has been related to cancer prognosis and disease outcome, suggesting a role of this system in tumour growth and progression that depends on cancer type.

On the other hand, it has been reported that cannabinoids exert an anticancer activity by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and/or invasion of cancer cells; and also tumour angiogenesis.

The endocannabinoid system may be considered as a new therapeutic target, although further studies to fully establish the effect of cannabinoids on tumour progression remain necessary.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29663308

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The effect of nabilone on appetite, nutritional status, and quality of life in lung cancer patients: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

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“Over one half of the patients diagnosed with advanced lung cancer experience anorexia. In addition to its high incidence, cancer-induced anorexia promotes the development of the anorexia-cachexia syndrome, which is related to poor clinical outcomes.

Recently, drugs derived from cannabinoids, such as Nabilone, have been recognized for their appetite improvement properties.

METHODS:

This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the effect of Nabilone vs. placebo on the appetite, nutritional status, and quality of life in patients diagnosed with advanced Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (NCT02802540).

CONCLUSION:

Nabilone is an adequate and safe therapeutic option to aid in the treatment of patients diagnosed with anorexia. Larger trials are necessary in order to draw robust conclusions in regard to its efficacy in lung cancer patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29550881

“Nabilone is a synthetic cannabinoid with therapeutic use as an antiemetic and as an adjunct analgesic for neuropathic pain. It mimics tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the primary psychoactive compound found naturally occurring in Cannabis.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabilone
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Direct modulation of the outer mitochondrial membrane channel, voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) by cannabidiol: a novel mechanism for cannabinoid-induced cell death.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid that inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death of cancer cells and activated immune cells.

Here, we studied the effects of CBD on various mitochondrial functions in BV-2 microglial cells.

Our findings indicate that CBD treatment leads to a biphasic increase in intracellular calcium levels and to changes in mitochondrial function and morphology leading to cell death.

Single-channel recordings of the outer-mitochondrial membrane protein, the voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) functioning in cell energy, metabolic homeostasis and apoptosis revealed that CBD markedly decreases channel conductance.

Finally, using microscale thermophoresis, we showed a direct interaction between purified fluorescently labeled VDAC1 and CBD.

Thus, VDAC1 seems to serve as a novel mitochondrial target for CBD.

The inhibition of VDAC1 by CBD may be responsible for the immunosuppressive and anticancer effects of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24309936

“The non-psychoactive plant cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), alone has strong anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in diverse animal models of disease such as diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. In addition, CBD has been reported to have anxiolytic, antiemetic and antipsychotic effects. Moreover, CBD has been shown to possess antitumor activity in human breast carcinoma and to effectively reduce primary tumor mass, as well as size and number of lung metastasis in preclinical animal models of breast cancer.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877544/

“In summary, in this study we have identified VDAC1 as a new molecular target for CBD. Our study suggests that CBD-induced cell death may occur through the inhibition of VDAC1 conductance and that this interaction may be responsible for the anticancer and immunosuppressive properties of CBD.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/cddis2013471

“Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 As an Emerging Drug Target for Novel Anti-CancerTherapeutics.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28824871

“Finally, small molecules targeting VDAC1 can induce apoptosis. VDAC1 can thus be considered as standing at the crossroads between mitochondrial metabolite transport and apoptosis and hence represents an emerging cancer drug target.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25448878

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Cannabidiol Induces Cytotoxicity and Cell Death via Apoptotic Pathway in Cancer Cell Lines

“In view of obtaining potential anticancer compounds, we studied the inhibitory activity and the cytotoxic effects of a candidate compound in cancer cells. The cytotoxic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in vitro were evaluated in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, B16 melanoma cells, A549 lung cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, Lenca kidney cells and SNU-C4 colon cancer cells.
The inhibitory activity of CBD was increased in all cancer cells and showed especially strong increment in breast cancer cells. The cytotoxicity of CBD increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with growth inhibition in all cancer cell lines.
Therefore these results suggest that CBD has a possibility of anticancer agents and anticancer effects against cancer cells by modulation of apoptotic pathway in the range of 5-80 μM concentration.”
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Cannabis Use, Lung Cancer, and Related Issues.

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“The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world.

The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment.

Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products.

Smoking cannabis has not been proven to be a risk factor in the development of lung cancer but the data are limited by small studies, misclassification due to self-reporting of usage, small numbers of heavy cannabis smoking and confounding of risk associated with known causative agents for lung cancer such as parallel chronic tobacco use.

Cannabis and its biologically effective derivatives warrant additional research, ideally controlled trials where the CBD and the THC strength and usage are controlled and documented.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29374567

“Good News: There’s No Definitive Link Between Marijuana Use and Lung Cancer” http://www.esquire.com/lifestyle/health/news/a52634/marijuana-lung-cancer/ 

“Study Shows No Proven Link Between Weed-Smoking and Lung Cancer”  http://www.complex.com/life/2017/01/weed-study-lung-cancer

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The Synthetic Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Elicits Death in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

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“Studies have revealed that cancer might be treated with cannabinoids since they can influence cancer cell survival. These findings suggest an alternative treatment option to chemo- and radiotherapy, that are associated with numerous adverse side-effects for the patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Viability staining was conducted on lung cancer, testicular cancer and neuroblastoma cells treated with different concentrations of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 and the percentage of dead cells was compared. Activity of apoptosis-related enzymes was investigated by the presence of DNA ladder in gel electrophoresis.

RESULTS:

Treatment with different WIN 55,212-2 concentrations led to a significant dose-dependent reduction of cell viability. A DNA ladder was observed after WIN 55,212-2 treatment of testicular cancer and lung cancer cells.

CONCLUSION:

The application of WIN 55,212-2 was found to trigger cell death in the investigated cell lines. The decline in lung cancer and testicular cancer cell viability seems to have been caused by apoptosis. These findings may contribute to development of alternative cancer therapy strategies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29061818

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Hypothesizing that marijuana smokers are at a significantly lower risk of carcinogenicity relative to tobacco-non-marijuana smokers: evidenced based on statistical reevaluation of current literature.

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“A hypothetical link between marijuana smoking and cancer has been established based on a number of misleading assumptions. However, recent studies tend to suggest, if anything, an inverse association between marijuana use and cancers.

To test the hypothesis that marijuana smoking significantly lowers the risk of developing cancer in humans, we analyzed published data from a prospective cohort study on cancer incidence among nonsmokers (NS), marijuana-only smokers (MS), tobacco-only smokers (TS), and marijuana and tobacco smokers (MTS).

Using the log linear model to calculate the probability of developing each cancer form as a function of the interaction between marijuana and tobacco smoking, as well as functions of marijuana and tobacco smoking main effects whereby chi square statistics were calculated for the interaction and main effect estimates, we found that in all cases tested there was a significantly lower risk for MS compared to TS. Male and female TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer than did MS. Males and females TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer compared with NS. Males and female MTS had a slightly higher probability of developing lung cancer than did MS.

This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 30.51, p < .00001, with a correlation coefficient of -0.75, Z = -7.84, p < .05. Male and female MTS had a lower probability of developing lung cancer than did TS. This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 71.61, p = .00003, with a correlation coefficient of 0.61, Z = 5.06, p < .05.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19004418

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2008.10400641

 

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Nanoparticle Drones to Target Lung Cancer with Radiosensitizers and Cannabinoids

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“Nanotechnology has opened up a new, previously unimaginable world in cancer diagnosis and therapy, leading to the emergence of cancer nanomedicine and nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy. These nanoparticle drones can be programmed to deliver therapeutic payloads to tumor sites to achieve optimal therapeutic efficacy.

In this article, we examine the state-of-the-art and potential of nanoparticle drones in targeting lung cancer. Inhalation (INH) (air) versus traditional intravenous (“sea”) routes of navigating physiological barriers using such drones is assessed. Results and analysis suggest that INH route may offer more promise for targeting tumor cells with radiosensitizers and cannabinoids from the perspective of maximizing damage to lung tumors cells while minimizing any collateral damage or side effects.

As discussed earlier, nanoparticle drones are particularly attractive because they can also be loaded with drugs payload like cannabinoids. Cannabinoids, which are the bioactive components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives, may exert palliative effects in cancer patients by preventing nausea, vomiting, and pain and by stimulating appetite .

Furthermore, studies indicate that cannabinoids can inhibit cancer cell growth in in vitro and in vivo. A Nature Reviews Cancer article and other recently published work highlight the potential of cannabinoids for treating cancer, working in synergy with radiotherapy and serving as radiosensitzers to enhance damage to lung tumor cells in particular. Consistent with this, our own experiments have confirmed the potential of cannabinoids in treating lung cancer, with results confirming that cannabinoids can enhance damage to cancer cells.

Overall, the use of nanoparticle drones administered via INH to enhance NRT, as highlighted in this article, may provide a good strategy for maximizing therapeutic efficacy in external beam NRT for lung cancer. Also there is growing evidence that cannabinoids can serve as radiosensitizers, enhance damage to tumor cells, slow tumor growth, and work synergistically with radiotherapy in cancer treatment.”

http://journal.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fonc.2017.00208/full

“Cannabis Science Announces Publication of Initial Research Results Using Nanoparticle Drones to Target Lung Cancer With Radiosensitizers and Cannabinoids in the Renowned Journal Frontiers in Oncology” https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/cannabis-science-announces-publication-initial-120522920.html

“Cannabis Science “Nanoparticle Drones to Target Lung Cancer with Radiosensitizers and Cannabinoids” Full Publication Released Today In Frontiers In Oncology” http://www.marketwired.com/press-release/cannabis-science-nanoparticle-drones-target-lung-cancer-with-radiosensitizers-cannabinoids-2234167.htm

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