Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstruction, Non-Targeted LC-QTOF-MS Based Metabolomics Data, and Evaluation of Anticancer Activity of Cannabis sativa Leaf Extracts

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“Over the past decades, Colombia has suffered complex social problems related to illicit crops, including forced displacement, violence, and environmental damage, among other consequences for vulnerable populations. Considerable effort has been made in the regulation of illicit crops, predominantly Cannabis sativa, leading to advances such as the legalization of medical cannabis and its derivatives, the improvement of crops, and leaving an open window to the development of scientific knowledge to explore alternative uses. It is estimated that C. sativa can produce approximately 750 specialized secondary metabolites. Some of the most relevant due to their anticancer properties, besides cannabinoids, are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, essential oils, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds. However, despite the increase in scientific research on the subject, it is necessary to study the primary and secondary metabolism of the plant and to identify key pathways that explore its great metabolic potential. For this purpose, a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of C. sativa is described and contextualized using LC-QTOF-MS metabolic data obtained from the leaf extract from plants grown in the region of Pesca-Boyaca, Colombia under greenhouse conditions at the Clever Leaves facility. A compartmentalized model with 2101 reactions and 1314 metabolites highlights pathways associated with fatty acid biosynthesis, steroids, and amino acids, along with the metabolism of purine, pyrimidine, glucose, starch, and sucrose. Key metabolites were identified through metabolomic data, such as neurine, cannabisativine, cannflavin A, palmitoleic acid, cannabinoids, geranylhydroquinone, and steroids. They were analyzed and integrated into the reconstruction, and their potential applications are discussed. Cytotoxicity assays revealed high anticancer activity against gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS), melanoma cells (A375), and lung carcinoma cells (A549), combined with negligible impact against healthy human skin cells.”

Therapeutic targeting of the tumor microenvironments with cannabinoids and their analogs: Update on clinical trials

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“Cancer is a major global public health concern that affects both industrialized and developing nations. Current cancer chemotherapeutic options are limited by side effects, but plant-derived alternatives and their derivatives offer the possibilities of enhanced treatment response and reduced side effects.

A plethora of recently published articles have focused on treatments based on cannabinoids and cannabinoid analogs and reported that they positively affect healthy cell growth and reverse cancer-related abnormalities by targeting aberrant tumor microenvironments (TMEs), lowering tumorigenesis, preventing metastasis, and/or boosting the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

Furthermore, TME modulating systems are receiving much interest in the cancer immunotherapy field because it has been shown that TMEs have significant impacts on tumor progression, angiogenesis, invasion, migration, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, metastasis and development of drug resistance.

Here, we have reviewed the effective role of cannabinoids, their analogs and cannabinoid nano formulations on the cellular components of TME (endothelial cells, pericytes, fibroblast and immune cells) and how efficiently it retards the progression of carcinogenesis is discussed. The article summarizes the existing research on the molecular mechanisms of cannabinoids regulation of the TME and finally highlights the human studies on cannabinoids’ active interventional clinical trials.

The conclusion outlines the need for future research involving clinical trials of cannabinoids to demonstrate their efficacy and activity as a treatment/prevention for various types of human malignancies.”

Inhalant cannabidiol impedes tumor growth through decreased tumor stemness and impaired angiogenic switch in NCI-H1437-induced human lung cancer model


“Lung cancer remains the most chronic form of cancer and the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Despite significant improvements in the treatment of lung cancer, the current therapeutic interventions are only partially effective, necessitating the continued search for better, novel alternative treatments. Angiogenesis and cancer stem cells play a central role in the initiation and propagation of cancers. Tumor angiogenesis is triggered by an angiogenic switch when pro-angiogenic factors exceed anti-angiogenic components. Although many anti-angiogenic agents are used in cancer treatment, there are therapeutic limitations with significant side effects.

In recent years, cannabinoids have been investigated extensively for their potential anti-neoplastic effects. Our previous findings showed that cannabidiol (CBD) could impede tumor growth in mouse models of melanoma and glioblastoma.

Importantly, CBD has been suggested to possess anti-angiogenic activity.

In this study, we tested, for the first time, inhalant CBD in the treatment of heterotopic lung cancer and whether such potential effects could reduce cancer stem cell numbers and inhibit tumor angiogenesis.

We implanted NCI H1437 human lung cancer cells in nude mice and treated the mice with inhalant CBD or placebo. The outcomes were measured by tumor size and imaging, as well as by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analysis for CD44, VEGF, and P-selectin.

Our findings showed that CBD decreased tumor growth rate and suppressed expression of CD44 and the angiogenic factors VEGF and P-selectin.

These results suggest, for the first time, that inhalant CBD can impede lung cancer growth by suppressing CD44 and angiogenesis.”

The use of medical cannabis concomitantly with immune checkpoint inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer: A sigh of relief?

European Journal of Cancer

“Background: The use of medical cannabis has rapidly increased among cancer patients worldwide. Cannabis is often administered concomitantly with cancer medications, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). As the cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed and modulate immune cells, it has been hypothesised that cannabis may attenuate the activity of ICIs. We aimed to assess the effect of cannabis on ICIs’ efficiency in patients having non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Method: The murine model of CT26 tumour-bearing mice treated with an anti-PD-1 antibody and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was used to evaluate the interaction between THC and ICIs in vivo. Correlation between use of medical cannabis and clinical outcome was evaluated in a cohort of 201 consecutive metastatic NSCLC patients treated with monotherapy pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment.

Results: Median overall survival (OS) of the mice receiving a control vehicle, THC, anti-PD-1 antibody or their combination was 21, 24, 31 and 54 days, respectively (p < 0.05 for the combination treatment compared to a control vehicle), indicating that THC did not reduce the efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. Of 201 NSCLC patients treated with first-line monotherapy pembrolizumab for metastatic disease, 102 (50.7%) patients received licence for cannabis within the first month of treatment. Cannabis-treated patients were younger compared to the cannabis naïve patients (median age 68 versus 74, p = 0.003), with female predominance (62, 60.8% versus 34, 34.3%, p = 0.002) and with more prevailing brain metastasis (15.7% versus 5%, p = 0.013). Similar distribution of histology, smoking status, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) and programmed death-ligand 1 expression was noted between the groups. Liver metastases were marginally significant (19.6% versus 10.1%, p = 0.058). The most common indication for cannabis was pain (71%) followed by loss of appetite (34.3%). Time to tumour progression was similar for cannabis-naive and cannabis-treated patients (6.1 versus 5.6 months, respectively, 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 1.38, p = 0.386), while OS was numerically higher in the cannabis-naive group (54.9 versus 23.6 months) but did not reach statistical significance (95% confidence interval 0.99 to 2.51, p = 0.08). In multivariate analyses, we did not identify cannabis use as an independent predictor factor for mortality.

Conclusions: Preclinical and clinical data suggest no deleterious effect of cannabis on the activity of pembrolizumab as first-line monotherapy for advanced NSCLC. The differences in OS can most likely be attributed to higher disease burden and more symptomatic disease in the cannabis-treated group. These data provide reassurance regarding the absence of a deleterious effect of cannabis in this clinical setting.”

Receptor-mediated effects of Δ9 -THC & CBD on the inflammatory response of alveolar macrophages

“Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are cannabinoids found in Cannabis sativa. While research supports cannabinoids reduce inflammation, the consensus surrounding receptor(s) mediated effects has yet to be established.

Here, we investigated the receptor-mediated properties of Δ9 -THC and CBD on alveolar macrophages, an important pulmonary immune cell in direct contact with cannabinoids inhaled by cannabis smokers.

MH-S cells, a mouse alveolar macrophage cell line, were exposed to Δ9 -THC and CBD, with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Outcomes included RNA-sequencing and cytokine analysis. Δ9 -THC and CBD alone did not affect the basal transcriptional response of MH-S cells.

In response to LPS, Δ9 -THC and CBD significantly reduced the expression of numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, an effect that was dependent on CB2 . The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD- but not Δ9 -THC- were mediated through a reduction in signaling through NF-κB and ERK1/2.

These results suggest that CBD and Δ9 -THC have potent immunomodulatory properties in alveolar macrophages, a cell type important in immune homeostasis in the lungs. Further investigation into the effects of cannabinoids on lung immune cells could lead to the identification of therapies that may ameliorate conditions characterized by inflammation.”

Antitumorigenic Effect of Cannabidiol in Lung Cancer: What Do We Know So Far?-A Mini Review

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“Background: Lung cancer remains a major factor contributing to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apart from the chemotherapeutic agents in routine use, factors targeting novel molecular pathways are in clinical trials and provide hope for terminal lung cancer patients. The endocannabinoid system has recently become a popular field of study. Many experimental studies have shown that CBD and THC could be used outside of palliative care, as they play a major role in lung cancer cell apoptosis. The objective of this review is to evaluate the antitumorigenic mechanisms of CBD in lung cancer cells.

Methods: We searched the databases MEDLINE,, CENTRAL, and google scholar using specific terms. A total of 246 studies were screened, and nine studies were included in the review. All the selected studies were conducted in vitro, and four of which also had an in vivo component. Included studies were assessed in our review using the ToxRTool.

Results and conclusion: The most common cell line used in all of the studies was A549; however, some studies included other cell lines, including H460 and H358. We concluded that CBD has direct antineoplastic effects on lung cancer cells by various mechanisms mediated by cannabinoid receptors or independent of them. All studies referred to an in vitro model; hence, further research is required for this data to have any clinical application.”

Role of Cannabidiol for Improvement of the Quality of Life in Cancer Patients: Potential and Challenges


“There is currently a growing interest in the use of cannabidiol (CBD) to alleviate the symptoms caused by cancer, including pain, sleep disruption, and anxiety. CBD is often self-administered as an over-the-counter supplement, and patients have reported benefits from its use. However, despite the progress made, the mechanisms underlying CBD’s anti-cancer activity remain divergent and unclear. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of molecular mechanisms to determine convergent anti-cancer actions of CBD from pre-clinical and clinical studies. In vitro studies have begun to elucidate the molecular targets of CBD and provide evidence of CBD’s anti-tumor properties in cell and mouse models of cancer. Furthermore, several clinical trials have been completed testing CBD’s efficacy in treating cancer-related pain. However, most use a mixture of CBD and the psychoactive, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and/or use variable dosing that is not consistent between individual patients. Despite these limitations, significant reductions in pain and opioid use have been reported in cancer patients using CBD or CBD+THC. Additionally, significant improvements in quality-of-life measures and patients’ overall satisfaction with their treatment have been reported. Thus, there is growing evidence suggesting that CBD might be useful to improve the overall quality of life of cancer patients by both alleviating cancer symptoms and by synergizing with cancer therapies to improve their efficacy. However, many questions remain unanswered regarding the use of CBD in cancer treatment, including the optimal dose, effective combinations with other drugs, and which biomarkers/clinical presentation of symptoms may guide its use.”

“CBD has great potential to improve the lives of cancer patients both by alleviating the symptoms of pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety, but also by synergistic activity with anti-cancer treatments to reverse or eliminate the growth of tumors causing these symptoms. Pre-clinical evidence in cell and mouse models supports the use of CBD as an anti-cancer therapy; however, clinical knowledge is currently lacking in this area. The effectiveness of CBD has been demonstrated in models of lung, breast, and colon cancer, as well as leukemia and glioblastoma. CBD has been shown to be toxic to cancer cells in vitro, and it is also generally well tolerated in the clinic.”

Anticancer activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol in vitro and in human lung cancer xenograft

Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine

“Objective: To investigate the effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactive compound of Cannabis sativa, and cannabinol, a Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol degradative product, on human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
Methods: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol were tested for anticancer activity in human non-small cell lung cancer (A549) cells. The effects on cell proliferation, apoptosis, and phosphorylation profiles were examined. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol on tumor growth were also investigated using a xenograft nude mouse model. Apoptosis and targeted phosphorylation were verified by immunohistochemistry.
Results: Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol significantly inhibited cell proliferation and increased the number of apoptotic cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol- and cannabinol-treated cells had lower levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B [AKT (S473)], glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha/beta, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase compared to the controls. The study of xenograft mice revealed that tumors treated with 15 mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 40 mg/kg cannabinol were significantly smaller than those of the control mice. The tumor progression rates in mice treated with 15 mg/kg Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 40 mg/kg cannabinol were significantly slower than in the control group.
Conclusions: These findings indicate that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinol inhibit lung cancer cell growth by inhibiting AKT and its signaling pathways, which include glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha/beta and endothelial nitric oxide synthase.”;year=2022;volume=12;issue=8;spage=323;epage=332;aulast=Leelawat

Cannabidiol Regulates PPARγ-Dependent Vesicle Formation as well as Cell Death in A549 Human Lung Cancer Cells


“Extracts of phytocannabinoids from Cannabis sativa have been studied for therapeutic purposes. Although nonpsychoactive CBD has been studied as a promising anticancer drug because it induces apoptosis in many cancer cells, it is also known to induce several physiological changes.

In this study, we clarify the functional role it plays in the morphological characteristics of intracellular vesicle formation as well as apoptosis in A549 human lung cancer cells.

CBD treatment shows growth inhibition at concentrations above 20 μM, but FACS analysis shows low efficacy in terms of cell death. Microscopic observations suggest that multiple vesicles were detected in the cytoplasmic region of CBD-treated A549 cells.

CBD treatment upregulates apoptosis-related proteins, such as p53, PARP, RIP1, RIP3, Atg12, and Beclin, indicating that CBD regulates several types of cell death. CBD treatment also induced E-cadherin, PPARγ, clathrin, β-adaptin, and Tsg101, also known to be cellular-differentiation inducers or vesicle-formation components.

Treatment combining CBD with GW9662, a PPARγ inhibitor, reduced CBD-induced cytoplasmic vesicle formation. This indicates that PPARγ regulates the vesicle-formation mechanism. However, CBD-treated E-cad KO clones did not show this regulatory mechanism.

These results elucidate the pharmacological and molecular networks associated with CBD in PPARγ-dependent vesicle formation and the induction of apoptosis.”

“Recently, the pharmacological efficacy of CBD has been focused on in many types of disease models. In this study, we have shown that CBD treatment upregulated cell death proteins, such as p53, PARP, RIP1, RIP3, Atg12, and Beclin. In addition, CBD treatment also induced E-cadherin, PPARγ, clathrin, β-adaptin, and Tsg101, also known to be cellular-differentiation inducers or vesicle-formation components.

We have also shown that PPARγ regulates the vesicle-formation mechanism. Therefore, not only have we confirmed cell death induction by CBD, we have also confirmed the regulation of vesicle formation by PPARγ in various cancer models.

Detailed molecuclar insights would enhance the therapeutic utilization of CBD without side effects. Cellular proliferation and death could be determined by a variety of molecular regulations in cellular networks composed of a variety of proteins. Moreover, the physiological changes in cells will be closely related to functional changes in intracellular organelles.

We suggest that an understanding of the complex intracellular network system is necessary to optimize the pharmacological efficacy of CBD. These steady research efforts will make significant progress in increasing the utilization of CBD, which has been restricted by legal regulations in some countries.”

In Vitro Effect of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabidiol on Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Isolated from Lung Cancer


“There is evidence that demonstrates the effect of cannabinoid agonists inhibiting relevant aspects in lung cancer, such as proliferation or epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT).

Most of these studies are based on evidence observed in in vitro models developed on cancer cell lines. These studies do not consider the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME). One of the main components of the TME is cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), cells that are relevant in the control of proliferation and metastasis in lung cancer.

In this work, we evaluated the direct effects of two cannabinoid agonists, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), used alone or in combination, on CAFs and non-tumor normal fibroblasts (NFs) isolated from adenocarcinoma or from healthy lung tissue from the same patients.

We observed that these compounds decrease cell density in vitro and inhibit the increase in the relative expression of type 1 collagen (COL1A1) and fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP1) induced by transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). On the other hand, we studied whether THC and CBD could modulate the interactions between CAFs or NFs and cancer cells. We conditioned the culture medium with stromal cells treated or not with THC and/or CBD and cultured A549 cells with them.

We found that culture media conditioned with CAFs or NFs increased cell density, induced morphological changes consistent with EMT, inhibited cadherin-1 (CDH1) gene expression, and induced an increase in the relative expression of cadherin-2 (CDH2) and vimentin (VIM) genes in A549 cells. These changes were inhibited or decreased by THC and CBD administered alone or in combination. In another series of experiments, we conditioned culture media with A549 cells treated or not with THC and/or CBD, in the presence or absence of TGFβ. We observed that culture media conditioned with A549 in the presence of TGFβ induced an increase in the expression of COL1A1 and VIM, both in CAFs and in non-tumor NFs. Both THC and CBD ameliorated these effects.

In summary, the results presented here reinforce the usefulness of cannabinoid agonists for the treatment of some relevant aspects of lung cancer pathology, and demonstrate in a novel way their possible effects on CAFs as a result of their relationship with cancer cells. Likewise, the results reinforce the usefulness of the combined use of THC and CBD, which has important advantages in relation to the possibility of using lower doses, thus minimizing the psychoactive effects of THC.”