Cannabidiol promotes apoptosis via regulation of XIAP/Smac in gastric cancer.

Image result for cell death and disease“According to recent studies, Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sativa, has anticancer effects in several cancers. However, the exact mechanism of CBD action is not currently understood.

Here, CBD promoted cell death in gastric cancer.

We suggest that CBD induced apoptosis by suppressing X-linked inhibitor apoptosis (XIAP), a member of the IAP protein family. CBD reduced XIAP protein levels while increasing ubiquitination of XIAP. The expression of Smac, a known inhibitor of XIAP, was found to be elevated during CBD treatment. Moreover, CBD treatment increased the interaction between XIAP and Smac by increasing Smac release from mitochondria to the cytosol. CBD has also been shown to affect mitochondrial dysfunction.

Taken together, these results suggest that CBD may have potential as a new therapeutic target in gastric cancer.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31699976

“In conclusion, our study showed that CBD induces apoptotic cell death in gastric cancer cells, which is triggered by ER stress generation and subsequent XIAP inhibition by Smac. Taken together, our results suggest the potential of CBD in novel treatments against gastric cancer.”

 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-2001-7

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Non-prescription cannabis use for symptom management amongst women with gynecologic malignancies.

Gynecologic Oncology Reports“To evaluate interest in and patterns of use of non-prescription cannabis products for symptom management amongst gynecologic cancer patients living in states with legal access to medical and recreational marijuana.

Sixty-two percent reported that they have used or would be interested in using cannabis products for symptom management; 60 (26.7%) are using non-prescription cannabis for treatment of cancer related symptoms, and 80 (35.6%) are interested in using cannabis derivatives under direction of their oncologist. Reasons cited for use of cannabis included: pain control (n = 41, 68.3), insomnia (n = 33, 55.0%), anxiety (n = 29, 48.3%), nausea (n = 26, 43.3%), and appetite stimulation (n = 21, 35.0%). Of the women using cannabis products, almost half report decreased prescription narcotic use after initiation of cannabis products (n = 27, 45.0%).

 

CONCLUSIONS:

Women with gynecologic cancer report a strong interest in the use of non-prescription cannabis products for management of cancer-related symptoms. Practitioners in the field of gynecologic oncology should be aware of the frequency of use of non-prescription cannabis amongst their patients as well as the growing desire for guidance about the use of cannabis derivatives. A substantial number of patients report decreased reliance on opioids when using cannabis derivatives for pain control.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31692541

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352578919300864?via%3Dihub

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Anticancer effects of n-3 EPA and DHA and their endocannabinoid derivatives on breast cancer cell growth and invasion.

Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids Home“The anticancer effects of the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), EPA and DHA may be due, at least in part, to conversion to their respective endocannabinoid derivatives, eicosapentaenoyl-ethanolamine (EPEA) and docosahexaenoyl-ethanolamine (DHEA).

Here, the effects of EPEA and DHEA and their parent compounds, EPA and DHA, on breast cancer (BC) cell function was examined. EPEA and DHEA exhibited greater anti-cancer effects than EPA and DHA in two BC cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) whilst displaying no effect in non-malignant breast cells (MCF-10a).

Both BC lines expressed CB1/2 receptors that were responsible, at least partly, for the observed anti-proliferative effects of the omega-3 endocannabinoids as determined by receptor antagonism studies. Additionally, major signalling mechanisms elicited by these CB ligands included altered phosphorylation of p38-MAPK, JNK, and ERK proteins.

Both LCPUFAs and their endocannabinoids attenuated the expression of signal proteins in BC cells, albeit to different extents depending on cell type and lipid effectors. These signal proteins are implicated in apoptosis and attenuation of BC cell migration and invasiveness.

Furthermore, only DHA reduced in vitro MDA-MB-231 migration whereas both LCPUFAs and their endocannabinoids significantly inhibited invasiveness. This finding was consistent with reduced integrin β3 expression observed with all treatments and reduced MMP-1 and VEGF with DHA treatment.

Attenuation of cell viability, migration and invasion of malignant cells indicates a potential adjunct nutritional therapeutic use of these LCPUFAs and/or their endocannabinoids in treatment of breast cancer.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31679810

https://www.plefa.com/article/S0952-3278(19)30112-7/fulltext

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Prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

 “Prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience a combination of disease symptoms and treatment side effects. The therapeutic use of cannabis to alleviate these side effects has not been studied, despite increasing patient interest. With the increasing availability of cannabis, it is important for clinicians to understand the prevalence, predictors, and perceived benefits of cannabis use among patients with prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

Questionnaire data revealed that 23.2% of surveyed men had recently used cannabis. In contrast, 5.8% of men had detectable levels of THC metabolite in their urine. Combined questionnaire and urine data revealed that cannabis users were significantly younger (p=0.003) and had lower testosterone levels (p=0.003) than non-users. The majority of men experiencing common ADT side effects reported some degree of relief following cannabis use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use among men with advanced prostate cancer receiving ADT is more prevalent than in the general population and the majority of other oncological cohorts. Lower testosterone levels and reported therapeutic benefit among cannabis users warrants confirmation in appropriate clinical trials.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31658007

https://cuaj.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/5911

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Cannabinoid receptor 2‑selective agonist JWH015 attenuates bone cancer pain through the amelioration of impaired autophagy flux induced by inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord.

Journal Cover “Bone cancer pain (BCP) is a severe complication of advanced bone cancer.

Although cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists may have an analgesic effect, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.

CB2 serves a protective role in various pathological states through the activation of autophagy. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the analgesic effects of the selective CB2 agonist JWH015 was mediated by the activation of autophagy in BCP.

The results of the present study suggested that the impairment of autophagy flux was induced by glia‑derived inflammatory mediators in spinal neurons. Intrathecal administration of the selective CB2 agonist JWH015 ameliorated autophagy flux through the downregulation of IL‑1β and IL‑6 and attenuated BCP.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31661120

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2019.10772

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WIN55,212-2-Induced Expression of Mir-29b1 Favours the Suppression of Osteosarcoma Cell Migration in a SPARC-Independent Manner.

ijms-logo“WIN55,212-2 (WIN) is a synthetic agonist of cannabinoid receptors that displays promising antitumour properties.

The aim of this study is to demonstrate that WIN is able to block the migratory ability of osteosarcoma cells and characterize the mechanisms involved.

Overall, these findings suggest that WIN markedly affects cell migration, dependently on miR-29b1 and independently of SPARC, and can thus be considered as a potential innovative therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31652569

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/20/5235

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The endocannabinoid system: Novel targets for treating cancer induced bone pain.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy“Treating Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) continues to be a major clinical challenge and underlying mechanisms of CIBP remain unclear.

Recently, emerging body of evidence suggested the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may play essential roles in CIBP. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the antinociceptive mechanisms of endocannabinoids in CIBP and discussed the beneficial effects of endocannabinoid for CIBP treatment.

Targeting non-selective cannabinoid 1 receptors or selective cannabinoid 2 receptors, and modulation of peripheral AEA and 2-AG, as well as the inhibition the function of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) have produced analgesic effects in animal models of CIBP.

Management of ECS therefore appears to be a promising way for the treatment of CIBP in terms of efficacy and safety. Further clinical studies are encouraged to confirm the possible translation to humans of the very promising results already obtained in the preclinical studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31627091

“Thus, cannabinoids may be clinically useful for treating chronic pain and CIBP.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S075333221933731X?via%3Dihub

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Antitumor Activity of Abnormal Cannabidiol and Its Analog O-1602 in Taxol-Resistant Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabinoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties.

Contrary to most cannabinoids present in the Cannabis plant, some, such as O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, have no or only little affinity to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors and instead exert their effects through other receptors.

Here, we investigated whether the synthetic regioisomers of cannabidiol, abnormal cannabidiol, and a closely related compound, O-1602, display antitumorigenic effects in cellular models of breast cancer and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in vivo.

Several studies have shown the effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, but less is known about the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids in chemotherapy-resistant cell lines.

Paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were used to study the effect of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on viability, apoptosis, and migration. The effects of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on cell viability were completely blocked by the combination of GPR55 and GPR18-specific siRNAs. Both O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol decreased viability in paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through induction of apoptosis. The effect of these cannabinoids on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a zebrafish xenograft model. In this model, treatment with O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol (2 µM) significantly reduced tumor growth.

Our results suggest that atypical cannabinoids, like O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, exert antitumorigenic effects on paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Due to their lack of central sedation and psychoactive effects, these atypical cannabinoids could represent new leads for the development of additional anticancer treatments when resistance to conventional chemotherapy occurs during the treatment of breast and possibly other cancers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611800

“Our results suggest that some cannabinoids acting through the GPR55 and/or GPR18 receptors can be helpful in inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines that are unresponsive to paclitaxel. The effects of O-1602 and Abn-CBD on cell viability were observed both in vitro and in a zebrafish xenograft model. These drugs were also reducing cell migration. Taken together, even if no synergistic antitumor effect is always observed when cannabinoids and chemotherapeutic agents are combined as an anticancer treatment, cannabinoids can still provide anticancer benefits on top of their palliative effects. This is particularly important in the context of cancers that have developed resistance to current chemotherapies.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01124/full

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Cannabidiol directly targets mitochondria and disturbs calcium homeostasis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

 Image result for cell death & disease“Anticancer properties of non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) have been demonstrated on tumors of different histogenesis. Different molecular targets for CBD were proposed, including cannabinoid receptors and some plasma membrane ion channels. Here we have shown that cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T lineage (T-ALL), but not resting healthy T cells, are highly sensitive to CBD treatment. CBD effect does not depend on cannabinoid receptors or plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels. Instead, CBD directly targets mitochondria and alters their capacity to handle Ca2+. At lethal concentrations, CBD causes mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, stable mitochondrial transition pore formation and cell death. Our results suggest that CBD is an attractive candidate to be included into chemotherapeutic protocols for T-ALL treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611561

“Considering the pivotal role of mitochondria in oncogenic re-programming, CBD may be plausible candidate to be included into chemotherapeutic protocols.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-2024-0

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The Effects of Dosage-Controlled Cannabis Capsules on Cancer-Related Cachexia and Anorexia Syndrome in Advanced Cancer Patients: Pilot Study.

Image result for integrative cancer therapies“Cancer-related cachexia and anorexia syndrome (CACS) is a common phenomenon in cancer patients. Cannabis has been suggested to stimulate appetite but research on this issue has yielded mixed results. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of dosage-controlled cannabis capsules on CACS in advanced cancer patients.

Methods: The cannabis capsules used in this study contained two fractions of oil-based compounds. The planned treatment was 2 × 10 mg per 24 hours for six months of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) 9.5 mg and cannabidiol (CBD) 0.5 mg. If patients suffered from side effects, dosage was reduced to 5 mg × 2 per day (THC 4.75 mg, CBD 0.25 mg). Participants were weighed on every physician visit. The primary objective of the study was a weight gain of ≥10% from baseline.

Results: Of 24 patients who signed the consent form, 17 started the cannabis capsules treatment, but only 11 received the capsules for more than two weeks. Three of six patients who completed the study period met the primary end-point. The remaining three patients had stable weights. In quality of life quaternaries, patients reported less appetite loss after the cannabis treatment (p=0.05). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels decreased after the cannabis treatment but without statistical significance. According to patients’ self-reports, improvement in appetite and mood as well as a reduction in pain and fatigue was demonstrated.

Conclusions: Despite various limitations, this preliminary study demonstrated a weight increase of ≥10% in 3/17 (17.6%) patients with doses of 5mgx1 or 5mgx2 capsules daily, without significant side effects. The results justify a larger study with dosage-controlled cannabis capsules in CACS.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31595793

“The primary objective of the study was a weight gain of ≥10% from baseline. Despite various limitations, the current preliminary study demonstrated a weight increase of ≥10% in 3/17 (17.6%) of the patients with doses of 5 mg × 1 or 5 mg × 2 capsules daily, without significant side effects.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1534735419881498

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