Cannabis use in pediatric cancer patients: what are they reading? A review of the online literature.

“Recent changes to the legal status of marijuana in Canada warrant a review of the information that patients and families are accessing online regarding the role of cannabis in cancer.

The aims of the current research were to identify the quality of literature available online as well as the themes, and opinion (i.e., pro-, neutral, or anti-cannabis) of online articles.

RESULTS:

We found most articles were authored by journalists (39.4%) and MDs (14.1%) and published as news (35.2%) or web articles (28.2%). The content of articles focused on four themes: the reasons for and against cannabis use; the opinions of health care providers; the restrictions placed by governing bodies and the need for additional research, education, and standardization. Article opinions were neutral-pro-cannabis.

CONCLUSIONS:

Health care providers should be aware that the overall quality of information found online is considered “satisfactory.” The majority of articles present a pro-cannabis opinion.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31960125

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00520-020-05306-2

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The role of cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer.

“The aim of this review article is to summarize current knowledge about the role of cannabinoids and cannabinoid receptors in tumor disease modulation and to evaluate comprehensively the use of cannabinoids in cancer patients.

METHOD:

According to the PRISMA protocol, we have included data from a total of 105 articles.

RESULTS:

Cannabinoids affect cancer progression by three mechanisms. The most important mechanism is the stimulation of autophagy and affecting the signaling pathways leading to apoptosis. The most important mechanism of this process is the accumulation of ceramide. Cannabinoids also stimulate apoptosis by mechanisms independent of autophagy. Other mechanisms by which cannabinoids affect tumor growth are inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, invasiveness, metastasis, and the modulation of the anti-tumor immune response.

CONCLUSION:

In addition to the symptomatic therapy of cancer patients, the antitumor effects of cannabinoids (whether in monotherapy or in combination with other cancer therapies) have promising potential in the treatment of cancer patients. More clinical trials are needed to demonstrate the antitumor effect of cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31950844

http://www.elis.sk/index.php?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage.tpl&product_id=6509&category_id=158&option=com_virtuemart&vmcchk=1&Itemid=1

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Use of cannabinoids in cancer patients: A Society of Gynecologic Oncology (SGO) clinical practice statement.

Gynecologic Oncology“Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) affect the human endocannabinoid system.

Cannabinoids reduce chemotherapy induced nausea or vomiting (CINV) and neuropathic pain.

Each state has its own regulations for medical and recreational cannabis use.

Effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and tumor growth remain under investigation.

Providers should focus indications, alternatives, risks and benefits of medical cannabis use to make appropriate referrals.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31932107

https://www.gynecologiconcology-online.net/article/S0090-8258(19)31805-0/fulltext

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[Cannabidiol in cancer treatment].

Image result for springer link journals“Cannabis was used for cancer patients as early as about 2500 years ago.

Experimental studies demonstrated tumor-inhibiting activities of various cannabinoids more than 40 years ago.

In view of the status of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) as a regulated substance, non-psychotomimetic cannabidiol (CBD) is of particular importance.

RESULTS:

Preclinical studies, particularly recent ones, including numerous animal models of tumors, unanimously suggest the therapeutic efficacy of CBD. In isolated combination studies, synergistic effects were generally observed. In addition, CBD may potentially play a role in the palliative care of patients, especially concerning symptoms such as pain, insomnia, anxiety, and depression. Further human studies are warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31897700

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00482-019-00438-9

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Effect of combined doses of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol or tetrahydrocannabinolic acid and cannabidiolic acid on acute nausea in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

 “This study evaluated the potential of combined cannabis constituents to reduce nausea.

CONCLUSION:

Combinations of very low doses of CBD + THC or CBDA + THCA robustly reduce LiCl-induced conditioned gaping. Clinical trials are necessary to determine the efficacy of using single or combined cannabinoids as adjunct treatments with existing anti-emetic regimens to manage chemotherapy-induced nausea.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31897571

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00213-019-05428-4

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Potential role of cannabidiol for seizure control in a patient with recurrent glioma.

Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Home“Glioma-related epilepsy significantly impact on patients’ quality of life, and can often be difficult to treat. Seizures cause significant morbidity for example neurocognitive deterioration, which may result from seizures themselves or due to adverse effects from antiepileptic drugs. Management of tumour with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy may contribute to seizure control, but tumour related epilepsy is often refractory despite adequate treatment with standard anti-epileptic medications. Given the increasing interest in medicinal cannabis (or cannabidiol or CBD) as an anti-epileptic drug, CBD may help with seizure control in glioma patients with treatment-refractory seizures. Here we present a case of a young lady with recurrent glioma who had refractory seizures despite multiple anti-epileptic agents, who had significant benefit with CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31848037

“CBD could potentially be a management option in treatment-refractory epilepsy in glioma patients.”

https://www.jocn-journal.com/article/S0967-5868(19)31306-2/fulltext

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Management of chronic pain with Jalaprakshalana (water-wash) Shodhita (processed) Bhanga (Cannabis sativa L.) in cancer patients with deprived quality of life: An open-label single arm clinical trial.

Image result for AYU journal“Pain is a common and complex symptom of cancer having physical, social, spiritual and psychological aspects. Approximately 70%-80% of cancer patients experiences pain, as reported in India.

Ayurveda recommends use of Shodhita (Processed) Bhanga (Cannabis) for the management of pain but no research yet carried out on its clinical effectiveness.

OBJECTIVE:

To assess the analgesic potential of Jala-Prakshalana (Water-wash) processed Cannabis sativa L. leaves powder in cancer patients with deprived quality of life (QOL) through openlabel single arm clinical trial.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Waterwash processed Cannabis leaves powder filled in capsule, was administered in 24 cancer patients with deprived QOL presenting complaints of pain, anxiety or depression; for a period of 4 weeks; in a dose of 250 mg thrice a day; along with 50 ml of cow’s milk and 4 g of crystal sugar. Primary outcome i.e. pain was measured by Wong-Bakers FACES Pain Scale (FACES), Objective Pain Assessment (OPA) scale and Neuropathic Pain Scale (NPS). Secondary outcome namely anxiety was quantified by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), QOL by FACT-G scale, performance score by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) and Karnofsky score.

RESULTS:

Significant reduction in pain was found on FACES Pain Scale (P < 0.05), OPA (P < 0.05), NPS (P < 0.001), HADS (P < 0.001), FACT-G scale (P < 0.001), performance status score like ECOG (P < 0.05) and Karnofsky score (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION:

Jalaprakshalana Shodhita Bhanga powder in a dose of 250 mg thrice per day; relieves cancer induced pain, anxiety and depression significantly and does not cause any major adverse effect and withdrawal symptoms during trial period.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31831967

http://www.ayujournal.org/article.asp?issn=0974-8520;year=2019;volume=40;issue=1;spage=34;epage=43;aulast=Tavhare

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Oral medicinal cannabinoids to relieve symptom burden in the palliative care of patients with advanced cancer: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety of cannabidiol (CBD).

 

Image result for bmc palliative care“Despite improvements in medical care, patients with advanced cancer still experience substantial symptom distress. There is increasing interest in the use of medicinal cannabinoids, but there is little high quality evidence to guide clinicians. This study aims to define the role of cannabidiol (CBD) in the management of symptom burden in patients with advanced cancer undergoing standard palliative care.

METHODS AND DESIGN:

This study is a multicentre, randomised, placebo controlled, two arm, parallel trial of escalating doses of oral CBD. It will compare efficacy and safety outcomes of a titrated dose of CBD (100 mg/mL formulation, dose range 50 mg to 600 mg per day) against placebo. There is a 2-week patient determined titration phase, using escalating doses of CBD or placebo to reach a dose that achieves symptom relief with tolerable side effects. This is then followed by a further 2-week assessment period on the stable dose determined in collaboration with clinicians.

DISCUSSION:

A major strength of this study is that it will target symptom burden as a whole, rather than just individual symptoms, in an attempt to describe the general improvement in wellbeing previously reported by some patients in open label, non controlled trials of medicinal cannabis. Randomisation with placebo is essential because of the well-documented over reporting of benefit in uncontrolled trials and high placebo response rates in cancer pain trials. This will be the first placebo controlled clinical trial to evaluate rigorously the efficacy, safety and acceptability of CBD for symptom relief in advanced cancer patients. This study will provide the medical community with evidence to present to patients wishing to access medicinal cannabis for their cancer related symptoms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31810437

https://bmcpalliatcare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12904-019-0494-6

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CBD loaded microparticles as a potential formulation to improve paclitaxel and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer.

International Journal of Pharmaceutics“Cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a potential agent for breast cancer management.

In this work, the potential use of cannabidiol in solution (CBDsol) and encapsulated in polymeric microparticles when combined with paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) in breast cancer treatment has been evaluated for the first time using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. CBDsol, previously administered at suboptimal concentrations (cell death <10%), enhanced the PTX and DOX effect in both breast cancer cells.

The co-administration of CBDsol and PTX or DOX showed a synergistic effect. PLGA-502 was selected as the most suitable polymer to develop CBD-loaded microparticles. The developed formulation (CBD-Mps) was effective as monotherapy, showing extended antiproliferative activity for at least 10 days, and when combined with PTX or DOX.

In fact, the use of CBD-Mps allows the combination of both, pre and co-administration strategies, with a single administration, also showing a significant increase in PTX and DOX antiproliferative activity. Finally, the anticancer effect of both CBDsol and CBD-Mps as monotherapy or in combination with PTX was also confirmed in ovo, usingMDA-MB-231-derived tumours.

This data evidences the promising inclusion of CBD in conventional breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of CBD-Mps for the extended release of this cannabinoid, optimising the effect of the chemotherapeutic agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31811927

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517319309615?via%3Dihub

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An Open-Label Pilot Study Testing the Feasibility of Assessing Total Symptom Burden in Trials of Cannabinoid Medications in Palliative Care.

View details for Journal of Palliative Medicine cover image“There is considerable interest in the use of cannabinoids for symptom control in palliative care, but there is little high-quality evidence to guide clinical practice.

Objectives: Assess the feasibility of using global symptom burden measures to assess response to medicinal cannabis, to determine median tolerated doses of cannabidiol (CBD) and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), and to document adverse events (AEs).

Design: Prospective two-arm open-label pilot trial of escalating doses of CBD and THC oil.

Setting/Subjects: Participants had advanced cancer and cancer-related symptoms in a palliative and supportive care service in an Australian cancer center.

Measurements: The main outcome measures were the number of participants screened and randomized over the time frame, the number of participants completing days 14 and 28 and providing total symptom distress scores (TSDSs) (measured using the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale), and the change from baseline of the TSDS at day 14.

Results: Of the 21 participants enrolled (CBD, n = 16; THC, n = 5), 18 (86%) completed the primary outcome measure at day 14 and 8 completed at day 28. The median maximum tolerated doses were CBD, 300 mg/day (range 100-600 mg); THC, 10 mg/day (range 5-30 mg). Nine of 21 patients (43%) met the definition of response (≥6 point reduction in TSDS). Drowsiness was the most common AE.

Conclusions: Trials of medicinal cannabis in advanced cancer patients undergoing palliative care are feasible. The doses of THC and CBD used in this study were generally well tolerated and the outcome measure of total symptom distress is promising as a measure of overall symptom benefit.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31800354

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jpm.2019.0540

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