Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

“Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma.

Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients.

Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line.

RESULTS:

Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.

CONCLUSION:

C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis. The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29147495

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Cannabinoids Modulate Neuronal Activity and Cancer by CB1 and CB2 Receptor-Independent Mechanisms.

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“Cannabinoids include the active constituents of Cannabis or are molecules that mimic the structure and/or function of these Cannabis-derived molecules.

Cannabinoids produce many of their cellular and organ system effects by interacting with the well-characterized CB1 and CB2 receptors. However, it has become clear that not all effects of cannabinoid drugs are attributable to their interaction with CB1 and CB2 receptors.

Evidence now demonstrates that cannabinoid agents produce effects by modulating activity of the entire array of cellular macromolecules targeted by other drug classes, including: other receptor types; ion channels; transporters; enzymes, and protein- and non-protein cellular structures.

This review summarizes evidence for these interactions in the CNS and in cancer, and is organized according to the cellular targets involved. The CNS represents a well-studied area and cancer is emerging in terms of understanding mechanisms by which cannabinoids modulate their activity. Considering the CNS and cancer together allow identification of non-cannabinoid receptor targets that are shared and divergent in both systems.

This comparative approach allows the identified targets to be compared and contrasted, suggesting potential new areas of investigation. It also provides insight into the diverse sources of efficacy employed by this interesting class of drugs. Obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the diverse mechanisms of cannabinoid action may lead to the design and development of therapeutic agents with greater efficacy and specificity for their cellular targets.”

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The Synthetic Cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 Elicits Death in Human Cancer Cell Lines.

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“Studies have revealed that cancer might be treated with cannabinoids since they can influence cancer cell survival. These findings suggest an alternative treatment option to chemo- and radiotherapy, that are associated with numerous adverse side-effects for the patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Viability staining was conducted on lung cancer, testicular cancer and neuroblastoma cells treated with different concentrations of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 and the percentage of dead cells was compared. Activity of apoptosis-related enzymes was investigated by the presence of DNA ladder in gel electrophoresis.

RESULTS:

Treatment with different WIN 55,212-2 concentrations led to a significant dose-dependent reduction of cell viability. A DNA ladder was observed after WIN 55,212-2 treatment of testicular cancer and lung cancer cells.

CONCLUSION:

The application of WIN 55,212-2 was found to trigger cell death in the investigated cell lines. The decline in lung cancer and testicular cancer cell viability seems to have been caused by apoptosis. These findings may contribute to development of alternative cancer therapy strategies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29061818

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Another Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Please Be Aware.

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“October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, but are you aware of the efficacy of cannabis in treating breast cancer symptoms? There’s even research that suggests cannabis can reverse the progress of the disease itself.” http://cannabistoday.bangordailynews.com/2017/10/01/breast-cancer/cannabis-and-breast-cancer-its-not-just-palliative/
“… not only as palliative but also as curative drugs.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19285265
“Anticancer mechanisms of cannabinoids. Preparations of Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. Specifically, cannabinoids are well known to exert palliative effects in cancer patients. Their best-established use is the inhibition of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Cannabinoids also inhibit pain. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in oncology might not be restricted to their aforementioned palliative actions. In addition to the well-known palliative effects of cannabinoids on some cancer-associated symptoms, a large body of evidence shows that these molecules can decrease tumour growth in animal models of cancer. In addition, cannabinoids inhibit angiogenesis and decrease metastasis in various tumour types in laboratory animals. Thus, numerous studies have provided evidence that thc and other cannabinoids exhibit antitumour effects in a wide array of animal models of cancer.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791144/
http://www.current-oncology.com/index.php/oncology/article/view/3080
“Long-term marijuana users show dampened stress response” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/318762.php
“Outdoor light at night linked with increased breast cancer risk in women” https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/outdoor-light-night-breast-cancer/
“Low Melatonin Raises Breast Cancer Risk. Exposure to light during the nighttime may increase a woman’s risk for developing breast cancer,” http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=117176
“Outdoor Light at Night May Increase Breast Cancer Risk by Up to 14 Percent” https://www.seeker.com/health/outdoor-light-at-night-may-increase-breast-cancer-risk-by-up-to-14-percent
“A Good Night’s Sleep May Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer” http://fortune.com/2016/09/23/breast-cancer-sleep/
“Prolonging the length of the nightly fasting interval may be a simple, nonpharmacologic strategy for reducing the risk of breast cancer recurrence.” http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamaoncology/article-abstract/2506710
“Prolonged Nightly Fasting Cuts Risk for Breast Cancer Return” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/861319
“Nightly fasting may help reduce breast cancer risk” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/308503.php
“How fasting reduces the chance of breast cancer returning by a THIRD” http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/how-fasting-reduces-chance-breast-9252298
“Fasting-like diet turns the immune system against cancer” https://news.usc.edu/103972/fasting-like-diet-turns-the-immune-system-against-cancer/
“Could Hunger be Linked to Breast Cancer? It’s clear from this study that there is some type of link between severe hunger and the development of breast cancer.” http://healthlifeandstuff.com/breast-cancer/could-hunger-be-linked-to-breast-cancer/
“Severe hunger increases breast cancer risk in war survivors” https://medicalxpress.com/news/2012-09-severe-hunger-breast-cancer-war.html

“Poor diet in youth associated with increased risk for premenopausal breast cancer” http://oncologynews.com.au/poor-diet-in-youth-associated-with-increased-risk-for-premenopausal-breast-cancer/

“Lactation linked to reduced estrogen receptor-negative, triple-negative breast cancer risk” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-09-lactation-linked-estrogen-receptor-negative-triple-negative.html
“Breast-Feeding Cuts ER-Neg Breast Cancer Risk in Black Women” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/832227?src=rss
“Women with large breasts are at an increased risk of advanced breast cancer” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2474642/
“Bigger bra size ‘linked with breast cancer’” http://www.nhs.uk/news/2012/07July/Pages/bust-size-and-breast-cancer-risk.aspx
“Bigger Breasts Linked to Higher Incidence of Breast Cancer” http://www.medicaldaily.com/bigger-breasts-linked-higher-incidence-breast-cancer-241542
“Women with bigger breasts DO have higher risk of breast cancer, finds genetic study” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2168780/Women-bigger-breasts-DO-higher-risk-breast-cancer-finds-genetic-study.html
“No, Wearing a Bra Will Not Give You Breast Cancer, Study Shows” http://time.com/3271011/bras-dont-cause-breast-cancer/
“Doctors: Women who store phone in bras at risk for breast cancer” http://wtvr.com/2012/11/19/doctors-women-who-store-phone-in-bras-at-risk-for-breast-cancer/
“What to Know About the Breast Implants Linked to Cancer” http://time.com/4709315/what-to-know-about-the-breast-implants-linked-to-cancer/
“9 deaths and rare cancer linked to breast implants, FDA says” http://www.cnn.com/2017/03/22/health/breast-implant-cancer-deaths-fda/index.html
 “Prescription drugs cause more deaths than breast cancer, car crashes in state.” https://badgerherald.com/news/2015/09/17/prescription-drugs-cause-more-deaths-than-breast-cancer-car-crashes-in-state/
“Popular Antidepressant May Promote Breast Cancer. We’ve told you before about the dangers of SSRIs, an incredibly popular class of antidepressants that can cause violent outbursts—both homicidal and suicidal. But now, researchers have found another alarming side effect: they may promote breast cancer.” http://www.anh-usa.org/popular-antidepressant-may-promote-breast-cancer/
“Research shows antidepressant Paxil may cause breast cancer. Researchers have discovered that the antidepressant paroxetine, sold under the name brand Paxil, can cause breast cancer.” https://www.commdiginews.com/news-2/research-shows-antidepressant-paxil-may-cause-breast-cancer-9562/
“Use of SSRI antidepressants is linked to small increase in breast cancer risk” http://foodforbreastcancer.com/news/use-of-ssri-antidepressants-is-linked-to-small-increase-in-breast-cancer-risk
“Antidepressant-like effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and other cannabinoids isolated from Cannabis sativa L” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2866040/
“Sex hormones linked to breast cancer risk in women under 50” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-07-sex-hormones-linked-breast-cancer.html
“Female hormone supplements with estrogen, progestin linked to breast cancer risk” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151130141332.htm
“Kelp in Diet Reduces Levels of Hormone Linked to Breast Cancer”  https://www.medpagetoday.com/hematologyoncology/breastcancer/445
“Some birth control pills may boost breast cancer risk, Fred Hutch study finds” https://www.fredhutch.org/en/news/center-news/2014/08/Some-new-birth-control-raise-breast-cancer-risk.html
“Constant Use of Birth Control Pills Raises Risk of Breast Cancer” http://allafrica.com/stories/201409291755.html
“Birth Control Injections May Raise Breast Cancer Risk in Young Women” https://www.livescience.com/19501-injectable-birth-control-breast-cancer.html
“Breast Cancer Patients Who Receive Nutrition Education Can Lower Cancer Recurrence Rates” https://breastcancer-news.com/2015/01/08/breast-cancer-patients-receive-nutrition-education-can-lower-cancer-recurrence-rates/
“New Studies Show Importance of Diet for Lowering Breast Cancer Risk and Preventing Recurrence” http://www.curetoday.com/articles/new-studies-show-importance-of-diet-for-lowering-breast-cancer-risk-and-preventing-recurrence-
“This Diet and Olive Oil May Cut Breast Cancer Risk” https://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20150914/mediterranean-diet-olive-oil#1
“Mediterranean Diet With Olive Oil Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk” http://time.com/4033374/mediterranean-diet-breast-cancer/
“Certain Fruits and Vegetables Linked to Lower Breast Cancer Risk” http://healthland.time.com/2012/12/07/certain-fruits-and-vegetables-linked-to-lower-breast-cancer-risk/
“High fruit and vegetable intake has been linked with a reduced risk of breast cancer,” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12704679
“Fruits, Veggies Tied to Lower Breast Cancer Risk” https://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20121204/carotenoid-breast-cancer#1
“Natural compound could reduce breast cancer risk in some women” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/09/150910111559.htm
“Apples could help reduce the risk of breast cancer, study suggests” http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2005/03/apples-could-help-reduce-risk-breast-cancer-study-suggests
“Apples are recommended for breast cancer” http://foodforbreastcancer.com/foods/apples
“An apple a day to prevent cancer formation: Reducing cancer risk with flavonoids” http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1021949816301788
“Apple pectin: A natural source for cancer suppression in 4T1 breast cancer cells in vitro and express p53 in mouse bearing 4T1 cancer tumors, in vivo. Our results demonstrated that pectic acid, a natural component of apple, can prevent metastasis in both cancer cell lines and primary tumors.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27697635
“High fat diet linked to breast cancer” http://www.theguardian.com/uk/2003/jul/18/research.sciencenews
“High-fat diet during puberty linked to breast cancer risk later in life” http://phys.org/news202487777.html
“High-Fat Diet Increases Breast Cancer Risk, Study Finds” https://www.livescience.com/44722-high-fat-diet-increases-breast-cancer-risk.html
“Starch May Raise Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk, Study Finds” http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/01/04/starch-breast-cancer-recurrence-food_n_1180958.html
“Starch intake may influence risk for breast cancer recurrence, study suggests” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/12/111208184648.htm
“Sugar in Western diets increases risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis. MD Anderson study in mice points to sugar’s impact on inflammatory pathways as culprit” https://www.mdanderson.org/newsroom/2015/12/sugar-in-western-diets.html
“Study links high sugar intake to increased risk of breast cancer” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/304636.php
“Sugars in Western diets increase risk for breast cancer tumors and metastasis” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/01/160104080034.htm
“Green tea compounds in breast cancer prevention and treatment. In recent years, many in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that green tea possesses anti-cancer effects. Green tea is the distinctive “liquor” produced from the evergreen plant Camellia sinensis leaves and is the most ancient beverage in the world. Traditional Chinese medicine has recommended drinking green tea for the prevention of disease. In recent years, many scientific and medical studies suggested that green tea possesses antiproliferative, antimutagenic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and chemopreventive effects. Green tea components, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate, possess anti-breast cancer effects.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4127621/
“Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16519995
“Green tea polyphenol and epigallocatechin gallate induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion in human breast cancer cells.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18059161
“Cup of herbal tea could help fight breast cancer. Scientists have discovered that an extract from a common plant in Pakistan may help treat breast cancer. The plant, Fagonia cretica, and known as Virgon’s Mantlem, is commonly used in herbal tea.” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120824082506.htm
“Village women a few miles from Lahore find a cure for breast cancer. Scientists have discovered that extracts from a plant, found in arid regions a few miles from Lahore, can kill cancerous cells and produces no harmful side-effects associated with chemotherapy.” https://www.pakistantoday.com.pk/2012/08/24/village-women-a-few-miles-from-lahore-find-a-cure-for-breast-cancer/
“An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression. Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53 expression.” http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0040152
“Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading, Study Says” http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/11/19/marijuana-compound-may-stop-breast-cancer-from-spreading-study-says/
“Skirt size increase linked to breast cancer risk, says study” http://www.bbc.com/news/health-29351249
“Study links high sugar intake to increased risk of breast cancer” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/304636.php
“Study: As skirt sizes go up, so does the risk of breast cancer.” http://theweek.com/speedreads/445566/study-skirt-sizes-does-risk-breast-cancer
 “Obesity Linked to Larger, More Aggressive Breast Cancers” http://www.breastcancer.org/research-news/20100503b
“Lack of vitamin D ‘significantly speeds up the growth of breast cancer tumors and causes the disease to spread'” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3473362/Lack-vitamin-D-significantly-speeds-growth-breast-cancer-tumors-causes-disease-spread.html
“Vitamin D deficiency contributes to spread of breast cancer in mice” https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2016/03/vitamin-d-deficiency-contributes-to-spread-of-breast-cancer.html
“You get most of your vitamin D from sunlight and dairy products, but hemp seeds do contain a small portion of it as well. Some hemp nuts have been fortified with vitamin D” http://www.livestrong.com/article/472308-the-vitamins-in-hemp-seed/
“Many women use multivitamins in the belief that these supplements will prevent chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. These results suggest that multivitamin use is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.” http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/91/5/1268.full
“Multivitamin use linked to increased risk of breast cancer, study says” http://www.newhope.com/news-amp-analysis/multivitamin-use-linked-increased-risk-breast-cancer-study-says
“Multivitamins Linked to Breast Cancer Risk. Study Shows Higher Risk of Breast Cancer Among Women Who Report Taking Multivitamins” https://www.webmd.com/breast-cancer/news/20100401/multivitamins-linked-to-breast-cancer-risk#1
“In general, getting sufficient, but not excessive, amounts of vitamins and minerals from your diet and supplements may reduce your risk of cancer, while inadequate or excessive intake may increase the risk.” https://www.consumerlab.com/answers/can-some-vitamins-or-supplements-cause-cancer-and-can-some-reduce-the-risk/vitamins_supplements_cancer/
“Folic acid linked to breast cancer growth in animal study. A new study suggests that taking large amounts of folate – a B vitamin – and its synthetic form, folic acid, might actually increase the risk of developing breast cancer.” http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271601.php
“Folic Acid May Increase Breast Cancer Risk; High-Dose Supplements ‘Significantly Promote’ Cancerous Cell Growth” http://www.medicaldaily.com/folic-acid-may-increase-breast-cancer-risk-high-dose-supplements-significantly-promote-cancerous
“Some Antihypertensives Linked to Breast Cancer Risk” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/808935
“Blood pressure drugs linked to higher breast cancer risk” http://mchealth.am/?p=1983&lang=en
“Lowering Of Blood Pressure Achieved Through Use Of Hashish-like Drug” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/06/060620083025.htm
“First commercialized in the 1950s, parabens are a group of synthetic compounds commonly used as preservatives in a wide range of health, beauty and personal care products. If the product you are using contains methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben, butylparaben and isobutylparaben, it has parabens. These ingredients are added to deodorants, toothpastes, shampoos, conditioners, body lotions and makeups, among other products, to stop the growth of fungus, bacteria and other potentially damaging microbes. Researchers have also found that some 90 percent of typical grocery items contain measurable amounts of parabens, which is why even those who steer clear of potentially harmful personal care products also carry parabens around in their bloodstreams.” https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/should-people-be-concerned-about-parabens-in-beauty-products/
“An earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis related to more frequent use of antiperspirants/deodorants and underarm shaving. Breast cancer incidence suggests a lifestyle cause. A lifestyle factor used near the breast is the application of antiperspirants/deodorants accompanied by axillary shaving. This is the first study to investigate the intensity of underarm exposure in a cohort of breast cancer survivors. In conclusion, underarm shaving with antiperspirant/deodorant use may play a role in breast cancer.” http://journals.lww.com/eurjcancerprev/pages/articleviewer.aspx?year=2003&issue=12000&article=00006&type=abstract
“17 Everyday Chemicals Could Be Linked to Breast Cancer. These everyday chemicals include those found in vehicle exhaust, flame retardants (which are commonly used on furniture, rugs and mattresses), stain-resistant textiles (like the kind used to upholster furniture), paint removers and disinfection byproducts in drinking water. The study also identified chemicals formed by combustion (benzene and butadiene), which humans are exposed to from gasoline, lawn equipment, tobacco smoke, and charred or burned food.” http://time.com/95915/breast-cancer-chemicals/
“Pre-childbirth solvent exposure raises breast cancer risk. The timing of exposure to organic solvents – such as those found in cleaning products and industrial chemicals – may affect breast cancer risks in women, according to a study from the US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.” https://www.chemistryworld.com/research/pre-childbirth-solvent-exposure-raises-breast-cancer-risk/7438.article
“Exposure to Chemicals in Cosmetics. While the chemicals in cosmetics make us look, feel, and smell better, research strongly suggests that at certain exposure levels, some of these chemicals may contribute to the development of cancer in people.” http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/factors/cosmetics
“Breast cancer ‘linked’ to chemical jobs, Stirling study suggests. Women working in jobs where they are exposed to certain chemicals may have a greater risk of developing breast cancer, a study suggests.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-tayside-central-20366589
“Breast cancer risk in relation to occupations with
exposure to carcinogens and endocrine
“Women Who Work in These Types of Jobs Have Scary-High Rates of Breast Cancer. Why? Researchers point to a biggie: the workers may be handling carcinogenic and endocrine-dirupting chemicals, like solvents, flame retardants, and BPA–the controversial chemical in some water bottles, plastic cups, and other consumer products. Women in other industries–agricultural, plastics, canning, and the casino, bar and racetrack sectors–also had elevated breast cancer levels,” https://www.glamour.com/story/women-who-work-in-these-types

“Fracking Linked to Breast Cancer” http://www.dailykos.com/story/2012/04/04/1080801/-Fracking-Linked-to-Breast-Cancer                                                                               “Breast cancer from fracking: Are dangerous chemicals in our drinking water?” https://www.naturalhealth365.com/fracking-chemicals-drinking-water-1498.html  “Fracking Chemicals Linked to Serious Reproductive, Developmental Health Risks” http://www.ceh.org/news-events/press-releases/content/fracking-chemicals-linked-serious-reproductive-developmental-health-risks/                                                    “Fracking produces air pollution that increases the risk of breathing problems and cancer, study claims” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3081630/Fracking-produces-air-pollution-increases-risk-breathing-problems-cancer-study-claims.html

“Air pollution linked to breast cancer, study suggests. The study links the risk of breast cancer — the second leading cause of death from cancer in women — to traffic-related air pollution.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/10/101006104003.htm
“Poor air quality is linked to breast cancer” https://www.iqair.com/newsroom/poor-air-quality-linked-breast-cancer
“Air pollution could cause breast cancer –Study” https://newtelegraphonline.com/2017/04/air-pollution-cause-breast-cancer-study/
“New Study Links Plastics Exposure to Breast Cancer” http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2012/11/report-plastics-breast-cancer-link
“Chemical exposures of women workers in the plastics industry with particular reference to breast cancer and reproductive hazards.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23207955
“Researchers raise concerns about BPA and breast cancer”
“Study: BPA Is in Wide Variety of Paper Products. Chemical Bisphenol A Is Found in Napkins, Toilet Paper, and Cash Register Receipts” http://www.webmd.com/cancer/news/20111202/study-bpa-is-in-wide-variety-of-paper-products?page=2
“BPA Can Rub Off From Receipts, Money, Study Finds”
“BPA found to promote breast cancer in new study”
“Studies: Chemicals May Harm Breast Development”
“Bisphenol-A causes normal breast cells to act like cancer. BPA may limit the effectiveness of commonly used anti-cancer drugs” http://www.cpmc.org/about/press/news2011/bisphenol-breastcells.html
“Studies: Chemicals May Harm Breast Development”
“Study: BPA Common in Kids’ Canned Foods. Researchers Say Potentially Harmful Chemical Is Leaching Into Soup From Cans” http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20110920/study-bpa-common-in-kids-canned-foods
“Can of Soup a Day Linked to High BPA Levels in Urine”
“Eating Fresh Foods May Cut Exposure to BPA.”
“Study links pesticide DDT to higher breast cancer risk” http://news.yahoo.com/study-links-pesticide-ddt-higher-breast-cancer-risk-154816085.html
“Breast Cancer Linked To Pesticide DDT, Study Suggests” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071009082406.htm
“DDT Linked to Fourfold Increase in Breast Cancer Risk” http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/06/15616-breast-cancer-ddt-pesticide-environment/
“Pesticide linked to breast cancer ” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/227178.stm
 “Breast cancer misdiagnoses cost $4 billion: Study” http://www.cnbc.com/2015/04/06/breast-cancer-misdiagnoses-cost-4-billion-study.html
“Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis Costs $4 Billion, Says Study” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/842820
“Cannabis chemical ‘helps heart'” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/4417261.stm
“Radiation-induced breast cancer in women with Hodgkin’s disease” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4150092/
“Radiation-Induced Reprogramming of Breast Cancer Cells” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/stem.1058/abstract
“Chemotherapy Can Inadvertently Encourage Cancer Growth” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/248661.php
“Chemotherapy could cause cancer to SPREAD and grow back even more aggressive, new study claims” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4669152/Chemotherapy-cause-cancer-SPREAD-new-study-says.html
“Shock study: Chemotherapy can backfire, make cancer worse by triggering tumor growth” http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/health/shock-study-chemotherapy-backfire-cancer-worse-triggering-tumor-growth-article-1.1129897
“When Chemotherapy Does More Harm than Good” http://time.com/3968918/when-chemotherapy-does-more-harm-than-good/
“Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Treatment May Increase Risk Of Breast Cancer Spreading In Some Patients” http://www.medicaldaily.com/neoadjuvant-chemotherapy-treatment-may-increase-risk-breast-cancer-spreading-420062
“Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces breast cancer metastasis through a TMEM-mediated mechanism” http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/397/eaan0026
“Prophylactic Mastectomy Offers Minimal Gain in Breast Cancer” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/812261
“Contralateral prophylactic mastectomy may not significantly increase life expectancy” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2013-10-contralateral-prophylactic-mastectomy-significantly-life.html
“Double mastectomy may not boost life expectancy”
“Life Expectancy Might Not Increase Upon Undergoing Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy” http://www.medindia.net/news/life-expectancy-might-not-increase-upon-undergoing-contralateral-prophylactic-mastectomy-126320-1.htm
“Study: Many breast cancer patients opt for unnecessary preventative mastectomies” http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-204_162-57603181/study-many-breast-cancer-patients-opt-for-unnecessary-preventative-mastectomies/
“New study finds cancer survivors should keep healthy breasts” http://wtvr.com/2014/09/26/cancer-survivors-should-keep-healthy-breasts/
“Breast Cancer Risk Linked to Virus Found in Cattle” http://www.livescience.com/52314-breast-cancer-risk-bovine-leukemia-virus.html
“Dairy Virus Linked to Breast Cancer” http://www.gfi.org/dairy-virus-linked-to-breast-cancer
“BLV Virus in Cattle can Cause Breast Cancer in Humans: Study” http://northerncalifornian.com/content/52797-blv-virus-cattle-can-cause-breast-cancer-humans-study
“We found that women who ate the most red meat in adolescence or early adulthood had an increased risk of developing breast cancer later in life.” https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/red-meat-consumption-and-breast-cancer-risk/
“Herbs and Spices Make Grilling Healthier. Food safety research finds that certain spices can protect you against carcinogenic compounds that are created in meat while it cooks”  https://www.rodalesorganiclife.com/food/cooking-spices
“High cholesterol fuels the growth and spread of breast cancer” http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2013-11/dumc-hcf112113.php
“Cholesterol and fat in American diet fuels breast cancer” http://www.emaxhealth.com/1020/cholesterol-and-fat-american-diet-fuels-breast-cancer
“NICOTINE LINKED TO BREAST CANCER | MORE BAD NEWS FOR WOMEN SMOKERS” http://www.integrativecanceranswers.com/nicotine-linked-to-breast-cancer-more-bad-news-for-women-smokers/
“These results strongly support a role for cigarette smoking
in breast cancer etiology and emphasize the importance of timing of this exposure.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ijc.29266/pdf
“Overall, the results of these studies suggest that smoking probably does not decrease the risk and indeed suggest that there may be an increased breast cancer risk with smoking of long duration, smoking before a first full-term pregnancy, and passive smoking.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12376493
“Nicotine Can Fuel Breast Cancer, Study Suggests; Taiwanese researchers show a molecular connection. Nicotine may directly promote the development of breast cancer by binding to a certain cell receptor,” http://trove.nla.gov.au/work/105715420?q&versionId=119144491
“Coffee Protects Against Type of Breast Cancer” https://www.livescience.com/35682-coffee-protects-against-breast-cancer.html
“Healthy caffeine: Study proves coffee can ward off breast cancer” http://www.rt.com/news/251041-coffee-cancer-prevention-study/
“Coffee ‘could halve breast cancer recurrence’ in tamoxifen-treated patients” https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/292879.php
“Two cups of coffee a day can HALVE the risk of breast cancer returning – and boosts drugs which stop tumours growing” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-3048719/Two-cups-coffee-day-HALVES-risk-breast-cancer-returning-boosts-drugs-stop-tumours-growing.html
“Coffee protects against breast cancer recurrence, detailed findings confirm” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/04/150421084531.htm
“Links Between Alcohol Consumption and Breast Cancer. Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer.” http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/838694
 “Alcohol Linked with Lobular Breast Cancer” http://news.cancerconnect.com/alcohol-linked-with-lobular-breast-cancer/
 “Breast Cancer Link To Alcohol Before Pregnancy” http://news.sky.com/story/1134459/breast-cancer-link-to-alcohol-before-pregnancy
 “Heavy Drinking Raises Risk of Breast Cancer” http://www.tusaludmag.com/articles/Drinking_and_Cancer_2096_22191.shtml
 “A drink a day tied to higher breast cancer risk, report says” http://www.cnn.com/2017/05/23/health/breast-cancer-risk-alcohol-study/index.html
 “Study confirms breast cancer link to low alcohol use” http://medicalxpress.com/news/2014-09-breast-cancer-link-alcohol.html
 “Moderate Drinking Increases Breast Cancer Risk” http://www.medpagetoday.com/HematologyOncology/BreastCancer/29392
 “Study: Moderate drinking ups risk of breast cancer return” http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/12/10/drinking.breast.cancer.recurrence/index.html
 “Warning: Even Moderate Drinking Can Increase Your Cancer Risk” https://drugabuse.com/warning-even-moderate-drinking-can-increase-your-cancer-risk/
 “Based on extensive reviews of research studies, there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking and several types of cancer. In its Report on Carcinogens, the National Toxicology Program of the US Department of Health and Human Services lists consumption of alcoholic beverages as a known human carcinogen. More than 100 epidemiologic studies have looked at the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer in women. These studies have consistently found an increased risk of breast cancer associated with increasing alcohol intake.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/causes-prevention/risk/alcohol/alcohol-fact-sheet
 “Natural cures for breast cancer treatment. For centuries, herbs and plants have been used for medicinal purposes and as food as well. This review concerns about different types of plants that retain the immune stimulating and anti-tumor properties. Large variety of active phytochemicals such as carotenoids, flavonoids, ligands, polyphenolics, terpenoids, sulfides, lignans and plant sterols has been identified in different types of herbs. “Herb” is a botanical term means plants producing fruits, seeds, with nonwoody stems. These plants and herbs have played very important role in maintaining the human health. Today public has more interest in herbal remedies than synthetic medicines because herbals contains natural active compound that can support the human health” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4881189/
“Drug made from herbs may fight breast cancer. Luteolin, a natural compound found in herbs such as thyme and parsley and in vegetables such as celery and broccoli, may reduce the cancer risk for women who have taken hormone replacement therapy.” http://www.futurity.org/breast-cancer-luteolin-998922/

“Scientists from the University of Missouri in Columbia claim that luteolin, which occurs naturally in herbs and vegetables, can slow the development of breast cancer.” http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/299389.php                            “The flavone luteolin, a constituent of C. sativa, is also found in spices and in vegetables such as celery and green pepper.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664885/

 “Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells.” http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/chemotherapyeffects/marijuana-and-cancer
“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times. Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory. Studies in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer showed that cannabinoids may lessen the growth, number, and spread of tumors.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all
“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. An in vitro study of the effect of CBD on programmed cell death in breast cancer cell lines found that CBD induced programmed cell death. Other studies have also shown the antitumor effect of cannabinoids (i.e., CBD and THC) in preclinical models of breast cancer.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq#section/_7
“Cannabinoids and their derivatives have been utilized for their medicinal and therapeutic properties throughout history. More recently, cannabinoids have gained special attention for their role in cancer cell proliferation and death. The majority of in vivo animal studies discussed here indicate that cannabinoids from plant, synthetic and endogenous origin are capable of effectively decreasing tumor growth and invasion. Furthermore, clinical studies evaluating cannabinoid efficacy in human subjects are limited, yet these studies showed that cannabinoids may be safe and effective anti-neoplastics. Anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids in humans.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5054289/
Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Inhibits Cell Cycle Progression in Human Breast Cancer Cells through Cdc2 Regulation. Cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human breast tumors. THC inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Here, we show that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), through activation of CB2 cannabinoid receptors, reduces human breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking the progression of the cell cycle and by inducing apoptosis” http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/13/6615.long
“Programmed Cell Death (Apoptosis)” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26873/
“JunD is involved in the antiproliferative effect of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human breast cancer cells. It has been shown that cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, inhibit cell cycle progression of human breast cancer cells. Here we studied the mechanism of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) antiproliferative action in these cells, and show that it involves the modulation of JunD, a member of the AP-1 transcription factor family. THC activates JunD. This is the first report showing not only that cannabinoids regulate JunD but, more generally, that JunD activation reduces the proliferation of cancer cells, which points to a new target to inhibit breast cancer progression.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18454173
“Cannabinoids reduce ErbB2-driven breast cancer progression through Akt inhibition. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids, the active compounds of marijuana and their derivatives, has been known for centuries. During the last decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting that cannabinoids might be useful for the treatment of cancer. These compounds exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects in different cell-culture and animal models of cancer. Here, we used a genetically engineered animal model of ErbB2-driven metastatic breast cancer (the MMTV-neu mouse) to analyze the antitumoral potential of cannabinoids in this particularly aggressive pathology. Results presented herein (i) show that ErbB2-positive invasive human breast tumors express CB2 receptors, (ii) demonstrate that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the non-psychotropic CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist JWH-133 significantly reduce tumor progression in a clinically relevant model of ErbB2-positive metastatic breast cancer, and (iii) shed light on the mechanism of cannabinoid antitumoral action in vivo. Taken together, these results provide a strong preclinical evidence for the use of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management of ErbB2-positive breast cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2917429/
Cannabis sativa Extract Reduces Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins in Breast Cancer Cell Line. Previous studies suggested that Cannabis sativa has anti-cancer properties influencing tumor size and metastasis properties. According to evidence, THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol), a natural component from C. Sativa, had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. The aim of this study is to explore the action of C. sativa on tau and stathmin gene existing in breast cancer cell. Conclusions: C. sativa extract dose-dependently influences tau and stathmin relative gene expressions, which may reduce cancer metastasis.” http://ijcancerprevention.com/en/articles/5474.html
Antitumor Activity of Plant Cannabinoids with Emphasis on the Effect of Cannabidiol on Human Breast Carcinoma. The therapeutic properties of the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, have been known since antiquity. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exhibits antitumor effects on various cancer cell types. The aim of this study was to identify natural cannabinoids with antitumor activities at least similar to those of THC and devoid of the potential central effects of this compound. We found that, surprisingly, cannabidiol acted as a more potent inhibitor of cancer cell growth than THC and that cannabigerol and cannabichromene usually followed cannabidiol in the rank of potency. In conclusion, our data indicate that cannabidiol, and possibly Cannabis extracts enriched in this natural cannabinoid, represent a promising nonpsychoactive antineoplastic strategy. In particular, for a highly malignant human breast carcinoma cell line, we have shown here that cannabidiol and a cannabidiol-rich extract counteract cell growth both in vivo and in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo.” http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/318/3/1375.long
“Marijuana Compound May Stop Breast Cancer From Spreading, Study Says. A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer from spreading throughout the body, according to a study by scientists at California Pacific Medical Center Research Institute. The researchers are hopeful that the compound called CBD, which is found in cannabis sativa, could be a non-toxic alternative to chemotherapy.” http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/11/19/marijuana-compound-may-stop-breast-cancer-from-spreading-study-says.html
“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. The helix-loop-helix protein Id-1, plays a crucial role during breast cancer progression. Reducing Id-1 expression could provide a rational therapeutic strategy for the treatment of aggressive human breast cancers. Cannabinoid agonists working through CB1 and CB2 receptors have been shown to act as tumor inhibitors in a variety of cancer models. In addition to Δ9-THC, CBD is also present in significant quantities in Cannabis sativa. Plant cannabinoids are stable compounds with low-toxicity profiles that are well tolerated by animals and humans during chronic administration. Our data presented here show that CBD represents the first exogenous agent that can down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive hormone-independent breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells leading to the down-regulation of tumor aggressiveness. Cannabinoids Reduce the Growth of Aggressive Human Breast Cancer Cells.” http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.full
“Pathways mediating the effects of cannabidiol on the reduction of breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. We discovered that CBD was the first non-toxic plant-based agent that could down-regulate Id-1 expression in aggressive hormone-independent breast cancer cells. CBD has also been shown to inhibit breast cancer metastasis. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of CBD in pre-clinical models of breast cancer. The results have the potential to lead to the development of novel non-toxic compounds for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis. Treatment with CBD leads to the inhibition of Id-1 gene expression, proliferation, and invasion in mouse mammary cancer cells, and a reduction of primary tumor volume and number of metastatic foci in vivo. CBD, therefore, represents a potential non-toxic exogenous agent for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410650/
“Cannabis compound ‘halts cancer’. A compound found in cannabis may stop breast cancer spreading throughout the body, US scientists believe.” http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7098340.stm
“Cannabidiol Induces Programmed Cell Death in Breast Cancer Cells by Coordinating the Cross-talk between Apoptosis and Autophagy. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis, is considered an antineoplastic agent on the basis of its in vitro and in vivo activity against tumor cells. We found that CBD induced both apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. Characterizing more precisely the manner by which CBD kills breast cancer cells will help define the optimal applications of CBD as a cancer therapeutic. In summary, we showed that CBD, a plant-derived cannabinoid, preferentially kills breast cancer cells by inducing ER stress, inhibiting mTOR signaling, enhancing ROS generation, and mediating a complex balance between autophagy and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. These findings support the continued exploration of CBD as an alternative agent for breast cancer treatment.” http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/10/7/1161.long
“Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19690824
“Modulation of the tumor microenvironment and inhibition of EGF/EGFR pathway: Novel anti‐tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer. Novel anti-tumor mechanisms of Cannabidiol in breast cancer. In the present study, we analyzed CBD’s anti-tumorigenic activity against highly aggressive breast cancer cell lines. In summary, our study shows -for the first time- that CBD inhibits breast cancer growth and metastasis. These results indicate that CBD can be used as a novel therapeutic option to inhibit growth and metastasis of highly aggressive breast cancer”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4387115/
“Cannabidiolic acid, a major cannabinoid in fiber-type cannabis, is an inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration. Cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plant, has been reported to possess anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells. CBD is obtained from non-enzymatic decarboxylation of its parent molecule, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). The data presented in this report suggest for the first time that as an active component in the cannabis plant, CBDA offers potential therapeutic modality in the abrogation of cancer cell migration, including aggressive breast cancers. CBDA is an inhibitor of highly aggressive human breast cancer cell migration. CBDA is a biologically active component of the fiber-type cannabis plant with potential utility as an effective anti-migration agent.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009504/
“Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Cannabinoids have been reported to possess antitumorogenic activity. In the present study, we analyzed the effects of synthetic nonpyschoactive cannabinoids on breast cancer growth and metastasis, and show that cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit breast cancer cell growth and metastasis in vivo. We have shown that the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 are overexpressed in primary human breast tumors compared with normal breast tissue. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists inhibit tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer. These results indicate that CB1 and CB2 receptors could be used to develop novel therapeutic strategies against breast cancer growth and metastasis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4128286/
“Phyto-, endo- and synthetic cannabinoids: promising chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of breast and prostate carcinomas. Cannabinoids are classified in three groups: phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and the synthetic analogues of both groups. They have become a promising tool in the treatment of cancer disease, not only as palliative agents, but also as antitumor drugs, due to their ability to inhibit the proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of tumour cells. Two of the cancers where they have shown high anticancer activity are breast and prostate tumours. The aim of this review is to evaluate the promising chemotherapeutic utility of phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids in breast and prostate cancer. Cannabinoids may be promising tools in combination therapy for breast and prostate cancer, due to their direct antitumor effects, their ability to improve the efficacy of conventional antitumor drugs and their usefulness as palliative treatment.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27633508
“Cannabinoids: a new hope for breast cancer therapy? Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade supports that cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa and their derivatives, possess anticancer activity. Thus, these compounds exert anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-migratory and anti-invasive actions in a wide spectrum of cancer cells in culture. Moreover, tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis are hampered by cannabinoids in xenograft-based and genetically-engineered mouse models of cancer. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the anti-tumor potential of cannabinoids in breast cancer, which suggests that cannabinoid-based medicines may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes.” 
“Zelda Therapeutics reports positive results in breast cancer study using cannabinoids.” https://smallcaps.com.au/zelda-therapeutics-breast-cancer-study-cannabinoids/
“Zelda shows cannabinoid anti-cancer effect. Zelda Therapeutics has demonstrated positive effects of cannabinoids against various types of human breast cancers, expanding on proof of concept results announced in November 2016.” http://www.news.com.au/finance/business/breaking-news/zelda-shows-cannabinoid-anticancer-effect/news-story/acdc09f6a2470e16494f4955e77cd009
 “Study: Marijuana Slows Down The Growth Of Breast Cancer Tumors” https://thefreshtoast.com/cannabis/research-shows-cannabis-helps-slow-growth-breast-cancer-tumors/
“Research finds link between chronic inflammation, tumor development in breast cancer” https://www.local10.com/news/local/research-finds-link-between-chronic-inflammation-tumor-development-in-breast-cancer
“Cannabis-Derived Substances in Cancer Therapy – An Emerging Anti-Inflammatory Role for the Cannabinoids” http://www.eurekaselect.com/72761/article
 “Control of Breast Cancer by the Endocannabinoid System.”  http://grantome.com/grant/NIH/K01-CA111723-01A2
“Cannabinoid-based medicines may be useful for the treatment of most breast tumor subtypes.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22776349
“Medical Cannabis Stops Spread of Breast Cancer” https://www.dailykos.com/stories/2010/11/21/922435/-

“Cannabinoids as Anticancer Drugs.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28826542

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Cannabis sativa Extract Reduces Cytoskeletal Associated Proteins in Breast Cancer Cell Line

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Synergistic interaction of the cannabinoid and death receptor systems: A potential target for future cancer therapies?

FEBS Letters

“Cannabinoid receptors have been shown to interact with other receptors, including Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Superfamily (TNFRS) members, to induce cancer cell death. When cannabinoids and death-inducing ligands (including TRAIL) are administered together, they have been shown to synergize and demonstrate enhanced antitumor activity in vitro. Certain cannabinoid ligands have been shown to sensitize cancer cells and synergistically interact with members of the TNFRS, thus suggesting that the combination of cannabinoids with death receptor (DR) ligands induces additive or synergistic tumor cell death. This review summarizes recent findings on the interaction of the cannabinoid and DR systems and suggests possible clinical co-application of cannabinoids and DR ligands in the treatment of various malignancies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28948607

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1873-3468.12863/abstract?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+unavailable+on+Saturday+7th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+08.00+EDT+%2F+13.00+BST+%2F+17%3A30+IST+%2F+20.00+SGT+and+Sunday+8th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+06.00+EDT+%2F+11.00+BST+%2F+15%3A30+IST+%2F+18.00+SGT+for+essential+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience+caused+.

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Cannabis use among patients at a comprehensive cancer center in a state with legalized medicinal and recreational use.

Cancer

“Cannabis is purported to alleviate symptoms related to cancer treatment, although the patterns of use among cancer patients are not well known. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and methods of use among cancer patients, the perceived benefits, and the sources of information in a state with legalized cannabis.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional, anonymous survey of adult cancer patients was performed at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center in Washington State. Random urine samples for tetrahydrocannabinol provided survey validation.

RESULTS:

Nine hundred twenty-six of 2737 eligible patients (34%) completed the survey, and the median age was 58 years (interquartile range [IQR], 46-66 years). Most had a strong interest in learning about cannabis during treatment (6 on a 1-10 scale; IQR, 3-10) and wanted information from cancer providers (677 of 911 [74%]). Previous use was common (607 of 926 [66%]); 24% (222 of 926) used cannabis in the last year, and 21% (192 of 926) used cannabis in the last month. Random urine samples found similar percentages of users who reported weekly use (27 of 193 [14%] vs 164 of 926 [18%]). Active users inhaled (153 of 220 [70%]) or consumed edibles (154 of 220 [70%]); 89 (40%) used both modalities. Cannabis was used primarily for physical (165 of 219 [75%]) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (139 of 219 [63%]). Legalization significantly increased the likelihood of use in more than half of the respondents.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study of cancer patients in a state with legalized cannabis found high rates of active use across broad subgroups, and legalization was reported to be important in patients’ decision to use. Cancer patients desire but are not receiving information about cannabis use during their treatment from oncology providers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28944449

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cncr.30879/abstract;jsessionid=793E288AAC342234D14BA7C96AEEDB74.f02t04?systemMessage=Wiley+Online+Library+will+be+unavailable+on+Saturday+7th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+08.00+EDT+%2F+13.00+BST+%2F+17%3A30+IST+%2F+20.00+SGT+and+Sunday+8th+Oct+from+03.00+EDT+%2F+08%3A00+BST+%2F+12%3A30+IST+%2F+15.00+SGT+to+06.00+EDT+%2F+11.00+BST+%2F+15%3A30+IST+%2F+18.00+SGT+for+essential+maintenance.+Apologies+for+the+inconvenience+caused+.

“Study finds up to one-quarter of cancer patients use marijuana”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-09-one-quarter-cancer-patients-marijuana.html

“Up to one-quarter of cancer patients use marijuana”  https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/09/170925095431.htm

“Cancer Patients Want to Use Marijuana, and with Good Reason”  https://www.inverse.com/article/36751-cancer-patients-want-to-use-marijuana-study-fred-hutchinson-cancer-research-center

“The use of Cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back to ancient times. Cannabis has been shown to kill cancer cells in the laboratory.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/patient/cannabis-pdq#section/all

“Marijuana has been used in herbal remedies for centuries. More recently, scientists reported that THC and other cannabinoids such as CBD slow growth and/or cause death in certain types of cancer cells.” http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/physicalsideeffects/chemotherapyeffects/marijuana-and-cancer

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/cancer/

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Hypothesizing that marijuana smokers are at a significantly lower risk of carcinogenicity relative to tobacco-non-marijuana smokers: evidenced based on statistical reevaluation of current literature.

Publication Cover

“A hypothetical link between marijuana smoking and cancer has been established based on a number of misleading assumptions. However, recent studies tend to suggest, if anything, an inverse association between marijuana use and cancers.

To test the hypothesis that marijuana smoking significantly lowers the risk of developing cancer in humans, we analyzed published data from a prospective cohort study on cancer incidence among nonsmokers (NS), marijuana-only smokers (MS), tobacco-only smokers (TS), and marijuana and tobacco smokers (MTS).

Using the log linear model to calculate the probability of developing each cancer form as a function of the interaction between marijuana and tobacco smoking, as well as functions of marijuana and tobacco smoking main effects whereby chi square statistics were calculated for the interaction and main effect estimates, we found that in all cases tested there was a significantly lower risk for MS compared to TS. Male and female TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer than did MS. Males and females TS had a greater probability of developing lung cancer compared with NS. Males and female MTS had a slightly higher probability of developing lung cancer than did MS.

This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 30.51, p < .00001, with a correlation coefficient of -0.75, Z = -7.84, p < .05. Male and female MTS had a lower probability of developing lung cancer than did TS. This difference was statistically significant: chi2 = 71.61, p = .00003, with a correlation coefficient of 0.61, Z = 5.06, p < .05.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19004418

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02791072.2008.10400641

 

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Medical marijuana for the treatment of vismodegib-related muscle spasm

JAAD Case Reports

“Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) arises from loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor patched homologue 1, which normally inhibits smoothened homologue in the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Vismodegib, a smoothened homologue inhibitor, is US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved for metastatic or locally advanced BCC that has recurred after surgery or for patients who are not candidates for surgery and radiation. Common adverse effects of vismodegib are muscle spasms, alopecia, dysgeusia, nausea, and weight loss. Muscle spasms worsen with duration of drug administration and may lead to drug discontinuation.

We report a case of vismodegib-related muscle spasm that was successfully treated with medical marijuana (MM).

During the first week of vismodegib and radiation, the patient started MM, having heard of its indication in the treatment of muscle cramps. She smoked 3 to 4 joints daily of Trainwreck strain, containing 18.6% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 0.0% cannabidiol (CBD), and 0.0% cannabinol. Her muscle spasms resolved immediately. She continued MM for 3.5 weeks, until the cost of MM became prohibitive. She reported no adverse effects from MM. Complete resolution of muscle spasms was sustained through the remaining 3.5 weeks of vismodegib. Complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, and lactate dehydrogenase level were monitored throughout the study with no significant changes. As of 18 months posttreatment, the patient had a complete clinical response of her BCC.

One marijuana joint contains, on average, 0.66 g of marijuana, although the definition of a joint is highly variable. With any MM formulation, patients should start at a low dose and gradually titrate to effect. Additional studies could confirm safety and efficacy and better specify the optimal cannabinoid subtypes, preparations, and dosages that may be most beneficial for vismodegib-induced muscle spasms.”

http://www.jaadcasereports.org/article/S2352-5126(17)30124-8/fulltext

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Medical marijuana in pediatric oncology: A review of the evidence and implications for practice.

Pediatric Blood & Cancer

“Medical marijuana (MM) has become increasingly legal at the state level and accessible to children with serious illness. Pediatric patients with cancer may be particularly receptive to MM, given purported benefits in managing cancer-related symptoms. In this review, we examine the evidence for MM as a supportive care agent in pediatric oncology. We describe the current legal status of MM, mechanism of action, common formulations, and potential benefits versus risks for pediatric oncology patients. We offer suggestions for how providers might approach MM requests. Throughout, we comment on avenues for future investigation on this growing trend in supportive care.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28926679

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pbc.26826/abstract

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