Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of CBD aromatic ester derivatives

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“This study involved the synthesis of a series of novel cannabidiol (CBD) aromatic ester derivatives, including CBD-8,12-diaromaticester derivatives (compounds 2a-2t) and CBD-8,12-diacetyl-21-aromaticester derivatives (compound 5a-5c).

The antiproliferative activities of these compounds against human liver cancer cell lines HePG2 and HeP3B as well as human pancreatic cancer cell lines ASPC-1 and BXPC-3 were evaluated in vitro using the CCK-8 assay.

The results indicated that compound 2f exhibited an IC50 value of 2.75 µM against HePG2, which is 5.32-fold higher than that of CBD. Additionally, compounds 2b and 5b demonstrated varying degrees of improved anticancer activity (IC50 5.95-9.21 µM) against HePG2.”

Canniprene B, a new prenylated dihydrostilbene with cytotoxic activities from the leaves of Cannabis sativa

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“A new, canniprene B (4), along with five known (13 and 56) dihydrostilbenes were isolated from the leaves of Cannabis sativa collected at CSIR – IIIM, Jammu, India. Structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and HR-ESI-MS. Canniprene B is a new prenylated dihydrostilbenes, a positional isomer of the known compound canniprene (5). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds (16) were evaluated using the SRB assay against a panel of five human cancer cell lines. Notably, canniprene B (4) exhibited varying levels of cytotoxicity with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 to 33.52 μM, demonstrating the most potent activity against pancreatic cancer cells.”

NHS-Reimbursed Cannabis Flowers for Cancer Palliative Care and the Management of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting: An Autobiographical Case Report

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“Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a debilitating side effect of cancer treatment, affecting many patients. Cannabinoid agonists, such as nabilone and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa L., have shown efficacy as antiemetics.

Here, we report the case of Michael Roberts (MR), who we believe is the first British patient reimbursed by the National Health Service (NHS) England for the cost of medicinal cannabis flowers to manage CINV. Medical data were obtained from NHS records and individual funding request (IFR) forms. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected using validated questionnaires as part of the standard of care at the specialized private clinics where the prescription of medicinal cannabis was initiated. The patient presented with rectosigmoid adenocarcinoma with lung metastases. He received FOLFIRI (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and irinotecan) chemotherapy and underwent an emergency Hartmann’s procedure with subsequent second-line FOLFOX (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and lung ablation. MR reported severe nausea and vomiting associated with the initial FOLFIRI treatment. Antiemetics metoclopramide and aprepitant demonstrated moderated efficacy. Antiemetics ondansetron, levomepromazine, and nabilone were associated with intolerable side effects.

Inhalation of THC-predominant cannabis flowers in association with standard medication improved CINV, anxiety, sleep quality, appetite, overall mood, and quality of life.

Our results add to the available evidence suggesting that medicinal cannabis flowers may offer valuable support in cancer palliative care integrated with standard-of-care oncology treatment. The successful individual funding request in this case demonstrates a pathway for other patients to gain access to these treatments, advocating for broader awareness and integration of cannabis-based medicinal products in national healthcare services.”

“This case report highlights the potential of THC-predominant cannabis flowers in the management of CINV in a cancer patient, marking a significant step in palliative cancer care. Michael Roberts, who we believe is the first NHS patient reimbursed for medicinal cannabis flowers, experienced substantial relief from CINV, alongside improvements in pain, anxiety, sleep, appetite, and overall quality of life. His case underscores the therapeutic benefits of controlled inhalation of cannabis flowers, particularly in patients unresponsive to conventional antiemetics. This report brings further attention to the challenges faced by patients in accessing CBMPs within the NHS, despite their legalization and acknowledged potential in symptom management. The successful individual funding request in this case demonstrates a pathway for other patients to gain access to these treatments, advocating for broader awareness and integration of CBMPs in national healthcare systems.”!/

From bench to bedside: the application of cannabidiol in glioma

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“Glioma is the most common malignant tumor in central nervous system, with significant health burdens to patients. Due to the intrinsic characteristics of glioma and the lack of breakthroughs in treatment modalities, the prognosis for most patients remains poor. This results in a heavy psychological and financial load worldwide.

In recent years, cannabidiol (CBD) has garnered widespread attention and research due to its anti-tumoral, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties.

This review comprehensively summarizes the preclinical and clinical research on the use of CBD in glioma therapy, as well as the current status of nanomedicine formulations of CBD, and discusses the potential and challenges of CBD in glioma therapy in the future.”

“CBD, a non-psychoactive cannabinoid derived from the cannabis plant, has shown promising potential in the treatment of gliomas. Characterized by its safety, good tolerability, and absence of psychoactive effects, CBD induces apoptosis in glioma cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, and autophagy, thereby inhibiting the proliferation and invasion of glioma cells, suppressing the expression of GSCs properties, and promoting cell death. Additionally, it enhances the sensitivity to radiotherapy and chemotherapy while protecting neural functions, playing a significant role in the management of glioma symptoms. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated encouraging anti-glioma activity. “

Lebanese Cannabis Oil as a Potential Treatment for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

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“Ethnopharmacological relevance: The Cannabis sativa L. ssp. indica (Lam.) plant has been historically utilized as a natural herbal remedy for the treatment of several ailments. In Lebanon, cannabis extracts have long been traditionally used to treat arthritis, diabetes, and cancer.

Aim of the study: The current study aims to investigate the anti-cancer properties of Lebanese cannabis oil extract (COE) on acute myeloid leukemia using WEHI-3 cells, and a WEHI-3-induced leukemia mouse model.

Materials and methods: WEHI-3 cells were treated with increasing concentrations of COE to determine the IC50 after 24, 48 and 72-h post treatment. Flow cytometry was utilized to identify the mode of cell death. Western blot assay was performed to assess apoptotic marker proteins. In vivo model was established by inoculating WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice, and treatment commencing 10 days post-inoculation and continued for a duration of 3 weeks.

Results: COE exhibited significant cytotoxicity with IC50 of 7.76, 3.82, and 3.34 μg/mL at 24, 48, and 72 h respectively post-treatment. COE treatment caused an induction of apoptosis through an inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway and triggering a caspase-dependent apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic modes independent of ROS production. Animals treated with COE exhibited a significantly higher survival rate, reduction in spleen weight as well as white blood cells count.

Conclusion: COE exhibited a potent anti-cancer activity against AML cells, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings emphasize the potential application of COE as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant in treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.”

“•Lebanese cannabis oil demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against WEHI-3 leukemic cells.

•Cannabis oil induces apoptosis through partial inhibition of the MAPK/ERK pathway.

•Cannabis oil triggers a caspase-dependent apoptosis via the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways.

•Cannabis oil treatment significantly increased survival rate, reduced spleen weight and WBC count in WEHI-3-induced leukemia mouse model.”

“Unlike conventional chemotherapy, which often causes harmful side effects, and can lead to resistance to multiple drugs, cannabis oil offers promise as a safer alternative.”

Cannabidiol Alleviates Oral Mucositis by Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB-Mediated Pyroptosis

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“Background: Cannabidiol (CBD), extracted from Cannabis sativa, has anticancer, anti-inflammation, and analgesic effects. Nevertheless, its therapeutic effect and the mechanism by which it alleviates oral mucositis (OM) remain unclear.

Aims: To explore the impact of CBD on OM in mice and on human oral keratinocyte (HOK) cells.

Study design: Expiremental study.

Methods: The Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform, GeneCard, DisGeNET, and Gene Expression Omnibus databases were used to conduct therapeutic target gene screening for drugs against OM. Cytoscape software was used to build networks linking components, targets, and diseases. The STRING database facilitated analysis of intertarget action relationships, and the target genes were analyzed for Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment. Occurrence of serum inflammation-related factors, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess OM injury. Cell proliferation, migration, pyroptosis, and apoptosis of HOK cells under different treatments were assessed. Molecular mechanisms were elucidated through western blot and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses.

Results: A total of 49 overlapping genes were pinpointed as potential targets, with NF-κB1, PIK3R1, NF-κBIA, and AKT1 being recognized as hub genes among them. Additionally, the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB and interleukin-17 signaling pathways were identified as relevant. Our in vivo experiments showed that CBD significantly reduced the proportion of lesion area, mitigated oral mucosal tissue lesions, and downregulated the expression levels of genes and levels of proteins, including NLRP3, P65, AKT, and PI3K. In vitro experiments indicated that CBD enhanced HOK cell proliferation and migration and reduced apoptosis through inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and pyroptosis.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest a novel mechanism for controlling OM, in which CBD suppresses the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway and pyroptosis, thereby mitigating OM symptoms.”

“Our study used bioinformatics data analysis alongside experimental validation, providing novel insights into the therapeutic role of CBD in OM. We discovered that CBD can alleviate pyroptosis in OM through the PI3K/AKT/NF-κB pathway. “

Selected phytocannabinoids inhibit SN-38- and cytokine-evoked increases in epithelial permeability and improve intestinal barrier function in vitro

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“Irinotecan use is linked to the development of gastrointestinal toxicity and inflammation, or gastrointestinal mucositis. Selected phytocannabinoids have been ascribed anti-inflammatory effects in models of gastrointestinal inflammation, associated with maintaining epithelial barrier function.

We characterised the mucoprotective capacity of the phytocannabinoids: cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene and cannabidivarin in a cell-based model of intestinal epithelial stress occurring in mucositis.

Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured to determine changes in epithelial permeability in the presence of SN-38 (5 μM) or the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-1β (each at 100 ng/mL), alone or with concomitant treatment with each of the phytocannabinoids (1 μM). The DCFDA assay was used to determine the ROS-scavenging ability of each phytocannabinoid following treatment with the lipid peroxidant tbhp (200 μM).

Each phytocannabinoid provided significant protection against cytokine-evoked increases in epithelial permeability. Cannabidiol, cannabidivarin and cannabigerol were also able to significantly inhibit SN-38-evoked increases in permeability. None of the tested phytocannabinoids inhibited tbhp-induced ROS generation.

These results highlight a novel role for cannabidiol, cannabidivarin and cannabigerol as inhibitors of SN-38-evoked increases in epithelial permeability and support the rationale for the further development of novel phytocannabinoids as supportive therapeutics in the management of irinotecan-associated mucositis.”

  • “•Phytocannabinoids may have efficacy in alleviating intestinal mucositis
  • •Cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, cannabichromene and cannabigerol (CBG) were tested for effects on intestinal epithelial permeability
  • •Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells were exposed to irinotecan metabolite SN-38 or cytokines with or without selected phytocannabinoids
  • •Phytocannabinoids variably protected against cytokine and SN-38-evoked increases in epithelial permeability without antioxidant effects
  • •Minor phytocannabinoids may contribute to mucoprotection and improve epithelial barrier function”

“Irinotecan, sold under the brand name Camptosar among others, is an anti-cancer medication used to treat colon cancer and small cell lung cancer. For colon cancer it is used either alone or with fluorouracil. For small cell lung cancer it is used with cisplatin. It is given intravenously.”,It%20is%20given%20intravenously.

The potential neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: in vitro study on neurite outgrowth

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“Introduction: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a shared burden for 68.1% of oncological patients undergoing chemotherapy with Paclitaxel (PTX). The symptoms are intense and troublesome, patients reporting paresthesia, loss of sensation, and dysesthetic pain. While current medications focus on decreasing the symptom intensity, often ineffective, no medication is yet recommended by the guidelines for the prevention of CIPN. Cannabinoids are an attractive option, as their neuroprotective features have already been demonstrated in neuropathies with other etiologies, by offering the peripheral neurons protection against toxic effects, which promotes analgesia. 

Methods: We aim to screen several new cannabinoids for their potential use as neuroprotective agents for CIPN by investigating the cellular toxicity profile and by assessing the potential neuroprotective features against PTX using a primary dorsal root ganglion neuronal culture. 

Results: Our study showed that synthetic cannabinoids JWH-007, AM-694 and MAB-CHMINACA and phytocannabinoids Cannabixir® Medium dried flowers (NC1) and Cannabixir® THC full extract (NC2) preserve the viability of fibroblasts and primary cultured neurons, in most of the tested dosages and time-points. The combination between the cannabinoids and PTX conducted to a cell viability of 70%-89% compared to 40% when PTX was administered alone for 48 h. When assessing the efficacy for neuroprotection, the combination between cannabinoids and PTX led to better preservation of neurite length at all tested time-points compared to controls, highly drug and exposure-time dependent. By comparison, the combination of the cannabinoids and PTX administered for 24 h conducted to axonal shortening between 23% and 44%, as opposed to PTX only, which shortened the axons by 63% compared to their baseline values. 

Discussion and Conclusion: Cannabinoids could be potential new candidates for the treatment of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy; however, our findings need to be followed by additional tests to understand the exact mechanism of action, which would support the translation of the cannabinoids in the oncological clinical practice.”

“Our study paves the way for the benefits of either synthetic cannabinoids or phytocannabinoids for the palliation of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.”

Cheungsam Seed Husk Extract Reduces Skin Inflammation through Regulation of Inflammatory Mediator in TNF-α/IFN-γ-Induced HaCaT Cells

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“Cannabis contains numerous natural components and has several effects such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant.

Cheungsam is a variety of non-drug-type hemp, developed in Korea and is used for fiber (stem) and oil (seed). The efficacy of Cheungsam on skin is not yet known, and although there are previous studies on Cheungsam seed oil, there are no studies on Cheungsam seed husk.

In this study, we investigated the potential of Cheungsam seed husk ethanol extract (CSSH) to alleviate skin inflammation through evaluating the gene and protein expression levels of inflammatory mediators.

The results showed that CSSH reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and CXCL10) and atopic dermatitis-related cytokines (IL-4, CCL17, MDC and RANTES) in TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced HaCaT cells. Furthermore, ERK, JNK and p38 phosphorylation were decreased and p-p65, p-IκBα, NLRP3, caspase-1, p-JAK1 and p-STAT6 were suppressed after CSSH treatment. CSSH significantly increased the level of the skin barrier factors filaggrin and involucrin.

These results suggest that Cheungsam seed husk ethanol extract regulates the mechanism of skin inflammation and can be used as a new treatment for skin inflammatory diseases.”

“The extract exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-atopic effects through mechanism regulation and skin barrier recovery. Therefore, Cheungsam seed husk extract may be useful for treating atopic dermatitis as well as other skin inflammatory diseases.”

The potential of cannabinoids in managing cancer-related anorexia in older adults: a systematic review of the literature

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“Background and objectives: Anorexia of aging (AoA) is a prevalent geriatric syndrome characterized by a multifactorial decline in appetite and reduced food intake associated with the aging process. This systematic review aims to investigate the use and outcomes of cannabinoids in addressing AoA, with the goal of providing a comprehensive understanding and discussing their potential integration into daily clinical practice.

Methods: A thorough search of databases (Embase Ovid, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) identified 6100 studies. After eliminating duplicates and screening titles and abstracts, 25 studies underwent full appraisal. Two reviewers assessed inclusion suitability, and study methodologies were evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) for observational studies and the modified Jadad Scoring Scale for randomized controlled trials. Ultimately, six studies published between 2002 and 2019, involving 869 participants, were included in the review.

Results: Out of the 6 fin. l papers selected, 5 were randomized trials, and 1 was a prospective study. Megestrol acetate (800 mg/d) proved to be more effective than dronabinol 2.5 mg twice a day in increasing appetite. Nabilone (at a dosage of 0.5 mg per day) did not show superiority over placebo in alleviating symptoms such as pain, nausea, loss of appetite, and weight. However, with a double dosage followed by 1.0 mg/6 weeks, after eight weeks of treatment, patients recorded a significant increase in calorie intake and carbohydrate consumption compared to the placebo group, with some patients also experiencing substantial weight gain. Regarding delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a weight increase of ≥10% was observed in 17.6% of patients with doses of 5 mg or 10 mg capsules daily, without significant side effects. Additionally, patients treated with THC 2.5 mg reported improved chemosensory perception and increased appetite before meals compared to placebo. No significant side effects were reported in older adults taking cannabinoids.

Conclusions: Cannabinoids offer promise in enhancing the quality of life for older individuals with active neoplastic disease. However, to establish comprehensive guidelines, further research with larger sample sizes is essential. Only through this approach can we fully grasp the potential and application of cannabinoids in addressing the nutritional concerns associated with neoplastic diseases.”

“In patients with active neoplasia, cannabinoids increase weight, restore hunger and appetite.”