Protective Effects of ( E)-β-Caryophyllene (BCP) in Chronic Inflammation

nutrients-logo“(E)-β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a bicyclic sesquiterpene widely distributed in the plant kingdom, where it contributes a unique aroma to essential oils and has a pivotal role in the survival and evolution of higher plants.

Recent studies provided evidence for protective roles of BCP in animal cells, highlighting its possible use as a novel therapeutic tool.

Experimental results show the ability of BCP to reduce pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), thus ameliorating chronic pathologies characterized by inflammation and oxidative stress, in particular metabolic and neurological diseases.

Through the binding to CB2 cannabinoid receptors and the interaction with members of the family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), BCP shows beneficial effects on obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NAFLD/NASH) liver diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pain and other nervous system disorders.

This review describes the current knowledge on the biosynthesis and natural sources of BCP, and reviews its role and mechanisms of action in different inflammation-related metabolic and neurologic disorders.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33114564/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/11/3273

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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Plant-derived natural therapeutics targeting cannabinoid receptors in metabolic syndrome and its complications: A review

 Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is natural physiological system in the humans. The presence of the ECS system involves different roles in body. The endocannabinoid system involves regulation of most of the centers, which regulates the hunger and leads to changes in the weight.

In the present article, we reviewed the role of natural cannabinoid compounds in metabolic disorders and related complications. We studied variety of a plant-derived cannabinoids in treating the metabolic syndrome including stoutness, fatty acid liver diseases, insulin obstruction, dementia, hypertension, lipid abnormalities, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, endothelial damage, and polycystic ovarian syndrome and so on.

The activation of cannabinoid receptors demonstrates a significant number of beneficial approaches concerning metabolic syndrome and reduces the pro-inflammatory cytokines on account of aggravation, decreased oxidative stress and uneasiness, diminishes liver fibrosis, with reduces adiponectin.

Pre-clinical investigations of plant-derived cannabinoids resulted in promising outcomes.

The different distinctive plant-derived cannabinoids were discovered like cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabidiol (CBG). It has been observed that endogenous cannabinoids and plant-derived cannabinoids have an advantageous impact on limiting the metabolic disorder arising due to lifestyle changes.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33113429/

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332220310817?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids in Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiac Fibrosis

 SpringerLink“This article provides a concise overview of how cannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have significant implications for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders, including cardiac fibrosis.

Recent findings: Over the past few years, the ECS has emerged as a pivotal component of the homeostatic mechanisms for the regulation of many bodily functions, including inflammation, digestion, and energy metabolism. Therefore, the pharmacological modulation of the ECS by cannabinoids represents a novel strategy for the management of many diseases. Specifically, increasing evidence from preclinical research studies has opened new avenues for the development of cannabinoid-based therapies for the management and potential treatment of MetS and cardiovascular diseases. Current information indicates that modulation of the ECS can help maintain overall health and well-being due to its homeostatic function. From a therapeutic perspective, cannabinoids and the ECS have also been shown to play a key role in modulating pathophysiological states such as inflammatory, neurodegenerative, gastrointestinal, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer and pain. Thus, targeting and modulating the ECS with cannabinoids or cannabinoid derivatives may represent a major disease-modifying medical advancement to achieve successful treatment for MetS and certain cardiovascular diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33089434/

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11906-020-01112-7

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Chronic Cannabidiol Administration Attenuates Skeletal Muscle De Novo Ceramide Synthesis Pathway and Related Metabolic Effects in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity

biomolecules-logo“Numerous studies showed that sustained obesity results in accumulation of bioactive lipid derivatives in several tissues, including skeletal muscle, which further contributes to the development of metabolic disturbances and insulin resistance (IR).

The latest data indicate that a potential factor regulating lipid and glucose metabolism is a phytocannabinoid-cannabidiol (CBD), a component of medical marijuana (Cannabis). Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether chronic CBD administration influences bioactive lipid content (e.g., ceramide (CER)), as well as glucose metabolism, in the red skeletal muscle (musculus gastrocnemius) with predominant oxidative metabolism.

All experiments were conducted on an animal model of obesity, i.e., Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or standard rodent chow, and subsequently injected with CBD in a dose of 10 mg/kg or its solvent for two weeks. The sphingolipid content was assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), while, in order to determine insulin and glucose concentrations, immunoenzymatic and colorimetric methods were used. The protein expression from sphingolipid and insulin signaling pathways, as well as endocannabinoidome components, was evaluated by immunoblotting.

Unexpectedly, our experimental model revealed that the significantly intensified intramuscular de novo CER synthesis pathway in the HFD group was attenuated by chronic CBD treatment. Additionally, due to CBD administration, the content of other sphingolipid derivatives, i.e., sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) was restored in the high-fat feeding state, which coincided with an improvement in skeletal muscle insulin signal transduction and glycogen recovery.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32859125/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/9/1241

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Targeting the Endocannabinoid CB1 Receptor to Treat Body Weight Disorders: A Preclinical and Clinical Review of the Therapeutic Potential of Past and Present CB1 Drugs

biomolecules-logo“Obesity rates are increasing worldwide and there is a need for novel therapeutic treatment options.

The endocannabinoid system has been linked to homeostatic processes, including metabolism, food intake, and the regulation of body weight.

Rimonabant, an inverse agonist for the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, was effective at producing weight loss in obese subjects. However, due to adverse psychiatric side effects, rimonabant was removed from the market.

More recently, we reported an inverse relationship between cannabis use and BMI, which has now been duplicated by several groups.

As those results may appear contradictory, we review here preclinical and clinical studies that have studied the impact on body weight of various cannabinoid CB1 drugs. Notably, we will review the impact of CB1 inverse agonists, agonists, partial agonists, and neutral antagonists.

Those findings clearly point out the cannabinoid CB1 as a potential effective target for the treatment of obesity. Recent preclinical studies suggest that ligands targeting the CB1 may retain the therapeutic potential of rimonabant without the negative side effect profile. Such approaches should be tested in clinical trials for validation.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32512776/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/6/855

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Bidirectional Longitudinal Associations Between Cannabis Use and Body Mass Index Among Adolescents.

View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover imageLiterature on the association between cannabis use and body mass index (BMI) among adults suggests that greater cannabis use is associated with a lower BMI. However, results are mixed among adolescents, with both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies finding positive, negative, and nonsignificant associations between cannabis use and BMI.

This longitudinal study aims to shed light on these associations by prospectively examining the associations between cannabis use and BMI across a 2-year window in a large sample of adolescent cannabis users.

Results: Results showed that baseline BMI predicted a positive and significant association with cannabis use slope. In addition, there was a significant and negative correlation between the cannabis use slope and the BMI slope. These significant associations remained after controlling for relevant covariates.

Conclusions: Results are consistent with the adult literature that reports a negative association between cannabis use and BMI. Future research should focus on uncovering the mechanisms that may drive the association between cannabis use and BMI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32322679

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2019.0091

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The Atypical Cannabinoid Abn-CBD Reduces Inflammation and Protects Liver, Pancreas, and Adipose Tissue in a Mouse Model of Prediabetes and Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Archive of "Frontiers in Endocrinology".“The synthetic atypical cannabinoid Abn-CBD, a cannabidiol (CBD) derivative, has been recently shown to modulate the immune system in different organs, but its impact in obesity-related meta-inflammation remains unstudied.

We investigated the effects of Abn-CBD on metabolic and inflammatory parameters utilizing a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model of prediabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Conclusions: These results suggest that Abn-CBD exerts beneficial immunomodulatory actions in the liver, pancreas and adipose tissue of DIO prediabetic mice with NAFLD, thus protecting tissues. Therefore, Abn-CBD and related compounds could represent novel pharmacological strategies for managing obesity-related metabolic disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32210914

“In summary, we herein provide evidence that the atypical cannabinoid Abn-CBD is able to induce beneficial metabolic and anti-inflammatory actions at both systemic and tissue level in a mouse model of diet-induced prediabetes and NAFLD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00103/full

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Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol.

Image result for frontiers in endocrinology

“Currently, an increasing number of diseases related to insulin resistance and obesity is an alarming problem worldwide. It is well-known that the above states can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. An excessive amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a diet also evokes adipocyte hyperplasia and subsequent accumulation of lipids in peripheral organs (liver, cardiac muscle). Therefore, new therapeutic methods are constantly sought for the prevention, treatment and alleviation of symptoms of the above mentioned diseases.

Currently, much attention is paid to Cannabis derivatives-phytocannabinoids, which interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) constituents. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most abundant compounds of Cannabis plants and their therapeutic application has been suggested. CBD is considered as a potential therapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, neuroprotective, and potential anti-obesity properties. Therefore, in this review, we especially highlight pharmacological properties of CBD as well as its impact on obesity in different tissues.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194509

“A well-known ancient plant Cannabis sativa has been a subject of scientific interest for over 50 years. Moreover, it has been used for recreational and medical purposes for thousands of years. The plant comprises about 100 phytocannabinoids, which are C21 terpenophenolic constituents. Nowadays, the most-studied phytocannabinoids are: Δ9– tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC). So far, many studies have shown therapeutic properties of the above mentioned Cannabis compounds. Therefore, the aim of the current review is to focus on the emerging potential of CBD and other phytocannabinoids, which act as novel therapeutic agents in obesity treatment. From the existing data, we can conclude that CBD has the promising potential as a therapeutic agent and might be effective in alleviating the symptoms of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00114/full

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Phytocannabinoids promote viability and functional adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells through different molecular targets.

Biochemical Pharmacology“The cellular microenvironment plays a critical role in the maintenance of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and their subsequent cell lineage differentiation. Recent studies suggested that individuals with adipocyte-related metabolic disorders have altered function and adipogenic potential of adipose stem cell subpopulations, primarily BM-MSCs, increasing the risk of heart attack, stroke or diabetes.

In this study, we explored the potential therapeutic effect of some of the most abundant non-euphoric compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa plant (or phytocannabinoids) including tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), by analysing their pharmacological activity on the viability of endogenous BM-MSCs as well as their ability to alter BM-MSC proliferation and differentiation into mature adipocytes.

We provide evidence that CBD, CBDA, CBGA and THCV (5 µM) increase the number of viable BM-MSCs; whereas only CBG (5 µM) and CBD (5 µM) alone or in their combination promote their maturation into adipocytes via distinct molecular mechanisms. These effects were revealed both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, phytocannabinoids prevented the insulin signalling impairment induced by palmitate in adipocytes differentiated from BM-MSCs.

Our study highlights phytocannabinoids as a potential novel pharmacological tool to regain control of functional adipose tissue in unregulated energy homeostasis often occurring in metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), aging and lipodystrophy.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32061773

“The promiscuous pharmacology of phytocannabinoids makes them viable candidates for new medicines for the treatment of metabolic syndromes through the simultaneous resolution of collective complications due to impaired development, maintenance, activity and function of the adipose tissue. Furthermore, phytocannabinoids are generally well tolerated in comparison to potent synthetic PPAR agonists, and combination treatments may further improve their efficacy at lower doses.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295220300873?via%3Dihub

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The Endocannabinoid System in Pediatric Inflammatory and Immune Diseases.

 ijms-logo“Endocannabinoid system consists of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation. CB2, to a great extent, and CB1, to a lesser extent, are involved in regulating the immune response. They also regulate the inflammatory processes by inhibiting pro-inflammatory mediator release and immune cell proliferation. This review provides an overview on the role of the endocannabinoid system with a major focus on cannabinoid receptors in the pathogenesis and onset of inflammatory and autoimmune pediatric diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, obesity, neuroinflammatory diseases, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. These disorders have a high social impact and represent a burden for the healthcare system, hence the importance of individuating more innovative and effective treatments. The endocannabinoid system could address this need, representing a possible new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31771129

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/5875

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