Foodomics reveals anti-obesity properties of cannabinoids from hemp oil

“Scope: Molecular networking (MN) analysis intends to provide chemical insight of untargeted mass spectrometry (MS) data to the user’s underlying biological questions. Foodomics is the study of chemical compounds in food using advanced omics methods. In this study, we developed an MS-MN-based foodomics approach to investigate the composition and anti-obesity activity of cannabinoids in hemp oil.

Methods and results: A total of 16 cannabinoids were determined in optimized microwave pretreatment of hemp oil using the developed approach. Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that cannabinoid extract (CE) and its major constituent (cannabidiol, CBD), could alleviate high glucose-induced increases in lipids and carbohydrates, and decreases in amino acid and nucleic acid. Moreover, CE and CBD were also found to suppress the expression levels of mdt-15, sbp-1, fat-5, fat-6, fat-7, daf-2, and elevate the expression level of daf-1,daf-7, daf-16, sod-3, gst-4, lipl-4, resulting in the decrease of lipid synthesis and the enhance of kinetism. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) uncovered strong associations between specific metabolic alterations and gene expression levels.

Conclusion: These findings from this exploratory study offered a new insight into the roles of cannabinoids in the treatment of obesity and related complications.”

Cannabis Use Is Inversely Associated with Metabolic Disorders in Hepatitis C-Infected Patients (ANRS CO22 Hepather Cohort)


“Background and aims: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with the onset of metabolic disorders which constitute risk factors for liver disease progression. Their impact may persist after the HCV infection has been cured. Cannabis use is associated with a lower risk of obesity and diabetes in both general and HCV populations. The associations between cannabis use and both dyslipidemia and hypertension have not yet been studied in persons with chronic HCV infection.

Methods: Using cross-sectional data from the French ANRS CO22 Hepather cohort, we used regression models to test for an inverse relationship between cannabis use and (i) dyslipidemia, (ii) hypertension, and (iii) the total number of metabolic disorders.

Results: Among the 6364 participants in the study population, both former and current cannabis use were associated with a lower risk of hypertension and fewer metabolic disorders. These results were independent of central obesity. Cannabis use was not associated with dyslipidemia.

Conclusions: In people chronically infected with HCV, cannabis use was associated with a lower risk of hypertension and a lower number of metabolic disorders. Post-HCV cure studies are needed to confirm these findings using longitudinal data and to test whether they translate into reduced mortality in this population.”

“In a large cohort of people with chronic HCV infection living in France, current or former cannabis use was associated with a lower risk of hypertension and a lower number of metabolic disorders.”

Cloudy with a chance of munchies: Assessing the impact of recreational marijuana legalization on obesity

“Obesity in the US arguably constitutes the most significant health epidemic over the past century. Recent legislative changes allowing for recreational marijuana use further create a need to better understand the relationship between marijuana use and health choices, leading to obesity. We examine this relationship by using a synthetic control approach to examine the impact of legalized recreational marijuana access on obesity rates by comparing Washington State to a synthetically constructed counterfactual. We find that recreational marijuana’s introduction did not lead to increased obesity rates and may have led to decreases in obesity.”

Effects of Cannabidiol on Appetite and Body Weight: A Systematic Review


“Background and objective: Cannabidiol, one of the main components of the Cannabis sativa plant, is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid that has recently drawn the attention of researchers and clinicians for its potential therapeutic applications. In this systematic review, we aim to describe the possible effects of cannabidiol in appetite and body weight.

Methods: Both authors independently ran a thorough search in both PubMed and Cochrane databases up to 31 July, 2022 and included every peer-reviewed, original randomized controlled clinical trial that reported data on either of the said outcomes. Risk of assessment bias was performed with Cochrane’s risk of bias tool and results were summarized in tables.

Results: A total of 11 trials were included in this review. Of these, the majority reported on cannabidiol reducing appetite and/or body weight whilst some have found no significant changes and one trial described an increase in appetite.

Conclusions: This systematic review suggests that cannabidiol has an anorexigenic effect, correlated with a decrease in body weight. However, most of the studies included in the present review raised some concerns in terms of risk of bias. We believe further research is needed in order to clarify potential mechanisms involved in the effect of cannabidiol on feeding/appetite.”

“In light of the available evidence, CBD appears to have an anorexigenic effect that may be more substantial in individuals with a higher BMI. Cannabinoids are known to have an orexigenic effect mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptors, but distinctly from Δ9-THC, which possesses an orexigenic effect, CBD appears to decrease food intake. This observation is very interesting and clearly relevant in the context of obesity, a disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide and which constitutes a risk factor for the development of comorbid conditions such as hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary heart disease, gallbladder disease, and certain malignancies [4546]. Therefore, the evidence presented in the present work points to the need for additional primary research in order to unveil and clarify mechanisms of not only appetite modulation by CBD, but also on other metabolic effects of CBD that may contribute to changes in body weight.”

Yin and yang of cannabinoid CB1 receptor: CB1 deletion in immune cells causes exacerbation while deletion in non-immune cells attenuates obesity

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“While blockade of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) has been shown to attenuate diet-induced obesity (DIO), its relative role in different cell types has not been tested. The current study investigated the role of CB1 in immune vs non-immune cells during DIO by generating radiation-induced bone marrow chimeric mice that expressed functional CB1 in all cells except the immune cells or expressed CB1 only in immune cells. CB1-/- recipient hosts were resistant to DIO, indicating that CB1 in non-immune cells is necessary for induction of DIO. Interestingly, chimeras with CB1-/- in immune cells showed exacerbation in DIO combined with infiltration of bone-marrow-derived macrophages to the brain and visceral adipose tissue, elevated food intake, and increased glucose intolerance. These results demonstrate the opposing role of CB1 in hematopoietic versus non-hematopoietic cells during DIO and suggests that targeting immune CB1 receptors provides a new pathway to ameliorate obesity and related metabolic disorders.”

Cannabidiol (CBD) Protects Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ASCs) against Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Development and Its Complications


“Background: Recent studies suggested that individuals with metabolic disorders have altered function of adipocytes and adipose stem cell subpopulations, which impairs tissue homeostasis, promoting insulin resistance and diabetes development. The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid CBD was found to modulate adipose tissue metabolism, however, its exact role in controlling ASCs’ fate is still poorly understood.

Objectives: This investigation aimed to elucidate whether pretreatment of ASCs with CBD can protect against ER stress development and maintain the cytophysiological properties of cells.

Methods: Human ASCs were cultured under control and adipogenic conditions. Prior to the experiments, cells in the experimental group were pretreated with CBD following the addition of an ER stress inducer-tunicamycin. After the experiments, the cells were subsequently tested for expression of the apoptotic, ER stress, and anti-inflammatory-related genes using RT-qPCR. Oxidative stress was analysed with flow cytometric assays.

Results: Cells pretreated with CBD displayed decreased apoptosis and enhanced proliferation rate. Additionally, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and miRNAs was significantly reduced. The obtained results also demonstrated an obvious reduction in intracellular accumulated ROS and NO, as well as mitigated ER stress through the down-regulation of IRE-1PERKCHOP, and ATF6 transcripts upon CBD treatment.

Conclusion: The presented data provide the evidence that CBD protects ASCs against ER stress development and its complications and, thus, offers new insights for the management of obesity through the regulation of adipose tissue dynamics.”

“The regenerative potential of ASCs in the treatment of multiple disorders lies in their differentiation, migration, and secretory activity. However, these conditions impair the cytophysiological properties of ASCs, limiting their application in autologous therapies. What is more, impaired ASCs in vivo suffer from reduced multipotency and produce a vast number of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors, which in turn contributes to disease progression. Hence, development of strategies that reverse their senescence and ageing, and, as a consequence, restore regenerative properties are strongly desirable.

To our knowledge, this is the first report on the impact of CBD pretreatment on metabolically impaired ASCs suffering from ER stress. Our current study revealed that CBD modulates ASCs metabolism by promoting their growth kinetics, multipotency, and viability, which due to enhanced ER stress were strongly limited. Taking into account that CBD lacks psychopharmacological activity, further studies aiming at unravelling its influence on different stem cells populations are recommended and justified. Further studies on the effects of CBD on ASCs could explore other measures of its regenerative capacity than studied in the presented research. Furthermore, unravelling the precise molecular mechanisms of action via CBD that protect ASCs against cytophysiological impairment would be valuable. While our findings are supported by the existing literature, our research was not free of limitations. An important drawback is that we did not explore which cannabinoid receptors are responsible for the observed effects of CBD. Thus, further experiments utilizing agonists and antagonists of cannabinoid receptors are necessary to elucidate which of them are involved in CBD’s way of action.

Taking into consideration that ASCs are nowadays a commonly applied tool in regenerative medicine, the ability to enhance their stemness and regenerative potential may contribute not only to more effective therapies but also to significantly reducing the costs associated with their isolation and expansion.”

Cannabidiol ameliorates the anxiogenic and compulsive-like behaviors induced by chronic consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet in male mice


“The excessive consumption of ultra-processed foods and the development of obesity has been associated with several comorbidities, including psychiatric disorders. Excess fat tissue promotes a low-intensity inflammatory state, mainly in the white tissue, which is essential in developing metabolic alterations and influences brain homeostasis.

In this scenario, Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound from Cannabis sativa, has presented anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory effects in murine models.

This study verified whether CBD treatment would ameliorate the compulsive-like and anxiety-like behaviors observed after mice’s chronic consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate (HC) diet.

BALB/c male mice received a control or HC diet for 12 weeks followed by vehicle and CBD (30 mg/Kg, i.p.) administration, and their behavior was evaluated in the Marble Burying test (MB) and Novel Suppressing Feeding test (NSF).

The sub-chronic, but not acute, treatment with CBD attenuated the compulsive-like and anxiogenic-like behavior induced by the HC diet.

Our data reinforced the harmful effects of the HC diet’s chronic consumption on compulsive and anxious behaviors and the potential of CBD as a drug treatment for psychiatric disorders associated with obesity.”

Cannabinoids and PPAR Ligands: The Future in Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women with Obesity and Reduced Fertility


“Cannabinoids (CBs) are used to treat chronic pain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, and multiple sclerosis spasticity. Recently, the medicinal use of CBs has attracted increasing interest as a new therapeutic in many diseases.

Data indicate a correlation between CBs and PPARs via diverse mechanisms. Both the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) may play a significant role in PCOS and PCOS related disorders, especially in disturbances of glucose-lipid metabolism as well as in obesity and fertility. Taking into consideration the ubiquity of PCOS in the human population, it seems indispensable to search for new potential therapeutic targets for this condition.

The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between metabolic disturbances and obesity in PCOS pathology. We discuss current and future therapeutic interventions for PCOS and related disorders, with emphasis on the metabolic pathways related to PCOS pathophysiology. The link between the ECS and PPARs is a promising new target for PCOS, and we examine this relationship in depth.”

“There is a great potential to use CBs and their metabolites and non-cannabinoid dual CBRs/PPAR agonists as novel interventions for PCOS and related disorders. PCOS pathophysiology is complex and poorly understood. We demonstrate that the ECS and PPARs play an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS (including mtCB1R). The complexity of the ECS and the PPARs will allow the development of diverse therapeutic modalities targeting these interrelated systems. Further, these interventions can be used to develop personalized approaches to treatment based on individual patient characteristics.”

Cannabis Use as a Protective Factor Against Overweight in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infected People (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH Cohort)

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“Overweight is increasingly prevalent in people living with HIV (PLWH), and is a high risk factor for metabolic disorders in this population. PLWH co-infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) have a higher risk of metabolic disorders than their mono-infected counterparts.

The putative relationship between cannabis use and body weight found in the general population has never been documented in HIV-HCV co-infected people. We tested whether cannabis use is associated with body mass index (BMI), overweight, and underweight in HCV co-infected PLWH (N = 992). Mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cannabis use and the three outcomes over time.

After multivariable adjustment, cannabis use was inversely associated with BMI. Cannabis use was associated with a lower and higher risk of overweight and underweight, respectively. Cannabis use should be assessed and taken into account in the clinical management of the HIV-HCV co-infected population.”

Pharmacophore-based virtual screening from phytocannabinoids as antagonist r-CB1


“Search for new pharmacological alternatives for obesity is based on the design and development of compounds that can aid in weight loss so that they can be used safely and effectively over a long period while maintaining their function.

The endocannabinoid system is related to obesity by increasing orexigenic signals and reducing satiety signals.

Cannabis sativa is a medicinal plant of polypharmaceutical potential that has been widely studied for various medicinal purposes.

The in silico evaluation of their natural cannabinoids (also called phytocannabinoids) for anti-obesity purpose stems from the existence of synthetic cannabinoid compounds that have already presented this result, but which did not guarantee patient safety.

In order to find new molecules from C. sativa phytocannabinoids, with the potential to interact peripherally with the pharmacological target cannabinoid receptor 1, a pharmacophore-based virtual screening was performed, including the evaluation of physicochemical, pharmacokinetic, toxicological predictions and molecular docking.

The results obtained from the ZINC12 database pointed to Zinc 69 (ZINC33053402) and Zinc 70 (ZINC19084698) molecules as promising anti-obesity agents. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies disclose that both complexes were stable by analyzing the RMSD (root mean square deviation) values, and the binding free energy values demonstrate that the selected structures can interact and inhibit their catalytic activity.”