In-silico designing and characterization of binding modes of two novel inhibitors for CB1 receptor against obesity by classical 3D-QSAR approach.

Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling

“Obesity is the fifth primary hazard for mortality in the world; hence different therapeutic targets are explored to overcome this problem.

Endocannabinoid is identified as the emerging target for the treatment of obesity as Cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor over-activation resulted in abdominal obesity.

Potent antagonists or inverse agonists for CB1 receptor are the new strategies to develop anti-obesity drugs.

The obtained results signify the potential of the developed model; suggesting that the models can be useful to test and design potent novel CB1 receptor antagonists or inverse agonists prior to the synthesis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30908997

“Potent antagonists or inverse agonists for CB1 receptor are the new strategies to develop anti-obesity drugs.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1093326318308398?via%3Dihub

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A patent update on cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonists (2015-2018).

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“The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of various physiological processes. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate that attenuation of the endocannabinoid system via antagonism of the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is an excellent strategy to treat obesity, metabolic syndrome and associated disorders. However, centrally acting antagonists of CB1 also produce adverse effects like depression and anxiety. Current efforts are geared towards discovery and optimization of antagonists and modulators of CB1 that have limited brain penetration. Areas Covered: Several recent publications and patent applications support the development of peripherally acting CB1 receptor antagonists and modulators. In this review, recent patents and applications (2015 – 2018) are summarized and discussed. Expert Opinion: Approximately 30 new inventions have been reported since 2015, along with 3 recent commercial deals, highlighting the importance of this class of therapeutics. Taken together, peripherally acting CB1 receptor antagonists and modulators are an emerging class of drugs for metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and other important disorders where this receptor has been implicated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30889997

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13543776.2019.1597851?journalCode=ietp20

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Are cannabis users less likely to gain weight? Results from a national 3-year prospective study.

International Journal of Epidemiology

“Pre-clinical studies indicate increased food intake and weight gain as cannabinoid effects. Cross-sectional epidemiological studies, however, indicate lower prevalence of obesity among cannabis users. Here, we aim to study the weight-gain research question in the prospectively conducted National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

RESULTS:

At W2, 77% of the participants never used cannabis, 18% had discontinued use (‘quit’), 3% were initiates and 2% were persistent users. Estimated W1-to-W2 BMI change shows an increase for all subgroups. Compared with never-users (reference), inverse slope estimates and attenuated change (%) in BMI between W1 and W2 are seen for cannabis-use subgroups: quitters [β = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.01, -0.60], initiates (β = -0.97; 95% CI = -1.36, -0.57) and persistent users (β = -1.26; 95% CI = -1.81, -0.72).

CONCLUSION:

This new prospective study builds from anecdotes, pre-clinical studies and cross-sectional evidence on inverse associations linking cannabis use and obesity and shows an inverse cannabis-BMI increase association. Confirmatory studies with rigorous cannabis and BMI assays will be needed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30879064

https://academic.oup.com/ije/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ije/dyz044/5382155?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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Effect of cannabis on weight and metabolism in first-episode non-affective psychosis: Results from a three-year longitudinal study.

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“Recent evidence indicates a protective effect of cannabis on weight gain and related metabolic alterations. However, there are no previous studies on the long-term longitudinal effects of cannabis on first-episode drug-naïve patients, which would thereby avoid the confounding effects of chronicity and previous treatment exposure.

We aimed to explore the effect of cannabis smoking on weight and lipid/glycaemic metabolic measures in a sample of first-episode non-affective psychosis patients.

RESULTS::

Cannabis users at baseline presented a lower weight ( F=14.85, p<0.001), body mass index ( F=13.14, p<0.001), total cholesterol ( F=4.85, p=0.028) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( F=6.26, p=0.013) compared to non-users. These differences were also observed after three years: weight ( F=8.07, p=0.005), body mass index ( F=4.66, p=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ( F=3.91, p=0.049). Moreover, those patients discontinuing cannabis use presented a higher increase in weight ( F=2.98, p=0.052), body mass index ( F=2.73, p=0.067) and triglyceride-high-density lipoprotein ratio ( F=2.72, p=0.067) than the ‘non-users’ and ‘continuers’.

CONCLUSIONS::

The study suggests that cannabis use may produce a protective effect against weight gain and related metabolic alterations in psychosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30702972

https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881118822173

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Muscle cannabinoid 1 receptor regulates Il-6 and myostatin expression, governing physical performance and whole-body metabolism.

“Sarcopenic obesity, the combination of skeletal muscle mass and function loss with an increase in body fat, is associated with physical limitations, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic stress, and increased risk of mortality. Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) plays a critical role in the regulation of whole-body energy metabolism because of its involvement in controlling appetite, fuel distribution, and utilization. Inhibition of CB1R improves insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes. We have now developed a skeletal muscle-specific CB1R-knockout (Skm-CB1R-/-) mouse to study the specific role of CB1R in muscle. Muscle-CB1R ablation prevented diet-induced and age-induced insulin resistance by increasing IR signaling. Moreover, muscle-CB1R ablation enhanced AKT signaling, reducing myostatin expression and increasing IL-6 secretion. Subsequently, muscle-CB1R ablation increased myogenesis through its action on MAPK-mediated myogenic gene expression. Consequently, Skm-CB1R-/- mice had increased muscle mass and whole-body lean/fat ratio in obesity and aging. Muscle-CB1R ablation improved mitochondrial performance, leading to increased whole-body muscle energy expenditure and improved physical endurance, with no change in body weight. These results collectively show that CB1R in muscle is sufficient to regulate whole-body metabolism and physical performance and is a novel target for the treatment of sarcopenic obesity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30726112

https://www.fasebj.org/doi/10.1096/fj.201801145R

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Diet-Induced Obesity in Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Knockout Mice and Cannabinoid Receptor 1/2 Double-Knockout Mice.

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“Evidence suggests that cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) activation is associated with increased food intake and body weight gain. Human epidemiological studies, however, show decreased prevalence of obesity in cannabis users.

Given the overlapping and complementary functions of the cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R), mice lacking CB2R and mice lacking both CB1R and CB2R were studied.

These results indicate that lacking both CB1R and CB2R protected mice from diet-induced obesity, possibly through the prominent role of CB1R in obesity or through an interactive effect of both receptors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30699233

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/oby.22403

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The effects of cannabinoids on the endocrine system.

“Cannabinoids are the derivatives of the cannabis plant, the most potent bioactive component of which is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The most commonly used drugs containing cannabinoids are marijuana, hashish, and hashish oil.

These compounds exert their effects via interaction with the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. Type 1 receptors (CB1) are localised mostly in the central nervous system and in the adipose tissue and many visceral organs, including most endocrine organs. Type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2) are positioned in the peripheral nervous system (peripheral nerve endings) and on the surface of the immune system cells.

Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the role that endogenous ligands play for these receptors, as well as to the role of the receptors themselves. So far, endogenous cannabinoids have been confirmed to participate in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis of the body, and have a significant impact on the endocrine system, including the activity of the pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, thyroid gland, pancreas, and gonads.

Interrelations between the endocannabinoid system and the activity of the endocrine system may be a therapeutic target for a number of drugs that have been proved effective in the treatment of infertility, obesity, diabetes, and even prevention of diseases associated with the cardiovascular system.”

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Multiple endocannabinoid-mediated mechanisms in the regulation of energy homeostasis in brain and peripheral tissues.

“The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is widely expressed in many central and peripheral tissues, and is involved in a plethora of physiological processes. Among these, activity of the eCB system promotes energy intake and storage, which, however, under pathophysiological conditions, can favour the development of obesity and obesity-related disorders. It is proposed that eCB signalling is evolutionary beneficial for survival under periods of scarce food resources. Remarkably, eCB signalling is increased both in hunger and in overnutrition conditions, such as obesity and type-2 diabetes. This apparent paradox suggests a role of the eCB system both at initiation and at clinical endpoint of obesity. This review will focus on recent findings about the role of the eCB system controlling whole-body metabolism in mice that are genetically modified selectively in different cell types. The current data in fact support the notion that eCB signalling is not only engaged in the development but also in the maintenance of obesity, whereby specific cell types in central and peripheral tissues are key sites in regulating the entire body’s energy homeostasis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30599065

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00018-018-2994-6

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Theoretical Explanation for Reduced Body Mass Index and Obesity Rates in Cannabis Users

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“Obesity is treatment-resistant, and is linked with a number of serious, chronic diseases. Adult obesity rates in the United States have tripled since the early 1960s.

Recent reviews show that an increased ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids contributes to obesity rates by increasing levels of the endocannabinoid signals AEA and 2-AG, overstimulating CB1R and leading to increased caloric intake, reduced metabolic rates, and weight gain.

Cannabis, or THC, also stimulates CB1R and increases caloric intake during acute exposures.

The present meta-analysis reveals significantly reduced body mass index and rates of obesity in Cannabis users, in conjunction with increased caloric intake.

We provide for the first time a causative explanation for this paradox, in which rapid and long-lasting downregulation of CB1R following acute Cannabis consumption reduces energy storage and increases metabolic rates, thus reversing the impact on body mass index of elevated dietary omega-6/omega-3 ratios.

Evidence suggests that, in the United States, many people may actually achieve net health benefits from moderate Cannabis use, due to reduced risk of obesity and associated diseases.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2018.0045?_ga=2.221453528.1791159238.1546024140-1083808004.1546024140

“Reduced Body Mass Index and Obesity Rates in Cannabis Users”  https://www.genengnews.com/insights/reduced-body-mass-index-and-obesity-rates-in-cannabis-users/?fbclid=IwAR3a0wbfGoPwAR-pYQGCeLz-KYUFdiLJoj6Ja7rTTNGBYwkjIGw1fUjf5LI

 

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Associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors: A longitudinal study of men.

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“This study tested longitudinal associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors that underlie the development of cardiovascular diseases.

RESULTS:

Greater cannabis exposure was associated with relatively lower BMI (β=-0.31, p<.001), smaller WHR (β=-0.23, p=.002), better HDL (β=0.14, p=.036) and LDL cholesterol (β=-0.15, p=.026), lower triglycerides (β=-0.17, p=.009), lower fasting glucose (β=-0.15, p<.001) and HOMA-IR (β=-0.21, p=.003), lower systolic (β=-0.22, p<.001) and diastolic blood pressure (β=-0.15, p=.028), and fewer metabolic syndrome criteria (β=-0.27, p<.001). With exception of BMI, cannabis users’ mean levels on cardiometabolic risk factors were generally below clinical cutoffs for high risk. Most associations between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors remained after adjusting for tobacco use, childhood SES, and childhood health. However, after adjusting for adult BMI, these associations were no longer apparent, and mediation tests suggested that cannabis users’ relatively lower BMI might explain their lower levels of risk on other cardiometabolic risk factors.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use is associated with lower BMI, and lower BMI is related to lower levels of risk on other cardiometabolic risk factors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30589665

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006842-900000000-98666

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