Cannabidiol reduces airway inflammation and fibrosis in experimental allergic asthma.

European Journal of Pharmacology

“Asthma is characterized by chronic lung inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Asthma remains a major public health problem and, at present, there are no effective interventions capable of reversing airway remodelling.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is known to exert immunomodulatory effects through the activation of cannabinoid-1 and -2 (CB1 and CB2) receptors located in the central nervous system and immune cells, respectively. However, as the role of CBD on airway remodelling and the mechanisms of CB1 and CB2 aren’t fully elucidated, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of cannabidiol in this scenario.

Allergic asthma was induced in Balb/c mice exposed to ovalbumin, and respiratory mechanics, collagen fibre content in airway and alveolar septa, cytokine levels, and CB1 and CB2 expression were determined. Moreover, expressions of CB1 and CB2 in induced sputum of asthmatic individuals and their correlation with airway inflammation and lung function were also evaluated.

CBD treatment, regardless of dosage, decreased airway hyperresponsiveness, whereas static lung elastance only reduced with high dose. These outcomes were accompanied by decreases in collagen fibre content in both airway and alveolar septa and the expression of markers associated with inflammation in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenate. There was a significant and inverse correlation between CB1levels and lung function in asthmatic patients.

CBD treatment decreased the inflammatory and remodelling processes in the model of allergic asthma. The mechanisms of action appear to be mediated by CB1/CB2 signalling, but these receptors may act differently on lung inflammation and remodelling.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30481497

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299918306836?via%3Dihub

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[The impact of cannabinoids on the endocrine system].

 

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“Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds, derivatives of Indian hemp, in which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most important. Marijuana, hashish and hash oil are among those most commonly used in the group.

Cannabinoids (marjhuana and hashish) have been used throughout recorded history as effective drugs in treating various diseases and conditions such as: malaria, hypertension, constipation, bronchial asthma, rheumatic pains, and as natural pain relief in labour and joint pains.

Marijuana acts through cannabinoid receptors CB 1 and CB2. Both receptors inhibit cAMP accummulation (through Gi/o proteins) and stimulate mitrogen- activated protein kinase. CB1 rceptors are located in CNS and in adipose tissue, digestive tract, muscles, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, gonads, prostate gland and other peripheral tissues. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are located in the peripheral nervous system (at the ends of peripheral nerves), and on the surfaces of the cells of the immunological system.

The discovery of endogenous cannabinoids has contributed to a better understanding of their role in the regulation of the intake of food, energetic homeostasis and their significant influence on the endocrine system.”

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Acute Effects of Smoked Marijuana and Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Specific Airway Conductance in Asthmatic Subjects

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“The acute effects of smoked 2 per cent natural marijuana (7 mg per kg) and 15 mg of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on plethysmographically determined airway resistance (Raw) and specific airway conductance (SGaw) were compared with those of placebo in 10 subjects with stable bronchial asthma using a double-blind crossover technique.

After smoked marijuana, SGaw increased immediately and remained significantly elevated (33 to 48 per cent above initial control values) for at least 2 hours, whereas SGaw did not change after placebo. The peak bronchodilator effect of 1,250 µg of isoproterenol was more pronounced than that of marijuana, but the effect of marijuana lasted longer.

After ingestion of 15 mg of THC, SGaw was elevated significantly at 1 and 2 hours, and Raw was reduced significantly at 1 to 4 hours, whereas no changes were noted after placebo.

These findings indicated that in the asthmatic subjects, both smoked marijuana and oral THC caused significant bronchodilation of at least 2 hours’ duration.”  http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/arrd.1974.109.4.420?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed

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Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma.

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“After experimental induction of acute bronchospasm in 8 subjects with clinically stable bronchial asthma, effects of 500 mg of smoked marijuana (2.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) on specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume were compared with those of 500 mg of smoked placebo marijuana (0.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), 0.25 ml of aerosolized saline, and 0.25 ml of aerosolized isoproterenol (1,250 mug).

After methacholine-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline inhalation produced minimal changes in specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol each caused a prompt correction of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation. After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1099949

“After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.”
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The case for cannabinoid CB1 receptors as a target for bronchodilator therapy for β-agonist resistant asthma.

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“Although b2-receceptor agonists are powerful bronchodilators and are at the forefront of asthma symptom relief, patients who use them frequently develop partial resistance to them. This can be a particularly serious problem during severe attacks, where high dose b2-agonist treatment is the front line therapy.

Alternative bronchodilators are urgently needed. In this article we review the evidence for the bronchodilator effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and suggest that the mechanism of action for these effects are sufficiently independent of the mechanisms of standard bronchodilators to warrant clinical investigation.

Specifically, clinical trials testing the bronchodilator effects of THC in b2 agonist resistant asthmatic patients would show whether THC could fill the role of rescue bronchodilator in cases of b2 agonist resistance.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28641517

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Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: cannabinoids on the balance.

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“The network of cells and soluble mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disorders is complex. Deciphering details of the crosstalk between its components is essential for the identification of novel drug targets and for advances in patient management and precision medicine. There is increasing evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to allergic responses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28226397

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/asthma/

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Implication of cannabinoids in neurological diseases.

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“1. Preparations from Cannabis sativa (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. 2. Recent advances in the knowledge of its pharmacological and chemical properties in the organism, mainly due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids have opened up new strategies in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. 3. Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists include the management of spasticity and tremor in multiple sclerosis/spinal cord injury, pain, inflammatory disorders, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, cancer, and vasodilation that accompanies advanced cirrhosis. CB(1) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. 4. Dr. Julius Axelrod also contributed in studies on the neuroprotective actions of cannabinoids.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16699878

“Medical marijuana: emerging applications for the management of neurologic disorders.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458761
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CB2 receptors regulate natural killer cells that limit allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

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“Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involving the complementary actions of innate and adaptive immune responses.

Endogenously generated cannabinoids, acting via CB2 receptors play important roles in both homeostatic and inflammatory processes. However, the contribution of CB2-acting eicosanoids to the innate events preceding sensitization to the common house dust mite (HDM) allergen, remain to be elucidated. We investigated the role of CB2 activation during allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and NK cell effector function.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collectively, these results reveal that CB2 activation is crucial in regulating pulmonary NK cell function, and suggest that NK cells serve to limit ILC2 activation and subsequent allergic airway inflammation. CB2 inhibition may present an important target to modulate NK cell response during pulmonary inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992060

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Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Reverses TNFα-induced Increase in Airway Epithelial Cell Permeability through CB2 Receptors.

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“Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα. Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells were cultured at air-liquid interface.

These data indicate that THC prevents cytokine-induced increase in airway epithelial permeability through CB2 receptor activation.

This highlights that THC, or other cannabinoid receptor ligands, could be beneficial in the prevention of inflammation-induced changes in airway epithelial cell permeability, an important feature of airways diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641813

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The effect of cannabinoids on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced experimental asthma in mice.

“Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory effects and can produce bronchodilation in the airways.

We have investigated the effects of cannabinoids on tracheal hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced experimental non-atopic asthma in mice.

These results show that cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist can prevent tracheal hyperreactivity to 5-HT in DNFB-induced non-atopic asthma in mice.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27216000

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