Acute Effects of Smoked Marijuana and Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Specific Airway Conductance in Asthmatic Subjects

ATS Journals Logo

“The acute effects of smoked 2 per cent natural marijuana (7 mg per kg) and 15 mg of oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on plethysmographically determined airway resistance (Raw) and specific airway conductance (SGaw) were compared with those of placebo in 10 subjects with stable bronchial asthma using a double-blind crossover technique.

After smoked marijuana, SGaw increased immediately and remained significantly elevated (33 to 48 per cent above initial control values) for at least 2 hours, whereas SGaw did not change after placebo. The peak bronchodilator effect of 1,250 µg of isoproterenol was more pronounced than that of marijuana, but the effect of marijuana lasted longer.

After ingestion of 15 mg of THC, SGaw was elevated significantly at 1 and 2 hours, and Raw was reduced significantly at 1 to 4 hours, whereas no changes were noted after placebo.

These findings indicated that in the asthmatic subjects, both smoked marijuana and oral THC caused significant bronchodilation of at least 2 hours’ duration.”  http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/arrd.1974.109.4.420?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3dpubmed

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Effects of smoked marijuana in experimentally induced asthma.

ATS Journals Logo

“After experimental induction of acute bronchospasm in 8 subjects with clinically stable bronchial asthma, effects of 500 mg of smoked marijuana (2.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol) on specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume were compared with those of 500 mg of smoked placebo marijuana (0.0 per cent delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol), 0.25 ml of aerosolized saline, and 0.25 ml of aerosolized isoproterenol (1,250 mug).

After methacholine-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline inhalation produced minimal changes in specific airway conductance and thoracic gas volume, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol each caused a prompt correction of the bronchospasm and associated hyperinflation. After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1099949

“After exercise-induced bronchospasm, placebo marijuana and saline were followed by gradual recovery during 30 to 60 min, whereas 2.0 per cent marijuana and isoproterenol caused an immediate reversal of exercise-induced asthma and hyperinflation.”
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The case for cannabinoid CB1 receptors as a target for bronchodilator therapy for β-agonist resistant asthma.

Image result for Curr Drug Targets

“Although b2-receceptor agonists are powerful bronchodilators and are at the forefront of asthma symptom relief, patients who use them frequently develop partial resistance to them. This can be a particularly serious problem during severe attacks, where high dose b2-agonist treatment is the front line therapy.

Alternative bronchodilators are urgently needed. In this article we review the evidence for the bronchodilator effects of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and suggest that the mechanism of action for these effects are sufficiently independent of the mechanisms of standard bronchodilators to warrant clinical investigation.

Specifically, clinical trials testing the bronchodilator effects of THC in b2 agonist resistant asthmatic patients would show whether THC could fill the role of rescue bronchodilator in cases of b2 agonist resistance.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28641517

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: cannabinoids on the balance.

Image result for allergy journal

“The network of cells and soluble mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and allergic disorders is complex. Deciphering details of the crosstalk between its components is essential for the identification of novel drug targets and for advances in patient management and precision medicine. There is increasing evidence that innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) contribute to allergic responses.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28226397

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/asthma/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Implication of cannabinoids in neurological diseases.

Image result for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology

“1. Preparations from Cannabis sativa (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally. 2. Recent advances in the knowledge of its pharmacological and chemical properties in the organism, mainly due to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids have opened up new strategies in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. 3. Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoid receptor agonists include the management of spasticity and tremor in multiple sclerosis/spinal cord injury, pain, inflammatory disorders, glaucoma, bronchial asthma, cancer, and vasodilation that accompanies advanced cirrhosis. CB(1) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in Parkinson’s disease. 4. Dr. Julius Axelrod also contributed in studies on the neuroprotective actions of cannabinoids.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16699878

“Medical marijuana: emerging applications for the management of neurologic disorders.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15458761
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

CB2 receptors regulate natural killer cells that limit allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma.

Image result for allergy journal

“Allergic asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory disease involving the complementary actions of innate and adaptive immune responses.

Endogenously generated cannabinoids, acting via CB2 receptors play important roles in both homeostatic and inflammatory processes. However, the contribution of CB2-acting eicosanoids to the innate events preceding sensitization to the common house dust mite (HDM) allergen, remain to be elucidated. We investigated the role of CB2 activation during allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and NK cell effector function.

CONCLUSIONS:

Collectively, these results reveal that CB2 activation is crucial in regulating pulmonary NK cell function, and suggest that NK cells serve to limit ILC2 activation and subsequent allergic airway inflammation. CB2 inhibition may present an important target to modulate NK cell response during pulmonary inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27992060

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Reverses TNFα-induced Increase in Airway Epithelial Cell Permeability through CB2 Receptors.

Image result for Biochem Pharmacol

“Despite pharmacological treatment, bronchial hyperresponsiveness continues to deteriorate as airway remodelling persists in airway inflammation.

Previous studies have demonstrated that the phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) reverses bronchoconstriction with an anti-inflammatory action.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of THC on bronchial epithelial cell permeability after exposure to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα. Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cells were cultured at air-liquid interface.

These data indicate that THC prevents cytokine-induced increase in airway epithelial permeability through CB2 receptor activation.

This highlights that THC, or other cannabinoid receptor ligands, could be beneficial in the prevention of inflammation-induced changes in airway epithelial cell permeability, an important feature of airways diseases.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27641813

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The effect of cannabinoids on dinitrofluorobenzene-induced experimental asthma in mice.

“Cannabinoids have anti-inflammatory effects and can produce bronchodilation in the airways.

We have investigated the effects of cannabinoids on tracheal hyperreactivity and airway inflammation in dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced experimental non-atopic asthma in mice.

These results show that cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist can prevent tracheal hyperreactivity to 5-HT in DNFB-induced non-atopic asthma in mice.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27216000

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A multi-facet therapeutic target.

Image result for Curr Clin Pharmacol.

“Cannabis sativa is also popularly known as marijuana. It is being cultivated and used by man for recreational and medicinal purposes from many centuries.

Study of cannabinoids was at bay for very long time and its therapeutic value could not be adequately harnessed due to its legal status as proscribed drug in most of the countries.

The research of drugs acting on endocannabinoid system has seen many ups and down in recent past. Presently, it is known that endocannabinoids has role in pathology of many disorders and they also serve “protective role” in many medical conditions.

Several diseases like emesis, pain, inflammation, multiple sclerosis, anorexia, epilepsy, glaucoma, schizophrenia, cardiovascular disorders, cancer, obesity, metabolic syndrome related diseases, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome could possibly be treated by drugs modulating endocannabinoid system.

Presently, cannabinoid receptor agonists like nabilone and dronabinol are used for reducing the chemotherapy induced vomiting. Sativex (cannabidiol and THC combination) is approved in the UK, Spain and New Zealand to treat spasticity due to multiple sclerosis. In US it is under investigation for cancer pain, another drug Epidiolex (cannabidiol) is also under investigation in US for childhood seizures. Rimonabant, CB1 receptor antagonist appeared as a promising anti-obesity drug during clinical trials but it also exhibited remarkable psychiatric side effect profile. Due to which the US Food and Drug Administration did not approve Rimonabant in US. It sale was also suspended across the EU in 2008.

Recent discontinuation of clinical trial related to FAAH inhibitor due to occurrence of serious adverse events in the participating subjects could be discouraging for the research fraternity. Despite of some mishaps in clinical trials related to drugs acting on endocannabinoid system, still lot of research is being carried out to explore and establish the therapeutic targets for both cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists.

One challenge is to develop drugs that target only cannabinoid receptors in a particular tissue and another is to invent drugs that acts selectively on cannabinoid receptors located outside the blood brain barrier. Besides this, development of the suitable dosage forms with maximum efficacy and minimum adverse effects is also warranted.

Another angle to be introspected for therapeutic abilities of this group of drugs is non-CB1 and non-CB2 receptor targets for cannabinoids.

In order to successfully exploit the therapeutic potential of endocannabinoid system, it is imperative to further characterize the endocannabinoid system in terms of identification of the exact cellular location of cannabinoid receptors and their role as “protective” and “disease inducing substance”, time-dependent changes in the expression of cannabinoid receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27086601

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors prevents nerve-mediated airway hyperreactivity in NGF-induced inflammation in mouse airways.

“In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cannabinoids have both acute and chronic modulatory effects on nerve-mediated contractions in NGF-induced airway inflammation.

This study shows that stimulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors modifies the increase of neuronal activity and density in NGF-induced airway inflammation and directly inhibits cholinergic contractions in the airways by a presynaptic mechanism.

These findings indicate a protective role of CB1 receptors in airway inflammation.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26896777

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous