Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

“Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in pure and mixed solutions at different ratios, as well as of six different Cannabis sativa extracts containing various proportions of CBD and THC by using spectrophotometric (reducing power assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging assays) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry).

The isolated cannabinoids, the different stoichiometric ratios of CBD and THC, and the natural extracts proved to have remarkable antioxidant properties in all the methods employed in this work.

The antioxidant activity of CBD and THC was compared against that of the well-defined antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), resveratrol (Resv) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clear evidence of the synergistic and antagonistic effects between CBD and THC regarding to their antioxidant activities was observed.

Moreover, a good correlation was obtained between the optical and electrochemical methods, which proved that the reported experimental procedures can easily be adapted to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from various Cannabis sativa species and related compounds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31318364

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/AN/C9AN00890J#!divAbstract

Graphical abstract: Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Allostatic load and the cannabinoid system: implications for the treatment of physiological abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Image result for cns spectrums“It is becoming clear that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is not simply a psychiatric disorder, but one that involves pervasive physiological impairments as well. These physiological disturbances deserve attention in any attempt at integrative treatment of PTSD that requires a focus beyond the PTSD symptoms themselves. The physiological disturbances in PTSD range over many systems, but a common thread thought to underlie them is that the chronic effects of PTSD involve problems with allostatic control mechanisms that result in an excess in what has been termed “allostatic load” (AL).

A pharmacological approach to reducing AL would be valuable, but, because of the large range of physiological issues involved – including metabolic, inflammatory, and cardiovascular systems – it is unclear whether there exists a simple comprehensive way to address the AL landscape. In this paper, we propose that the cannabinoid system may offer just such an approach, and we outline evidence for the potential utility of cannabinoids in reducing many of the chronic physiological abnormalities seen in PTSD which are thought to be related to excess AL.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31303187
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/cns-spectrums/article/allostatic-load-and-the-cannabinoid-system-implications-for-the-treatment-of-physiological-abnormalities-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/F85D2588638C20BE9DD86DEC2F768242

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Potential Mechanisms Influencing the Inverse Relationship Between Cannabis and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Commentary.

Image result for Nutrition and Metabolic Insights“Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develops when the liver is unable to oxidize or export excess free fatty acids generated by adipose tissue lipolysis, de novo lipogenesis, or dietary intake. Although treatment has generally been centered on reversing metabolic risk factors that increase the likelihood of NAFLD by influencing lifestyle modifications, therapeutic modalities are being studied at the cellular and molecular level.

The endocannabinoid system has been of recent focus. The agonism and antagonism of cannabinoid receptors play roles in biochemical mechanisms involved in the development or regression of NAFLD. Exocannabinoids and endocannabinoids, the ligands which bind cannabinoid receptors, have been studied in this regard.

Exocannabinoids found in cannabis (marijuana) may have a therapeutic benefit. Our recent study demonstrated an inverse association between marijuana use and NAFLD among adults in the United States.

This commentary combines knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system in the setting of NAFLD with the findings in our article to hypothesize different potential mechanisms that may influence the inverse relationship between cannabis and NAFLD.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31308686

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1178638819847480

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

S-Adenosyl-L-Methionine (SAMe), Cannabidiol (CBD), and Kratom in Psychiatric Disorders: Clinical and Mechanistic Considerations.

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity“Given the limitations of prescription antidepressants, many individuals have turned to natural remedies for the management of their mood disorders.

We review three selected natural remedies that may be of potential use as treatments for depressive disorders and other psychiatric or neurological conditions.

The best studied and best supported of these three remedies is S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe), a methyl donor with a wide range of physiological functions in the human organism.

With the increasing legalization of cannabis-related products, cannabidiol (CBD) has gained popularity for various potential indications and has even obtained approval in the United States and Canada for certain neurological conditions.

Kratom, while potentially useful for certain individuals with psychiatric disorders, is perhaps the most controversial of the three remedies, in view of its greater potential for abuse and dependence.

For each remedy, we will review indications, doses and delivery systems, potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory action, adverse effects, and will provide recommendations for clinicians who may be considering prescribing these remedies in their practice.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31301401

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0889159119302788?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Nabiximols for the Treatment of Cannabis Dependence: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Image result for jama network

“This study demonstrates that cannabinoid agonist treatment, in this case using nabiximols, in combination with psychosocial interventions is a safe approach for reducing cannabis use among individuals with cannabis dependence who are seeking treatment.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31305874
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2737918
“nabiximols: An herbal preparation containing a defined quantity of specific cannabinoids formulated for oromucosal spray administration with potential analgesic activity. Nabiximols contains a standardized extract of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), other minor cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes from two cannabis plant varieties.” https://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-drug/def/nabiximols
“Cannabis treatment counters addiction: First study of its kind. Trial shows cannabis replacement therapy can be effective” https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/07/190715114247.htm

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabinoid receptors in osteoporosis and osteoporotic pain: a narrative update of review.

Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology banner“Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease with decreased bone mass and alteration in microarchitecture of bone tissue, and these changes put patients in risk of bone fracture. As a common symptom of osteoporosis and complication of osteoporotic fracture, chronic pain is a headache for clinicians. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), selective COX-2 inhibitors and opioid drugs can temporarily reduce osteoporotic pain but have relevant side effects, such as addiction, tolerability and safety. The review summarized the recent advancements in the study of CB receptors in osteoporosis and osteoporotic pain and related mechanisms.

KEY FINDINGS:

Recent studies indicated the two nociceptive receptors, cannabinoid receptor (CB) and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel, are co-expressed in bone cells and play important role in the metabolism of bone cells, suggesting that dualtargeting these 2 receptors/channel may provide a novel approach for osteoporotic pain. In addition, both CB receptor and TRPV1 channel are found to be expressed in the glial cells which play vital role in mediating inflammation, chronic pain and metabolism of bone cells, suggesting a role of glial cells inosteoporotic pain.

SUMMARY:

Multiple-targeting against glial cells, CB receptors and TRPV1 channel may be one effective therapeutic strategy for osteoporotic pain in the future, following the elucidation of the complicated mechanism.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31294469

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jphp.13135

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

The protective mechanism of cannabidiol in cardiac injury: A systematic review of non-clinical studies.

“Cardiac disease is accounted as the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, mainly in association with induction of inflammation and oxidative stress. The disease is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and reduced antioxidant capacity.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive ingredient of marijuana that reported to be safe and well tolerated in patients. Due to its pleiotropic effect, CBD has been shown to exert cytoprotective effects. This study intended to clarify the mechanisms and the potential role of CBD regarding cardiac injuries treatment.

RESULTS:

Our findings obviously demonstrate that CBD has multi-functional protective assets to improve cardiac injuries; preliminary through scavenging of free radicals, and reduction of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD can protect against cardiac injuries, mainly through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects on the basis of non-clinical studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31291873

http://www.eurekaselect.com/173374/article

“Cytoprotection is a process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoprotection

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Diet, endocannabinoids, and health.

Nutrition Research“Healthy aging includes freedom from disease, ability to engage in physical activity, and maintenance of cognitive skills for which diet is a major lifestyle factor. Aging, diet, and health are at the forefront of well-being for the growing population of older adults with the caveat of reducing and controlling pain. Obesity and diabetes risk increase in frequency in adults, and exercise is encouraged to control weight, reduce risk of type II diabetes, and maintain muscle mass and mobility.

One area of research that appears to integrate many aspects of healthy aging is focused on understanding the endocannabinoid system (ECS) because of its role in systemic energy metabolism, inflammation, pain, and brain biology. Physical activity is important for maintaining health throughout the life cycle. The benefits of exercise facilitate macronutrient use, promote organ health, and augment the maintenance of metabolic activity and physiological functions. One outcome of routine exercise is a generalized well-being, and perhaps, this is linked to the ECS.

The purpose of this review is to briefly present the current knowledge of key components of the ECS that contribute to appetite and influence systemic energy metabolism, and dietary factors that alter the responses of ligand binding and activation of cannabinoidreceptors and its role in the brain. Herein, the objectives are to (1) explain the role of the ECS in the body, (2) describe the relationship between dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and macronutrient intake and systemic metabolism, and (3) present areas of promising research where exercise induces endocannabinoid production in the brain to benefit well-being. There are many gaps in the knowledge of how the ECS participates in controlling pain through exercise; however, emerging research will reveal key relationships to understand this system in the brain and body.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31280882

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S027153171930572X?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Employment and Marijuana Use Among Washington State Adolescents Before and After Legalization of Retail Marijuana

 Journal of Adolescent Health Home“The purpose of the study was to describe associations between employment and marijuana use among adolescents 2 years before passage of 2012 ballot initiative and 2 years after the implementation of retail recreational marijuana sales took place in Washington.

Working adolescents in all grades had higher prevalence of recent marijuana use compared with nonworking adolescents.

Working youth were more likely to use marijuana before and after Washington’s legalization of retail marijuana.”

https://www.jahonline.org/article/S1054-139X(19)30020-5/fulltext

“Study shows working teens more likely to try marijuana. Employed adolescents are more likely to use marijuana than those who don’t work, according to a study recently published in the Journal of Adolescent Health.”
“Teens with jobs are more likely to use cannabis than those who aren’t employed: study” https://www.thegrowthop.com/cannabis-news/teens-with-jobs-are-more-likely-to-use-cannabis-than-those-who-arent-employed-study
Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Model-based analysis on systemic availability of coadministered cannabinoids after controlled vaporised administration.

Publication cover image

“The most important two medicinal cannabinoids are Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

The results observed in this study are useful for guiding future pharmacokinetic studies of medicinal cannabinoids, and for development of dosing guidelines for medical use of cannabis in the ‘real world’ setting.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31264294

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/imj.14415

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous