“Endocannabinoids acting on the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) or ghrelin acting on its receptor (GHS-R1A) both promote alcohol-seeking behavior, but an interaction between the two signaling systems has not been explored. Here, we report that the peripheral CB1R inverse agonist JD5037 reduces ethanol drinking in wild-type mice but not in mice lacking CB1R, ghrelin peptide or GHS-R1A. JD5037 treatment of alcohol-drinking mice inhibits the formation of biologically active octanoyl-ghrelin without affecting its inactive precursor desacyl-ghrelin. In ghrelin-producing stomach cells, JD5037 reduced the level of the substrate octanoyl-carnitine generated from palmitoyl-carnitine by increasing fatty acid β-oxidation. Blocking gastric vagal afferents abrogated the ability of either CB1R or GHS-R1A blockade to reduce ethanol drinking. We conclude that blocking CB1R in ghrelin-producing cells reduces alcohol drinking by inhibiting the formation of active ghrelin and its signaling via gastric vagal afferents. Thus, peripheral CB1R blockade may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of alcoholism.”
“Despite the staggering consequences of the opioid epidemic, limited nonopioid medication options have been developed to treat this medical and public health crisis.
This study investigated the potential of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonintoxicating phytocannabinoid, to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety, two critical features of addiction that often contribute to relapse and continued drug use, in drug-abstinent individuals with heroin use disorder.
Acute CBD administration, in contrast to placebo, significantly reduced both craving and anxiety induced by the presentation of salient drug cues compared with neutral cues. CBD also showed significant protracted effects on these measures 7 days after the final short-term (3-day) CBD exposure. In addition, CBD reduced the drug cue–induced physiological measures of heart rate and salivary cortisol levels. There were no significant effects on cognition, and there were no serious adverse effects.
CBD’s potential to reduce cue-induced craving and anxiety provides a strong basis for further investigation of this phytocannabinoid as a treatment option for opioid use disorder.”
“We conducted a responsibility analysis to determine whether drivers injured in motor vehicle collisions who test positive for Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or other drugs are more likely to have contributed to the crash than those who test negative.
There was no increased risk of crash responsibility in drivers with THC<2ng/mL or 2≤THC<5ng/mL.
In this sample of non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in British Columbia, Canada, there was no evidence of increased crash risk in drivers with THC<5ng/mL and a statistically non-significant increased risk of crash responsibility (OR=1.74) in drivers with THC≥5ng/mL.”
“Studies suggest that the endocannabinoid and endovanilloid systems are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.
The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) strain displays impaired contextual fear conditioning (CFC) attenuated by antipsychotic drugs and worsened by pro-psychotic manipulations. Therefore, SHR strain is used to study emotional processing/associative learning impairments associated with schizophrenia and effects of potential antipsychotic drugs.
Here, we evaluated the expression of CB1 and TRPV1 receptors in some brain regions related to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We also assessed the effects of drugs that act on the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid systems on the CFC task in SHRs and control animals (Wistar rats – WRs).
These results reinforce the involvement of the endocannabinoid/endovanilloid systems in the SHRs CFC deficit and point to these systems as targets to treat the emotional processing/cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.”
“Recent evidence suggests that 2-week treatment with the non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid cannabidivarin (CBDV) could be beneficial towards neurological and social deficits in early symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice, a model of Rett syndrome (RTT). The aim of this study was to provide further insights into the efficacy of CBDV in Mecp2-null mice using a lifelong treatment schedule to evaluate its effect on recognition memory and neurological defects in both early and advanced stages of the phenotype progression. CBDV rescues recognition memory deficits in Mecp2 mutant mice and delays the appearance of neurological defects. CBDV administration exerts an enduring rescue of memory deficits in Mecp2 mutant mice. CBDV delays neurological defects but this effect is only transient.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31084246
“Chronic treatment with the phytocannabinoid Cannabidivarin (CBDV) rescues behavioural alterations and brain atrophy in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30056123
“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) produces a resin that is valued for its psychoactive and medicinal properties. Despite being the foundation of a multi-billion dollar global industry, scientific knowledge and research on cannabis is lagging behind compared to other high-value crops. This is largely due to legal restrictions that have prevented many researchers from studying cannabis, its products, and their effects in humans. Cannabis resin contains hundreds of different terpene and cannabinoid metabolites. Our understanding of the genomic and biosynthetic systems of these metabolites in cannabis, and the factors that affect their variability, is rudimentary. As a consequence, there is concern about lack of consistency with regard to the terpene and cannabinoid composition of different cannabis ‘strains’. Likewise, claims of some of the medicinal properties attributed to cannabis metabolites would benefit from thorough scientific validation.”
“Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096653