From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

frontiers in pharmacology – Retraction Watch“Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects.

Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabiscannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression.

To this regard, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration.

In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32210795

“The present review provided evidence that the nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids CBD could be a potential pharmacological tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; its excellent safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies renders it a promising therapeutic agent.

The molecular mechanisms associated with CBD’s improvement in PD and AD are likely multifaceted, and although CBD may act on different molecular targets all the beneficial effects are in some extent linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profile, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, this review describes evidence to prove the therapeutical efficacy of CBD in patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and promotes further research in order to better elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00124/full

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Endocannabinoid system and cardiometabolic risk factors: A comprehensive systematic review insight into the mechanistic effects of omega-3 fatty acids.

Life Sciences“Increased levels of endocannabinoids, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) have a pathophysiological role in the setting of cardiometabolic diseases. This systematic review was carried out to appraise the effect of omega-3 on cardiometabolic risk factors by highlighting the mediating effect of endocannabinoids.

Eleven animal studies and two human studies showed a marked reduction in 2-AG and AEA levels following intake of omega-3 which correlated with decreased adiposity, weight gain and improved glucose homeostasis. Moreover, endocannabinoids were elevated in three studies that replaced omega-3 with omega-6.

Omega-3 showed anti-inflammatory properties due to reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines, regulation of T-cells function and increased levels of eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide and oxylipins; however, a limited number of studies examined a correlation between inflammatory cytokines and endocannabinoids following omega-3 administration.

In conclusion, omega-3 modulates endocannabinoid tone, which subsequently attenuates inflammation and cardiometabolic risk factors. However, further randomized clinical trials are needed before any recommendations are made to target the ECS using omega-3 as an alternative therapy to drugs for cardiometabolic disease improvement.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32184122

“Endocannabinoid system (ECS) may mediate favorable effects of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiometabolic disorders. Omega-3 fatty acids showed anti-inflammatory effects due to increased levels of ethanolamide and oxylipins. Plant-derived omega-3 may be as effective as animal-derived omega-3 in ECS modulation. Omega-3 may have a potential to be an alternative to drugs for cardiometabolic disease improvement.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0024320520303040?via%3Dihub

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The molecular mechanisms that underpin the biological benefit of full spectrum cannabis extract in the treatment of neuropathic pain and inflammation.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease“Cannabis has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.

The biological effect of cannabis is mainly attributed to two major cannabinoids, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. In the majority of studies to-date, a purified tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone or in combination have been extensively examined in many studies for the treatment of numerous disorders including pain and inflammation. However, few studies have investigated the biological benefits of full-spectrum cannabis plant extract.

Given that cannabis is known to generate a large number of cannabinoids along with numerous other biologically relevant products including terpenes, studies involving purified tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol may not precisely consider the potential biological benefits of the full-spectrum cannabis extracts. This may be especially true in the role of cannabis as a treatment of pain and inflammation. Herein, we review the pre-clinical physiological and molecular mechanisms in biological systems that are affected by cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32201189

“Full-spectrum cannabis extract demonstrates several convincing beneficial anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in preclinical studies. Full-spectrum cannabis extract may represent a promising therapeutic agent that seems to benefit a variety of conditions associated with pain and inflammation.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0925443920301162?via%3Dihub

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The endocannabinoid system modulates the ovarian physiology and its activation can improve in vitro oocyte maturation.

Publication cover image“The present study investigated the effect of the lack of CB1 and CB2 receptors in mice ovarian morphology, folliculogenesis, oocyte retrieval, and oocyte maturation and evaluated the use of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM) by comparing classical IVM and two-step IVM by analyzing the meiotic competence of the oocytes and their evolution toward embryos.

Thus, when CB1 and CB2 receptors were missed, the ovary area and volume was significantly less and the action of the equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) hormone was diminished.

In addition, the mutant genotypes had fewer ovarian follicles and they were less competent after eCG administration compared with wild-type mice, and this lack of CB receptors showed a mismatch of oocyte maturation.

However, the in vitro use of THC showed improvements in oocytes IVM after a Pre-IVM step for 48 hr, as those oocytes reached a significantly higher polar body rate, a larger diameter and the best result on blastocysts rate was achieved when THC was used during the IVM step.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32198753

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jcp.29663

“Tetrahydrocannabinol Modulates in Vitro Maturation of Oocytes and Improves the Blastocyst Rates after in Vitro Fertilization. Our data suggest that THC may be useful IVM supplements in clinic as is more feasible and reliable than any synthetic cannabinoid.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31436397

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Cannabinoids, Blood-Brain Barrier, and Brain Disposition.

Image result for pharmaceutics“Potential therapeutic actions of the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are based on their activity as analgesics, anti-emetics, anti-inflammatory agents, anti-seizure compounds.

THC and CBD lipophilicity and their neurological actions makes them candidates as new medicinal approaches to treat central nervous system (CNS) diseases. However, they show differences about penetrability and disposition in the brain.

The present article is an overview about THC and CBD crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and their brain disposition. Several findings indicate that CBD can modify the deleterious effects on BBB caused by inflammatory cytokines and may play a pivotal role in ameliorating BBB dysfunction consequent to ischemia. Thus supporting the therapeutic potential of CBD for the treatment of ischemic and inflammatory diseases of CNS.

Cannabinoids positive effects on cognitive function could be also considered through the aspect of protection of BBB cerebrovascular structure and function, indicating that they may purchase substantial benefits through the protection of BBB integrity. Delivery of these cannabinoids in the brain following different routes of administration (subcutaneous, oral, and pulmonary) is illustrated and commented. Finally, the potential role of cannabinoids in drug-resistance in the clinical management of neurological or psychiatric diseases such as epilepsy and schizophrenia is discussed on the light of their crossing the BBB.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32183416

 

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Cannabinoids Improve Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Parenteral Nutrition-Dependent Patient With Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction.

Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition“Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare and challenging cause of pediatric intestinal failure, requiring long-term parenteral nutrition in most cases. Despite optimal management, some patients experience chronic abdominal pain and recurrent obstructive episodes with a major impact on their quality of life.

Cannabinoids have been successfully used in some conditions. However, their use in CIPO has never been reported in the literature.

We report a case of successful use of medicinal cannabinoids in a patient with CIPO, resulting in a significant reduction of abdominal pain, vomiting, and subocclusive episodes and increased appetite and weight, without major adverse events.

Although further observations are required to consolidate these findings, this case may be helpful for other patients suffering from the same condition.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32181915

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jpen.1821

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Analgesic Effects of Cannabinoids for Chronic Non-cancer Pain: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis with Meta-Regression.

SpringerLink “There is growing interest in using cannabinoids for chronic pain.

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer pain.

PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov were searched up to December 2018. Information on the type, dosage, route of administration, pain conditions, pain scores, and adverse events were extracted for qualitative analysis. Meta-analysis of analgesic efficacy was performed. Meta-regression was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy for different pain conditions (neuropathic versus non-neuropathic pain). Risk of bias was assessed by The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool, and the strength of the evidence was assessed using the Grade of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.

Forty-three randomized controlled trials were included. Meta-analysis was performed for 33 studies that compared cannabinoids to placebo, and showed a mean pain score (scale 0-10) reduction of -0.70 (p < 0.001, random effect). Meta-regression showed that analgesic efficacy was similar for neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain (Difference = -0.14, p = 0.262).

Inhaled, oral, and oromucosal administration all provided statistically significant, but small reduction in mean pain score (-0.97, -0.85, -0.45, all p < 0.001). Incidence of serious adverse events was rare, and non-serious adverse events were usually mild to moderate. Heterogeneity was moderate.

The GRADE level of evidence was low to moderate. Pain intensity of chronic non-cancer patients was reduced by cannabinoids consumption, but effect sizes were small. Efficacy for neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain was similar.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32172501

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11481-020-09905-y

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The role of the cannabinoid system in opioid analgesia and tolerance.

“Opioid receptor agonist drugs, such as morphine, are very effective for treating chronic and severe pain; but, tolerance can develop with long-term use. Although there is a lot of information about the pathophysiological mechanisms of opioid tolerance, it is still not fully clarified. Suggested mechanisms for opioid tolerance include opioid receptor desensitisation, reduction of sensitivity G-proteins, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), altered intracellular signaling pathway including nitric oxide, and activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).

One way to reduce opioid tolerance and increase the analgesic potential is to use low doses. Combination of cannabinoids with opioids has been shown to manifest reduce the opioid dose. Experimental studies revealed an interaction of the endocannabinoid system and opioid antinociception.

Cannabinoid and opioid receptor systems use common pathways in the formation of analgesic effect and demonstrate their activity via G protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Cannabinoid drugs modulate opioid analgesic activity at a number of distinct levels within the cell, ranging from direct receptor associations, to post-receptor interactions through shared signal transduction pathways.

This review summarizes the data indicating that with combining cannabinoids and opioids drugs may be able to produce long-term analgesic effects, while preventing the opioid analgesic tolerance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32167427

http://www.eurekaselect.com/180186/article

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Cannabis and the Cornea.

Publication Cover

“While cannabis has the potential to reduce corneal pain, cannabinoids might induce side effects. This review article examines the effects of cannabinoids on the cornea. As more states and countries consider the legalization of adult cannabis use, health-care providers will need to identify ocular effects of cannabis consumption.

Methods: Studies included in this review examined the connection between cannabis and the cornea, more specifically anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids. NCBI Databases from 1781 up to December 2019 were consulted.

Conclusion: More than half of the studies examined the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids on the cornea. As the field is still young, more studies should be conducted to develop safe cannabinoid treatments for corneal diseases.

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Influence of cannabinoids upon nerve-evoked skeletal muscle contraction.

Neuroscience Letters“Endocannabinoids play important roles in regulating CNS synaptic function and peripheral metabolism, but cannabinoids can also act acutely to modulate contraction strength in skeletal muscle.

Nerve terminals and the skeletal muscle sarcolemma express components of the cannabinoid signaling system.

Endocannabinoids, N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), are produced by skeletal muscle. They may be involved in the acute regulation of neuromuscular transmission, by adjusting the parameters for quantal acetylcholine release from the motor nerve terminal. Downstream of neuromuscular transmission, cannabinoids may also act to limit the efficiency of excitation-contraction coupling.

Improved understanding of the distinct signaling actions of particular cannabinoid compounds and their receptor/transduction systems will help advance our understanding of the role of endocannabinoids in skeletal muscle physiology.

Cannabinoids might also offer the potential to develop new pharmacotherapeutics to treat neuromuscular disorders that affect muscle strength.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32156612

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304394020301701?via%3Dihub

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