Cannabichromene is a cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist.

British Journal of Pharmacology banner“Cannabichromene (CBC) is one of the most abundant phytocannabinoids in Cannabis spp. It has modest anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects and potentiates some effects of Δ9 – tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in vivo. How CBC exerts these effects is poorly defined and there is little information about its efficacy at cannabinoid receptors. We sought to determine the functional activity of CBC at CB1 and CB2 receptors.

KEY RESULTS:

CBC activated CB2 but not CB1 receptors to produce a hyperpolarization of AtT20 cells. This activation was inhibited by a CB2 antagonist AM630, and sensitive to pertussis toxin. Application of CBC reduced activation of CB2 receptors (but not CB1 receptors) by subsequent co-application of CP55,940, an efficacious CB1 and CB2 agonist. Continuous CBC application induced loss of cell surface CB2 receptors and desensitisation of the CB2-induced hyperpolarization.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

CBC is a selective CB2 receptor agonist displaying higher efficacy than THC in hyperpolarising AtT20 cells. CBC can also recruit CB2 receptor regulatory mechanisms. CBC may contribute to the potential therapeutic effectiveness of some cannabis preparations, potentially through CB2-mediated modulation of inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31368508

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14815

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Dosage Related Efficacy and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Children With Treatment-Resistant Epileptic Encephalopathy: Preliminary Results of the CARE-E Study.

 Image result for frontiers in neurology“There is uncertainty regarding the appropriate dose of Cannabidiol (CBD) for childhood epilepsy.

We present the preliminary data of seven participants from the Cannabidiol in Children with Refractory Epileptic Encephalopathy (CARE-E) study.

Methods: The study is an open-label, prospective, dose-escalation trial. Participants received escalating doses of a Cannabis Herbal Extract (CHE) preparation of 1:20 Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): CBD up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day. Seizure frequency was monitored in daily logs, participants underwent regular electroencephalograms, and parents filled out modified Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) and Side Effect rating scale questionnaires. Steady-state trough levels (Css, Min) of selected cannabinoids were quantified.

Results: All seven participants tolerated the CHE up to 10-12 mg CBD/kg/day and had improvements in seizure frequency and QOLCE scores. CSS, Min plasma levels for CBD, THC, and cannabichromene (CBC) showed dose-independent pharmacokinetics in all but one participant. CSS, Min CBD levels associated with a >50% reduction in seizures and seizure freedom were lower than those reported previously with purified CBD. In most patients, CSS, Min levels of THC remained lower than what would be expected to cause intoxication.

Conclusion: The preliminary data suggest an initial CBD target dose of 5-6 mg/kg/day when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used. Possible non-linear pharmacokinetics of CBD and CBC needs investigation. The reduction in seizure frequency seen suggests improved seizure control when a whole plant CHE is used. Plasma THC levels suggest a low risk of THC intoxication when a 1:20 THC:CBD CHE is used in doses up to 12 mg/kg CBD/kg/day.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31333569

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2019.00716/full

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Cannabidiol, cannabinol and their combinations act as peripheral analgesics in a rat model of myofascial pain.

Archives of Oral Biology

“This study investigated whether local intramuscular injection of non-psychoactive cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC) and their combinations can decrease nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced masticatory muscle sensitization in female rats.

RESULTS:

In behavioral experiments, CBD (5 mg/ml) or CBN (1 mg/ml) decreased NGF-induced mechanical sensitization. Combinations of CBD/CBN induced a longer-lasting reduction of mechanical sensitization than either compound alone. No significant change in mechanical withdrawal threshold was observed in the contralateral masseter muscles and no impairment of motor function was found with the inverted screen test after any of the treatments. Consistent with behavioral results, CBD (5 mg/ml), CBN (1 mg/ml) and the combination of CBD/CBN (1:1 mg/ml) increased the mechanical threshold of masseter muscle mechanoreceptors. However, combining CBD/CBN (5:1 mg/ml) at a higher ratio reduced the duration of this effect. This may indicate an inhibitory effect of higher concentrations of CBD on CBN.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results suggest that peripheral application of these non-psychoactive cannabinoids may provide analgesic relief for chronic muscle pain disorders such as temporomandibular disorders and fibromyalgia without central side effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31158702

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003996919302249?via%3Dihub

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Detection and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Extracts of Cannabis sativa Roots Using LC-MS/MS.

 

“A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 10 major cannabinoids of cannabis, namely, (-)-trans9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, tetrahydrocannabivarian, cannabinol, (-)-trans8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, in the root extract of Cannabis sativa. Acetonitrile : methanol (80 : 20, v/v) was used for extraction; d3-cannabidiol and d3– tetrahydrocannabinol were used as the internal standards. All 10 cannabinoids showed a good regression relationship with r2 > 0.99. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359294

https://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0044-100798

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Molecular Pharmacology of Phytocannabinoids.

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“Cannabis sativa has been used for recreational, therapeutic and other uses for thousands of years.

The plant contains more than 120 C21 terpenophenolic constituents named phytocannabinoids. The Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol type class of phytocannabinoids comprises the largest proportion of the phytocannabinoid content.

Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol was first discovered in 1971. This led to the discovery of the endocannabinoid system in mammals, including the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol exerts its well-known psychotropic effects through the CB1 receptor but this effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol has limited the use of cannabis medicinally, despite the therapeutic benefits of this phytocannabinoid. This has driven research into other targets outside the endocannabinoid system and has also driven research into the other non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids present in cannabis.

This chapter presents an overview of the molecular pharmacology of the seven most thoroughly investigated phytocannabinoids, namely Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabidivarin, cannabigerol, and cannabichromene.

The targets of these phytocannabinoids are defined both within the endocannabinoid system and beyond.

The pharmacological effect of each individual phytocannabinoid is important in the overall therapeutic and recreational effect of cannabis and slight structural differences can elicit diverse and competing physiological effects.

The proportion of each phytocannabinoid can be influenced by various factors such as growing conditions and extraction methods. It is therefore important to investigate the pharmacology of these seven phytocannabinoids further, and characterise the large number of other phytocannabinoids in order to better understand their contributions to the therapeutic and recreational effects claimed for the whole cannabis plant and its extracts.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120231

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Phytochemistry of Cannabis sativa L.

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“Cannabis (Cannabis sativa, or hemp) and its constituents-in particular the cannabinoids-have been the focus of extensive chemical and biological research for almost half a century since the discovery of the chemical structure of its major active constituent, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC).

The plant’s behavioral and psychotropic effects are attributed to its content of this class of compounds, the cannabinoids, primarily Δ9-THC, which is produced mainly in the leaves and flower buds of the plant.

Besides Δ9-THC, there are also non-psychoactive cannabinoids with several medicinal functions, such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabichromene (CBC), and (CBG), along with other non-cannabinoid constituents belonging to diverse classes of natural products.

Today, more than 560 constituents have been identified in cannabis.

The recent discoveries of the medicinal properties of cannabis and the cannabinoids in addition to their potential applications in the treatment of a number of serious illnesses, such as glaucoma, depression, neuralgia, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, and alleviation of symptoms of HIV/AIDS and cancer, have given momentum to the quest for further understanding the chemistry, biology, and medicinal properties of this plant.

This contribution presents an overview of the botany, cultivation aspects, and the phytochemistry of cannabis and its chemical constituents. Particular emphasis is placed on the newly-identified/isolated compounds. In addition, techniques for isolation of cannabis constituents and analytical methods used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of cannabis and its products are also reviewed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28120229

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Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis.

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“Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis.

A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented.

The endogenous cannabinoids, including the closely related lipoamino acids, are then discussed.

The review concludes with a presentation of a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions of these substances.

Thus, several cannabinoids may be considered candidates for development as anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic agents.

Of special interest is their possible use for treatment of chronic inflammation, a major unmet medical need.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435265

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Cannabinoids, inflammation, and fibrosis.

“Cannabinoids apparently act on inflammation through mechanisms different from those of agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

As a class, the cannabinoids are generally free from the adverse effects associated with NSAIDs. Their clinical development thus provides a new approach to treatment of diseases characterized by acute and chronic inflammation and fibrosis.

A concise survey of the anti-inflammatory actions of the phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol, cannabichromene, and cannabinol is presented.

Mention is also made of the noncannabinoid plant components and pyrolysis products, followed by a discussion of 3 synthetic preparations-Cesamet (nabilone; Meda Pharmaceuticals, Somerset, NJ, USA), Marinol (THC; AbbVie, Inc., North Chicago, IL, USA), and Sativex (Cannabis extract; GW Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge United Kingdom)-that have anti-inflammatory effects. A fourth synthetic cannabinoid, ajulemic acid (CT-3, AJA; Resunab; Corbus Pharmaceuticals, Norwood, MA, USA), is discussed in greater detail because it represents the most recent advance in this area and is currently undergoing 3 phase 2 clinical trials by Corbus Pharmaceuticals.

The endogenous cannabinoids, including the closely related lipoamino acids, are then discussed. The review concludes with a presentation of a possible mechanism for the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic actions of these substances.

Thus, several cannabinoids may be considered candidates for development as anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic agents. Of special interest is their possible use for treatment of chronic inflammation, a major unmet medical need.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27435265

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Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase: relative activity of constituents and metabolites of marihuana.

“delta 9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been shown to inhibit the activity of adenylate cyclase in the N18TG2 clone of murine neuroblastoma cells. The concentration of delta 9THC exhibiting half-maximal inhibition was 500 nM. delta 8Tetrahydrocannabinol was less active, and cannabinol was only partially active. Cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, olivetol and compounds having a reduced length of the C3 alkyl side chain were inactive. The metabolites of delta 8THC and delta 9THC hydroxylated at the C11 position were more potent than the parent drugs. However, hydroxylation at the C8 position of the terpenoid ring resulted in loss of activity. Compounds hydroxylated along the C3 alkyl side chain were equally efficacious but less potent than delta 9THC. These findings are compared to the pharmacology of cannabinoids reported for psychological effects in humans and behavioral effects in a variety of animal models.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3601007

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Flavonoid glycosides and cannabinoids from the pollen of Cannabis sativa L.

“Chemical investigation of the pollen grain collected from male plants of Cannabis sativa L. resulted in the isolation for the first time of two flavonol glycosides from the methanol extract, and the identification of 16 cannabinoids in the hexane extract. The two glycosides were identified as kaempferol 3-O-sophoroside and quercetin 3-O-sophoroside by spectroscopic methods including high-field two-dimensional NMR experiments. The characterisation of each cannabinoid was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses and by comparison with both available reference cannabinoids and reported data. The identified cannabinoids were delta9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol, cannabidivarin, cannabicitran, delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabicyclol, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabigerol, cannabinol, dihydrocannabinol, cannabielsoin, 6a, 7, 10a-trihydroxytetrahydrocannabinol, 9, 10-epoxycannabitriol, 10-O-ethylcannabitriol, and 7, 8-dehydro-10-O-ethylcannabitriol.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15688956

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