Effects of non-euphoric plant cannabinoids on muscle quality and performance of dystrophic mdx mice.

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“Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by dystrophin deficiency, results in chronic inflammation and irreversible skeletal muscle degeneration. Moreover, the associated impairment of autophagy leads to the accumulation of damaged intracellular organelles that greatly contribute to the aggravation of muscle damage.

We explored the possibility of using non-euphoric compounds present in Cannabis sativa, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetrahydrocannabidivarin (THCV) to reduce inflammation, restore functional autophagy and positively enhance muscle function in vivo.

We found that CBD and CBDV promote the differentiation of murine C2C12 myoblast cells into myotubes by increasing [Ca2+ ]i mostly via TRPV1 activation, an effect that undergoes rapid desensitization. CBD and CBDV also promoted the differentiation of myoblasts from DMD donors. In primary cultures prepared from satellite cells isolated from healthy donors, not only CBD and CBDV but also THCV promoted myotube formation, in this case mostly via TRPA1 activation. In mdx mice, CBD (60 mg Kg-1), CBDV (60 mg Kg-1 ) prevented the loss of locomotor activity at two distinct ages (from 5 to 7 and 32 to 34 weeks of age). This effect was associated with a reduction in tissue and plasma pro-inflammatory markers, together with the restoration of autophagy.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:

We provide new insights into plant cannabinoid interactions with TRP channels in skeletal muscle, highlighting a potential opportunity for novel co-adjuvant therapies to prevent muscle degeneration in DMD patients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30074247

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Detection and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Extracts of Cannabis sativa Roots Using LC-MS/MS.

 

“A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 10 major cannabinoids of cannabis, namely, (-)-trans9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, cannabigerol, cannabichromene, tetrahydrocannabivarian, cannabinol, (-)-trans8-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiolic acid, cannabigerolic acid, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A, in the root extract of Cannabis sativa. Acetonitrile : methanol (80 : 20, v/v) was used for extraction; d3-cannabidiol and d3– tetrahydrocannabinol were used as the internal standards. All 10 cannabinoids showed a good regression relationship with r2 > 0.99. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in extracts of cannabis roots. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the quantification of cannabinoids in cannabis roots.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29359294

https://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0044-100798

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Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy.

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“The use of cannabis products in the treatment of epilepsy has long been of interest to researchers and clinicians alike; however, until recently very little published data were available to support its use.

This article summarizes the available scientific data of pharmacology from human and animal studies on the major cannabinoids which have been of interest in the treatment of epilepsy, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (∆9-THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA).

It has long been known that ∆9-THC has partial agonist activity at the endocannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, though it also binds to other targets which may modulate neuronal excitability and neuroinflammation.

The actions of Δ9-THCV and Δ9-THCA are less well understood. In contrast to ∆9-THC, CBD has low affinity for CB1 and CB2 receptors and other targets have been investigated to explain its anticonvulsant properties including TRPV1, voltage gated potassium and sodium channels, and GPR55, among others.

We describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of each of the above mentioned compounds. Cannabinoids as a whole are very lipophilic, resulting in decreased bioavailability, which presents challenges in optimal drug delivery. Finally, we discuss the limited drug-drug interaction data available on THC and CBD.

As cannabinoids and cannabis-based products are studied for efficacy as anticonvulsants, more investigation is needed regarding the specific targets of action, optimal drug delivery, and potential drug-drug interactions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28087250

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Efficacy and Safety of Cannabidiol and Tetrahydrocannabivarin on Glycemic and Lipid Parameters in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel Group Pilot Study.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) are nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids affecting lipid and glucose metabolism in animal models. This study set out to examine the effects of these compounds in patients with type 2 diabetes.

RESULTS:

Compared with placebo, THCV significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (estimated treatment difference [ETD] = -1.2 mmol/L; P < 0.05) and improved pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA2 β-cell function [ETD = -44.51 points; P < 0.01]), adiponectin (ETD = -5.9 × 106 pg/mL; P < 0.01), and apolipoprotein A (ETD = -6.02 μmol/L; P < 0.05), although plasma HDL was unaffected. Compared with baseline (but not placebo), CBD decreased resistin (-898 pg/ml; P < 0.05) and increased glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (21.9 pg/ml; P < 0.05). None of the combination treatments had a significant impact on end points. CBD and THCV were well tolerated.

CONCLUSIONS:

THCV could represent a new therapeutic agent in glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27573936

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Pure Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin and a Cannabis sativa extract with high content in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin inhibit nitrite production in murine peritoneal macrophages.

“Historical and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use has immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects.

We have here investigated the effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and of a Cannabis sativa extract with high (64.8%) content in THCV (THCV-BDS) on nitric oxide (NO) production, and on cannabinoid and transient receptor potential (TRP) channel expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages.

THCV-BDS and THCV exhibited similar affinity in radioligand binding assays for CB1 and CB2 receptors, and inhibited, via CB2 but not CB1 cannabinoid receptors, nitrite production evoked by LPS in peritoneal macrophages.

THCV down-regulated the over-expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) proteins induced by LPS.

Furthermore, THCV counteracted LPS-induced up-regulation of CB1 receptors, without affecting the changes in CB2, TRPV2 or TRPV4 mRNA expression caused by LPS. Other TRP channels, namely, TRPA1, TRPV1, TRPV3 and TRPM8 were poorly expressed or undetectable in both unstimulated and LPS-challenged macrophages.

It is concluded that THCV – via CB2 receptor activation – inhibits nitrite production in macrophages. The effect of this phytocannabinoid was associated with a down-regulation of CB1, but not CB2 or TRP channel mRNA expression.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27498155

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Modulation of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by cannabinoids.

“This study has implications for developing new therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, pain, and metabolic disorders.

GPR55 is activated by l-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) but also by certain cannabinoids.

In this study, we investigated the GPR55 pharmacology of various cannabinoids, including analogues of the CB1 receptor antagonist Rimonabant®, CB2 receptor agonists, and Cannabis sativa constituents.

Here, we show that CB1 receptor antagonists can act both as agonists alone and as inhibitors of LPI signaling under the same assay conditions. This study clarifies the controversy surrounding the GPR55-mediated actions of SR141716A; some reports indicate the compound to be an agonist and some report antagonism. In contrast, we report that the CB2 ligand GW405833 behaves as a partial agonist of GPR55 alone and enhances LPI signaling. GPR55 has been implicated in pain transmission, and thus our results suggest that this receptor may be responsible for some of the antinociceptive actions of certain CB2 receptor ligands.

Here, we report that the little investigated cannabis constituents CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV are potent inhibitors of LPI-induced GPR55 signaling.

The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI.

Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV.

These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/

“Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) is a bioactive lipid generated by phospholipase A2 which is believed to play an important role in several diseases.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22285325

 “The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation.  In this issue of Oncogene, two groups demonstrated that GPR55 is expressed in various cancer types in an aggressiveness-related manner, suggesting a novel cancer biomarker and a potential therapeutic target.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21057532
“The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR55 promotes cancer cell proliferation via ERK. These findings reveal the importance of GPR55 in human cancer, and suggest that it could constitute a new biomarker and therapeutic target in oncology.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20818416
“The putative cannabinoid receptor GPR55 defines a novel autocrine loop in cancer cell proliferation. These findings may have important implications for LPI as a novel cancer biomarker and for its receptor GPR55 as a potential therapeutic target.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20838378
“L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol meets GPR55: a deadly relationship. Evidence points to a role of L-α-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) in cancer.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21367464
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Plasma and brain pharmacokinetic profile of cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG) in rats and mice following oral and intraperitoneal administration and CBD action on obsessive-compulsive behaviour.

 

Psychopharmacology

“Phytocannabinoids are useful therapeutics for multiple applications including treatments of constipation, malaria, rheumatism, alleviation of intraocular pressure, emesis, anxiety and some neurological and neurodegenerative disorders.

Consistent with these medicinal properties, extracted cannabinoids have recently gained much interest in research, and some are currently in advanced stages of clinical testing.

Other constituents of Cannabis sativa, the hemp plant, however, remain relatively unexplored in vivo. These include cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarine (CBDV), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ(9)-THCV) and cannabigerol (CBG).

RESULTS:

All phytocannabinoids readily penetrated the blood-brain barrier and solutol, despite producing moderate behavioural anomalies, led to higher brain penetration than cremophor after oral, but not intraperitoneal exposure. In mice, cremophor-based intraperitoneal administration always attained higher plasma and brain concentrations, independent of substance given. In rats, oral administration offered higher brain concentrations for CBD (120 mg/kg) and CBDV (60 mg/kg), but not for Δ(9)-THCV (30 mg/kg) and CBG (120 mg/kg), for which the intraperitoneal route was more effective. CBD inhibited obsessive-compulsive behaviour in a time-dependent manner matching its pharmacokinetic profile.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data provide important information on the brain and plasma exposure of new phytocannabinoids and guidance for the most efficacious administration route and time points for determination of drug effects under in vivo conditions.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21796370

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The phytocannabinoid, Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabivarin, can act through 5-HT₁A receptors to produce antipsychotic effects.

“This study aimed to address the questions of whether Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) can (i) enhance activation of 5-HT1 A receptors in vitro and (ii) induce any apparent 5-HT₁A receptor-mediated antipsychotic effects in vivo…

Our findings suggest that THCV can enhance 5-HT₁A receptor activation, and that some of its apparent antipsychotic effects may depend on this enhancement.

We conclude that THCV has therapeutic potential for ameliorating some of the negative, cognitive and positive symptoms of schizophrenia.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25363799

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The endocannabinoid system and plant-derived cannabinoids in diabetes and diabetic complications.

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“Oxidative stress and inflammation play critical roles in the development of diabetes and its complications.

Recent studies provided compelling evidence that the newly discovered lipid signaling system (ie, the endocannabinoid system) may significantly influence reactive oxygen species production, inflammation, and subsequent tissue injury, in addition to its well-known metabolic effects and functions.

The modulation of the activity of this system holds tremendous therapeutic potential in a wide range of diseases, ranging from cancer, pain, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases to obesity and metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications.

This review focuses on the role of the endocannabinoid system in primary diabetes and its effects on various diabetic complications, such as diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction, nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy, particularly highlighting the mechanisms beyond the metabolic consequences of the activation of the endocannabinoid system.

The therapeutic potential of targeting the endocannabinoid system and certain plant-derived cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, which are devoid of psychotropic effects and possess potent anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant properties, in diabetes and diabetic complications is also discussed.

Although there is much controversy in the field of EC research, experimental evidence and clinical trials have clearly shown that ECS plays a key role in the development of primary diabetes and various diabetic complications. Although inhibition of CB1 receptors has proven to be effective in clinical trials of obesity and metabolic syndrome, this approach has ultimately failed because of increasing patient anxiety. However, recent preclinical studies clearly showed that peripherally restricted CB1 antagonists may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to avoid the previously mentioned adverse effects.

Importantly, CB1 inhibition, as discussed in this review, may also directly attenuate inflammatory responses and ROS and reactive nitrogen species generation in endothelial, immune, and other cell types, as well as in target tissues of diabetic complications, far beyond its known beneficial metabolic consequences. The main effects of CB1 receptor activation on the development of diabetes and diabetic complications are summarized in Figure 1. CB2 agonists may exert beneficial effects on diabetes and diabetic complications by attenuating inflammatory response and ensuing oxidative stress (Figure 2).

Natural cannabinoids, such as CBD and THCV, also have tremendous therapeutic potential.

CBD is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent that does not appear to exert its beneficial effects through conventional CB receptors and is already approved for human use.

THCV and its derivatives, which may combine the beneficial effects of simultaneous CB1 inhibition and CB2 stimulation, are still under intense preclinical investigation. It will be interesting to see how newly developed, peripherally restricted CB1 receptor antagonists and/or CB2 receptor agonists and certain natural cannabinoids, such as CBD and THCV, will influence the clinical outcomes of diabetic patients.

We hope that some of these new approaches will be useful in clinical practice in the near future to aid patients with diabetes.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3349875/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/diabetes/

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Two non-psychoactive cannabinoids reduce intra-cellular lipid levels and inhibit hepatosteatosis.

“Obesity and associated metabolic syndrome have quickly become a pandemic and a major detriment to human health globally.

The presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD; hepatosteatosis) in obesity has been linked to the worsening of the metabolic syndrome, including the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Currently, there are few options to treat NAFLD, including life style changes and insulin sensitizers.

Recent evidence suggests that the cannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and cannabidiol (CBD) improve insulin sensitivity; we aimed at studying their effects on lipid levels…

THCV and CBD directly reduce accumulated lipid levels in vitro in a hepatosteatosis model and adipocytes.

…these cannabinoids are able to increase yolk lipid mobilization and inhibit the development of hepatosteatosis respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our results suggest that THCV and CBD might be used as new therapeutic agents for the pharmacological treatment of obesity- and metabolic syndrome-related NAFLD/hepatosteatosis.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25595882

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/obesity-2/

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