Neuroprotection or Neurotoxicity of Illicit Drugs on Parkinson’s Disease

life-logo“Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is currently the most rapid growing neurodegenerative disease and over the past generation, its global burden has more than doubled. The onset of PD can arise due to environmental, sporadic or genetic factors. Nevertheless, most PD cases have an unknown etiology.

Chemicals, such as the anthropogenic pollutant 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and amphetamine-type stimulants, have been associated with the onset of PD. Conversely, cannabinoids have been associated with the treatment of the symptoms’. PD and medical cannabis is currently under the spotlight, and research to find its benefits on PD is on-going worldwide.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32545328/

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/10/6/86

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Cannabinoid 1 Receptor (CB1R) Antagonists Play a Neuroprotective Role in Chronic Alcoholic Hippocampal Injury Related to Pyroptosis Pathway

 Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research“Alcohol use disorders affect millions of people worldwide and there is growing evidence that excessive alcohol intake causes severe damage to the brain of both humans and animals.

Numerous studies on chronic alcohol exposure in animal models have identified that many functional impairments are associated with the hippocampus, which is a structure exhibiting substantial vulnerability to alcohol exposure. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to structural and functional impairments of the hippocampus are poorly understood.

Herein, we report a novel cell death type, namely pyroptosis, which accounts for alcohol neurotoxicity in mice.

Conclusions: Alcohol induces hippocampal pyroptosis, which leads to neurotoxicity thereby indicating that pyroptosis may be an essential pathway involved in chronic alcohol-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. Further, cannabinoid receptors are regulated during this process, which suggests promising therapeutic strategies against alcohol-induced neurotoxicity through pharmacologic inhibition of CB1R.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32524615/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14391

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Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat CTX-TNA2 Astrocytes and Isolated Cortexes

ijms-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are Cannabis sativa terpenophenols.

Although CBD’s effectiveness against neurological diseases has already been demonstrated, nothing is known about CBG. Therefore, a comparison of the effects of these compounds was performed in two experimental models mimicking the oxidative stress and neurotoxicity occurring in neurological diseases.

Rat astrocytes were exposed to hydrogen peroxide and cell viability, reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis occurrence were investigated. Cortexes were exposed to K+ 60 mM depolarizing stimulus and serotonin (5-HT) turnover, 3-hydroxykinurenine and kynurenic acid levels were measured. A proteomic analysis and bioinformatics and docking studies were performed.

Both compounds exerted antioxidant effects in astrocytes and restored the cortex level of 5-HT depleted by neurotoxic stimuli, whereas sole CBD restored the basal levels of 3-hydroxykinurenine and kynurenic acid. CBG was less effective than CBD in restoring the levels of proteins involved in neurotransmitter exocytosis. Docking analyses predicted the inhibitory effects of these compounds towards the neurokinin B receptor.

Conclusion: The results in the in vitro system suggest brain non-neuronal cells as a target in the treatment of oxidative conditions, whereas findings in the ex vivo system and docking analyses imply the potential roles of CBD and CBG as neuroprotective agents.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32443623/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/10/3575

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Beneficial effects of the phytocannabinoid Δ9-THCV in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in Parkinson’s disease.

Neurobiology of Disease“The antioxidant and CB2 receptor agonist properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV) afforded neuroprotection in experimental Parkinson’s disease (PD), whereas its CB1 receptor antagonist profile at doses lower than 5 mg/kg caused anti-hypokinetic effects.

In the present study, we investigated the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV (administered i.p. at 2 mg/kg for two weeks), which had not been investigated before.

In summary, our data support the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV, both to delay the occurrence and to attenuate the magnitude of dyskinetic signs. Although further studies are clearly required to determine the clinical significance of these data in humans, the results nevertheless situate Δ9-THCV in a promising position for developing a cannabinoid-based therapy for patients with PD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32387338

“Δ9-THCV exhibited anti-dyskinetic properties in L-DOPA-treated Pitx3ak mutant mice. It delayed the onset of dyskinetic signs and reduced their neurochemical changes. It also reduced their intensity when given once dyskinesia was already present. This potential adds to other properties of Δ9-THCV as antiparkinsonian therapy.

In summary, our data support the anti-dyskinetic potential of Δ9-THCV to ameliorate adverse effects caused by L-DOPA, in particular delaying the occurrence and attenuating the magnitude of dyskinetic signs. This adds to its promising symptom-alleviating and neuroprotective properties described previously. Although further studies are clearly required to determine the clinical significance of these data in humans, the results nevertheless situate Δ9-THCV in a promising position for developing a cannabinoid-based therapy for PD patients.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969996120301674?via%3Dihub

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Overview of cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogues: Structures, biological activities, and neuroprotective mechanisms in epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry“Herein, 11 general types of natural cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa as well as 50 (-)-CBD analogues with therapeutic potential were described. The underlying molecular mechanisms of CBD as a therapeutic candidate for epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases were comprehensively clarified. CBD indirectly acts as an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist to exert its neuroprotective effects. CBD also promotes neuroprotection through different signal transduction pathways mediated indirectly by cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, CBD prevents the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) hyperphosphorylation caused by Aβ and may be developed as a new therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer’s disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32109623

“For AD treatment, CBD can rescue the production of neurofibrillary tangles and inhibit neuronal apoptosis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420301306?via%3DihubImage 1

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Neuroprotective effect of chronic administration of cannabidiol during the abstinence period on methamphetamine-induced impairment of recognition memory in the rats.

“Neuropsychiatric disorders, such as addiction, are associated with cognitive impairment, including learning and memory deficits.

Previous research has demonstrated that the chronic use of methamphetamine (METH) induces long-term cognitive impairment and cannabidiol (CBD), as a neuroprotectant, can reverse spatial memory deficits induced by drug abuse.

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of CBD on METH-induced memory impairment in rats chronically exposed to METH (CEM).

For the induction of CEM, animals received METH (2 mg/kg, twice/day) for 10 days. Thereafter, the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of CBD (32 and 160 nmol) during the (10 days) abstinence period on spatial memory was evaluated using the Y-Maze test, while recognition memory was examined using the novel object recognition (NOR) test.

The results revealed a significant increase in the motor activity of METH-treated animals compared with the control group and, after the 10-day abstinence period, motor activity returned to baseline. Notably, the chronic administration of METH had impairing effects on spontaneous alternation performance and recognition memory, which was clearly observed in the NOR test.

Additionally, although the ICV administration of CBD (160 nmol) could reverse long-term memory, a lower dose (32 nmol) did not result in any significant increase in exploring the novel object during short-term memory testing.

These novel findings suggest that the chronic administration of METH induces memory impairment and presents interesting implications for the potential use of CBD in treating impairment deficits after chronic exposure to psychostimulant drugs such as METH.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32032100

https://journals.lww.com/behaviouralpharm/Abstract/publishahead/Neuroprotective_effect_of_chronic_administration.99194.aspx

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Activation of CB2R with AM1241 ameliorates neurodegeneration via the Xist/miR-133b-3p/Pitx3 axis.

Publication cover image“Activation of cannabinoid receptor type II (CB2R) by AM1241 has been demonstrated to protect dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease (PD) animals.

However, the specific mechanisms of the action of the CB2R agonist AM1241 for PD treatment have not been characterized.

The CB2 receptor agonist AM1241 alleviated PD via regulation of the Xist/miR-133b-3p/Pitx3 axis, and revealed a new approach for PD treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31989652

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jcp.29530

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The anticonvulsant effects of cannabidiol in experimental models of epileptic seizures: from behavior and mechanisms to clinical insights.

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews“Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the presence of seizures and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Despite the number of antiepileptic drugs, one-third of patients did not have their seizures under control, leading to pharmacoresistance epilepsy.

Cannabis sativa has been used since ancient times in Medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including convulsive seizures.

In this context, Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis, has been a promising compound for treating epilepsies due to its anticonvulsant properties in animal models and humans, especially in pharmacoresistant patients. In this review, we summarize evidence of the CBD anticonvulsant activities present in a great diversity of animal models. Special attention was given to behavioral CBD effects and its translation to human epilepsies.

CBD anticonvulsant effects are associated with a great variety of mechanisms of action such as endocannabinoid and calcium signaling. CBD has shown effectiveness in the clinical scenario for epilepsies, but its effects on epilepsy-related comorbidities are scarce even in basic research. More detailed and complex behavioral evaluation about CBD effects on seizures and epilepsy-related comorbidities are required.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31954723

“CBD presents anticonvulsant behavioral effects in animal models of epilepsy. CBD induces neuroprotection in animal models of epileptic seizures. Multiple mechanisms of action are associated to CBD anticonvulsant effects. Animal models support CBD therapeutic use for epilepsies treatment.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014976341931067X?via%3Dihub

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Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus.

antioxidants-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to investigate the role of CBD and CBG in regulating hypothalamic neuromodulators. Comparative evaluations between oxidative stress and food intake-modulating mediators were also performed.

RESULTS:

Both CBD and CBG inhibited NPY and POMC gene expression and decreased the 3-HK/KA ratio in the hypothalamus. The same compounds also reduced hypothalamic NE synthesis and DA release, whereas the sole CBD inhibited 5-HT synthesis.

CONCLUSION:

The CBD modulates hypothalamic neuromodulators consistently with its anorexigenic role, whereas the CBG effect on the same mediators suggests alternative mechanisms, possibly involving peripheral pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31941059

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/1/71

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Targeting Cannabinoid Receptor Activation and BACE-1 Activity Counteracts TgAPP Mice Memory Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease Lymphoblast Alterations.

“Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia in the elderly, is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive impairment of cognitive ability. Patients with AD display neuropathological lesions including senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss.

There are no disease-modifying drugs currently available. With the number of affected individuals increasing dramatically throughout the world, there is obvious urgent need for effective treatment strategy for AD.

The multifactorial nature of AD encouraged the development of multifunctional compounds, able to interact with several putative targets. Here, we have evaluated the effects of two in-house designed cannabinoid receptors (CB) agonists showing inhibitory actions on β-secretase-1 (BACE-1) (NP137) and BACE-1/butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) (NP148), on cellular models of AD, including immortalized lymphocytes from late-onset AD patients.

We report here that NP137 and NP148 showed neuroprotective effects in amyloid-β-treated primary cortical neurons, and NP137 in particular rescued the cognitive deficit of TgAPP mice. The latter compound was able to blunt the abnormal cell response to serum addition or withdrawal of lymphoblasts derived from AD patients.

It is suggested that NP137 could be a good drug candidate for future treatment of AD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31898159

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12035-019-01813-4

“The ideal treatment for AD should be able to modulate the disease through multiple mechanisms rather than targeting a single dysregulated pathway.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147120

“These sets of data strongly suggest that THC could be a potential therapeutic treatment option for Alzheimer’s disease through multiple functions and pathways.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25024327

“In fact, exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids seem to be able to modulate multiple processes in AD” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25147120

“Our results indicate that cannabinoid receptors are important in the pathology of AD and that cannabinoids succeed in preventing the neurodegenerative process occurring in the disease.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15728830

“Based on the complex pathology of AD, a preventative, multimodal drug approach targeting a combination of pathological AD symptoms appears ideal. Importantly, cannabinoids show anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antioxidant properties and have immunosuppressive effects.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448595

“CBD treatment would be in line with preventative, multimodal drug strategies targeting a combination of pathological symptoms, which might be ideal for AD therapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471947

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