Hemp (Marijuana) reverted Copper-induced toxic effects on the essential fatty acid profile of Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala

“Heavy metals pollution affects the nutritive value of fish.

This study examined if the inclusion of dietary hempseed (HS) and hempseed oil (HO) in the diet of the fish could revert the copper-induced toxic effects on muscle fatty acid profile of rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala).

Copper exposure showed a significant effect on the fatty acid composition of both species; increased their saturated (SFA) to unsaturated (USFA) and altered their omega-3/omega-6 (ω-3/ω-6) ratios. However, feeding graded levels of hempseed products reverted the toxic effects of copper on the fatty acid profile of both the species, significantly increased muscle total fatty acid contents, improved ω-3/ω-6 ratios, and decreased SFA / USFA ratio in % inclusion dependent manner.

Furthermore, hempseed product showed a species-specific effect on USFA. The ω-3/ω-6 ratios decreased in the muscle of C. mrigala whereas an increasing trend with an increase in hempseed product % inclusion was observed in L. rohita. Moreover, HS showed a higher impact on both species as compared to HO.

With the findings of this study, hempseed product could be recommended as a feed ingredient for enhancing the essential fatty acid contents of fish which in turn can have a good impact on consumer health.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11033-018-4483-2

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Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Phenylpropionamides Composition and Effects on Memory Dysfunction and Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

ACS Omega

“Hempseed has achieved a growing popularity in human nutrition, particularly regarding essential amino acids and fatty acids. The multiple positive attributes of hempseed have led to the further study of its constituents.

In this study, hempseed extract containing phenylpropionamides (TPA) was obtained and its chemical profile and content were obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography technology based on previous study.

The anti-neuroinflammatory effect of TPA extract was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. Fourteen phenylpropionamides (TPA) were identified in the obtained extract with a total content of 233.52 ± 2.50 μg/mg extract.

In mice, TPA prevented the learning and spatial memory damage induced by LPS. Increased brain levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the LPS-induced mice were reduced by TPA treatment. Furthermore, TPA attenuated LPS-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in mice.

This study demonstrates the nutraceutical potential of hempseed from a neuroprotective perspective.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30556022

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.8b02250

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Cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation is prevented by a hempseed-enriched diet.

Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology

“Hypercholesterolemia indirectly increases the risk for myocardial infarction by enhancing the ability of platelets to aggregate.

Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol on platelet aggregation.

This study investigated whether dietary hempseed, a rich source of PUFAs, inhibits platelet aggregation under normal and hypercholesterolemic conditions.

The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels.”

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Extract of Fructus Cannabis Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by D-Galactose in an Aging Rats Model.

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“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries.

In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats.

To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process.

We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen. In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats.

These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression.”

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Bioactivities of alternative protein sources and their potential health benefits.

“Increasing the utilisation of plant proteins is needed to support the production of protein-rich foods that could replace animal proteins in the human diet so as to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. Lupins, quinoa and hempseed are significant sources of energy, high quality proteins, fibre, vitamins and minerals. In addition, they contain compounds such as polyphenols and bioactive peptides that can increase the nutritional value of these plants. From the nutritional standpoint, the right combination of plant proteins can supply sufficient amounts of essential amino acids for human requirements. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge of the nutritional properties, beneficial and non-nutritive compounds, storage proteins, and potential health benefits of lupins, quinoa and hempseed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28804797

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Hempseed Peptides Exert Hypocholesterolemic Effects with a Statin-Like Mechanism.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“This study had the objective of preparing a hempseed protein hydrolysate and investigating its hypocholesterolemic properties. The hydrolysate was prepared treating a total protein extract with pepsin. Nano HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis permitted identifying in total 90 peptides belonging to 33 proteins. In the range 0.1-1.0 mg/mL, it inhibited the catalytic activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoAR) in a dose-dependent manner. HepG2 cells were treated with 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL of the hydrolysate. Immunoblotting detection showed increments in the protein levels of regulatory element binding proteins 2 (SREBP2), low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and HMGCoAR. However, the parallel activation of the phospho-5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, produced an inactivation of HMGCoAR by phosphorylation. The functional ability of HepG2 cells to uptake extracellular LDL was raised by 50.5 ± 2.7%, 221.5 ± 1.6%, and 109 ± 3.5%, respectively, versus the control at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations. Finally, also a raise of the protein level of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexintype 9 was observed. All of these data suggest that the mechanism of action has some similarity with that of statins.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28931275

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jafc.7b02742

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Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer’s disease

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“Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common single cause of dementia in our ageing society. On full assessment and diagnosis of AD, initiation of an AChe inhibitor is recommended as early as possible, it is important that AChe inhibitor therapy is considered for patients with mild to moderate AD.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2014378/

“Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed and Their Antioxidant and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Activities. Hempseed is known for its content in fatty acids, proteins and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Lignanamides 2, 7, 9-14 showed good antioxidant activity among which 7, 10 and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The new identified compounds in this study added to the diversity of hempseed composition and the bioassays implied that hempseed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26585089

“The Effects of Hempseed Meal Intake and Linoleic Acid on Drosophila Models of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Hypercholesterolemia. Our results indicate that hempseed meal (HSM) and linoleic acid are potential candidates for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and cardiovascular disease. These results show that HSM may prove of great utility as a health food, with potential for the prevention of AD and cardiovascular disease.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933972/

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Proteomic characterization of hempseed (Cannabis Sativa L.).

“Hempseed is an underexploited non-legume protein-rich seed. Although its protein is well-known for its digestibility, essential amino acid composition, and useful techno-functional properties, a comprehensive proteome characterization is still lacking. The objective of this work was to fill this knowledge gap and provide information useful for a better exploitation of this seed in different food products.”

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“This paper presents an investigation on hempseed proteome.

The experimental approach, based on combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLLs), SDS-PAGE separation, nLC-ESI-MS/MS identification, and database search, permitted identifying in total 181 expressed proteins. This very large number of identifications was achieved by searching in two databases: Cannabis sativa L. (56 gene products identified) and Arabidopsis thaliana(125 gene products identified). By performing a protein-protein association network analysis using the STRING software, it was possible to build the first interactomic map of all detected proteins, characterized by 137 nodes and 410 interactions. Finally, a Gene Ontology analysis of the identified species permitted to classify their molecular functions: the great majority is involved in the seed metabolic processes (41%), responses to stimulus (8%), and biological process (7%).”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1874391916302354

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Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview

“The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10681-004-4811-6

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The cardiac and haemostatic effects of dietary hempseed

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“Cannabis sativa L. is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family. It has been an important source of food, fiber, medicine and psychoactive/religious drug since prehistoric times. Hemp has a botanical relationship to drug/medicinal varieties of Cannabis. However, hempseed no longer contains psychotropic action and instead may provide significant health benefits. Hempseed has an excellent content of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. These compounds have beneficial effects on our cardiovascular health.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2868018/

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