Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Phenylpropionamides Composition and Effects on Memory Dysfunction and Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

ACS Omega

“Hempseed has achieved a growing popularity in human nutrition, particularly regarding essential amino acids and fatty acids. The multiple positive attributes of hempseed have led to the further study of its constituents.

In this study, hempseed extract containing phenylpropionamides (TPA) was obtained and its chemical profile and content were obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography technology based on previous study.

The anti-neuroinflammatory effect of TPA extract was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. Fourteen phenylpropionamides (TPA) were identified in the obtained extract with a total content of 233.52 ± 2.50 μg/mg extract.

In mice, TPA prevented the learning and spatial memory damage induced by LPS. Increased brain levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the LPS-induced mice were reduced by TPA treatment. Furthermore, TPA attenuated LPS-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in mice.

This study demonstrates the nutraceutical potential of hempseed from a neuroprotective perspective.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30556022

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.8b02250

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Cannflavins from hemp sprouts, a novel cannabinoid-free hemp food product, target microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 and 5-lipoxygenase

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“Hemp seeds are of great nutritional value, containing all essential amino acids and fatty acids in sufficient amount and ratio to meet the dietary human demand.

Hemp seeds do not contain cannabinoids, and because of their high contents of ω-3 fatty acids, are enjoying a growing popularity as a super-food to beneficially affect chronic inflammation.

Seeds also lack the typical phenolics of hemp leaves and inflorescences, but we found that sprouting, while not triggering the production of cannabinoids, could nevertheless induce the production of the anti-inflammatory prenylflavonoids cannflavins A and B.

This effect was especially marked in Ermo, a cannabinoid-free variety of Cannabis sativa L. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES-1) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) were identified as the molecular targets of cannflavins A and B, solving an almost three-decade old uncertainty on the mechanism of their the anti-inflammatory activity.

No change on the fatty acid profile was observed during sprouting, and the presence of lipophilic flavonoids combines with the high concentration of ω-3 essential acids to qualify sprouts from Ermo as a novel anti-inflammatory hemp food product worth considering for mass production and commercial development.”

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213434414000176

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An Increase in the Omega-6/Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio Increases the Risk for Obesity.

“In the past three decades, total fat and saturated fat intake as a percentage of total calories has continuously decreased in Western diets, while the intake of omega-6 fatty acid increased and the omega-3 fatty acid decreased, resulting in a large increase in the omega-6/omega-3 ratio from 1:1 during evolution to 20:1 today or even higher.

This change in the composition of fatty acids parallels a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity.

Experimental studies have suggested that omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids elicit divergent effects on body fat gain through mechanisms of adipogenesis, browning of adipose tissue, lipid homeostasis, brain-gut-adipose tissue axis, and most importantly systemic inflammation.

Prospective studies clearly show an increase in the risk of obesity as the level of omega-6 fatty acids and the omega-6/omega-3 ratio increase in red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids, whereas high omega-3 RBC membrane phospholipids decrease the risk of obesity.

Recent studies in humans show that in addition to absolute amounts of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid intake, the omega-6/omega-3 ratio plays an important role in increasing the development of obesity via both AA eicosanoid metabolites and hyperactivity of the cannabinoid system, which can be reversed with increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

A balanced omega-6/omega-3 ratio is important for health and in the prevention and management of obesity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26950145

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Hempseed as a nutritional resource: An overview

“The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine.” http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10681-004-4811-6

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What’s So Healing About Hemp Seeds and Flax Seeds?

“Hemp seeds have a plethora of nutrients necessary to the healing process which makes them one of the most nutritious foods on our planet. When we talk about hemp seeds we mean hulled seeds from the hemp plant. Although in the same genus of plants as Marijuana, Hemp does not possess high enough levels of the medicinal and analgesic (pain relieving) compound Tetrahydrocannabinol, also commonly known by its acronym THC, to be considered the same plant. This article is about the healing medicinal value of hulled hemp seeds with respect to their content of essential amino acids (raw protein) and highly unsaturated essential fatty acids…

The fat content and balance of essential fats in hemp seeds is superior to almost every other seed and nut. Hemp has a ratio of Omega-6 to Omega-3 of 3.75 to 1, which according to the World Health Organization is close to perfect for effective metabolism. Hemp also contains other very important co-factor nutrients including chlorophyll, Vitamin E, a complex of B Vitamins including Folic Acid, as well as Phosphorous, Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium…”

More: http://thegoodwitch.ca/whats-so-healing-about-hemp-seeds-and-flax-seeds/

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Alternative Cannabinoid Dietary Cannabis

“Cannabis has medicinal activity that prevents or treats conditions when included in the diet as an essential food. Cannabinoids are highly available in raw Cannabis juice, sprouts, micro-greens and pure CBD strains.  Cannabis produces each dietary essential we cannot synthesize: non-psychoactive Essential Cannabinoid acids, Essential Fatty acids, Essential Amino acids and fiber.”

 
“The Endo-Cannabinoid System maintains our biological systems by regulating each cell tissue. It uses Arachidonic acid from the Essential Fatty Acid Omega 6 to make Cannabinoids: fatty molecules that communicate harm between cells.
    Dietary Cannabis mimics the Endo-Cannabinoid System by providing “Phyto”-Cannabinoids when there is an Arachidonic acid or Clinical Endo-Cannabinoid Deficiency.
    “The body produces endogenous cannabinoids. You may have heard of endorphins: that’s endogenous morphine. Well, in a similar fashion, the body produces endogenous cannabinoid. ”
    “A million times a day, cells begin to divide that shouldn’t be dividing and the immune system has to say, “Hey, you know, the shrubs are getting a little hairy there; we’ve got to trim them down. We’ve got enough renal cells or kidney cells. We’ve got enough bone cells, muscle cells.” So the immune system’s highly competent at dealing with that, but it can become more competent. And that is exactly what cannabinoids do, whether you’re talking about the body’s endogenous cannabinoids, or the plant, which can be Phyto-Cannabinoids (which just means cannabinoids from plants) or exogenous Cannabinoids. Both of those terms refer to those 20 carbon molecules that are produced outside of the body, but bind to the protein receptors on the cells in our body and therefore help regulate it. So whether we’re talking about the body’s chemistry, or the plant chemistry, their role is to modulate the function of the immune system.”
    “So a cannabinoid is a modulator that restores optimal function. That’s what the body’s system is doing. That’s what the plant does. The plant facilitates the rapid restoration of the normal function.” — William L. Courtney, M.D. “
 
 
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