Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

“Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil.

Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein.

This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils.

Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions.”

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Short-Term Efficacy of CBD-Enriched Hemp Oil in Girls with Dysautonomic Syndrome after Human Papillomavirus Vaccination.

“Cannabidiol (CBD)-based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette’s syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the short-term effect of CBD-enriched hemp oil for relieving symptoms and improving the life quality (QOL) in young girls with adverse drug effects (ADRs) following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

METHODS:

In this anecdotal, retrospective, “compassionate-use”, observational, open-label study, 12 females (age 12-24 years) with severe somatoform and dysautonomic syndrome following HPV vaccination were given sublingual CBD-rich hemp oil drops, 25 mg/kg per day supplemented by 2-5 mg/ml CBD once a week until a maximum dose of 150 mg/ml CBD per day was reached over a 3 month period. Patients’ quality of life was evaluated using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire (SF-36).

RESULTS:

Two patients dropped out due to iatrogenic adverse events and another two patients stopped the treatment early due to lack of any improvement. SF-36 showed significant benefits in the physical component score (P < 0.02), vitality (P < 0.03) and social role functioning (P < 0.02) after the treatment. The administration of hemp oil also significantly reduced body pain according to the SF-36 assessment. No significant differences from the start of treatment to several months post-treatment were detected in role limitations due to emotional reactions (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint. Randomized controlled trials are warranted to characterize the safety profile and efficacy of this compound.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457055

“This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint” https://www.ima.org.il/imaj/viewarticle.aspx?year=2017&month=02&page=79

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Flexible Bionanocomposites from Epoxidised Hemp Seed Oil Thermosetting Resin Reinforced with Halloysite Nanotubes.

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“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) oil comprises a variety of beneficial unsaturated triglycerides with well-documented nutritional and health benefits.

However, it can become rancid over a relatively short time period leading to increased industrial costs and waste of a valuable product. The development of sustainable polymers is presented as a strategy where both the presence of unsaturation and perox-ide content could be affectively utilised to alleviate both this waste and financial burden.

After reaction with peroxyacetic acid, incorporation of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) and sub-sequent thermal curing, without the need for organic sol-vents or interfacial modifiers, flexible transparent materials with a low glass transition temperature were developed. The improvement in thermal stability and both the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the bionanocomposites were significantly enhanced with the well-dispersed HNT filler. At an optimum concentration of 0.5 wt.% HNTs, a simultaneous increase in stiffness, strength, ductility and toughness was observed in comparison to the unfilled cured resin.

These sustainable food-waste derived bionanocompo-sites may provide an interesting alternative to petroleum-based materials, particularly for low-load bearing applica-tions, such as packaging.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28240903

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Evaluation of cannabinoids concentration and stability in standardized preparations of cannabis tea and cannabis oil by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

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“Cannabis has been used since ancient times to relieve neuropathic pain, to lower intraocular pressure, to increase appetite and finally to decrease nausea and vomiting.

The combination of the psychoactive cannabis alkaloid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with the non-psychotropic alkaloids cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) demonstrated a higher activity than THC alone.

Extraction efficiency of oil was significantly higher than that of water with respect to the different cannabinoids.

Fifteen minutes boiling was sufficient to achieve the highest concentrations of cannabinoids in the cannabis tea solutions.

As the first and most important aim of the different cannabis preparations is to guarantee therapeutic continuity in treated individuals, a strictly standardized preparation protocol is necessary to assure the availability of a homogeneous product of defined stability.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28207408

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Medical Cannabis in the Palliation of Malignant Wounds—A Case Report

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“Anecdotal accounts of the use of topical extracts from the cannabis plant being used on open wounds date back to antiquity. In modern times, cannabinoid therapies have demonstrated efficacy as analgesic agents in both pharmaceutical and botanical formats. Medical cannabis (MC), also known as medical marijuana,…

The endogenous cannabinoid system, consisting of cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands, is ubiquitous throughout the human bodyAvailable research shows that cancer cells express higher levels of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, relative to their noncancer counterparts, while also demonstrating an overall state of upregulationHuman in vitro studies, using nonmelanoma skin lines, have demonstrated direct induction of tumor cell apoptosis and inhibition of tumor-related angiogenesis, both by way of activation of cannabinoid receptors.

The analgesic outcomes observed in this case are supported by the results of a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of cannabinoids for medical useUnlike intact skin, which is polar and hydrophilic, wounds lack epithelial coverage and are nonpolar and lipophilic. Therefore, lipophilic compounds such as the THC and CBD cannabinoids may be readily absorbed through cutaneous wounds.

Before the use of topical MC oil, the patient’s wound was growing rapidly. Yet, after a few weeks, a modest regression of his malignant wound was observed while the patient used topical MC. This secondary outcome suggests that topical MC may promote antineoplastic activity as per the findings of Casanova et al.

In summary, this is the first case report to demonstrate the potential for MC to provide effective pain and symptom management in the setting of malignant wounds. The rapid onset of analgesia after topical placement suggests that the effects were mediated through absorption of the THC and CBD cannabinoids that subsequently interacted with peripheral nociceptors, immune cells, and cancer cells. The postapplication analgesia may be because of the gastrointestinal absorption of ingested residual MC oil. This case suggests that MC delivered in vaporized and topical oil formats warrants further investigation in human malignancy, including randomized controlled trials capable of establishing long-term efficacy, optimal dosage, schedules of administration, mixture composition, and safety.”

http://www.jpsmjournal.com/article/S0885-3924(16)30328-1/fulltext

“Can Cannabis Oil Help Heal Wounds?”                              http://www.livescience.com/57500-can-medical-cannabis-help-heal-wounds.html

“Oral cancer patient, 44, claims cannabis oil helped to shrink a hole in his cheek that was caused by the disease” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4124752/Oral-cancer-patient-44-claims-cannabis-oil-helped-shrink-hole-cheek-caused-disease.html

“Miracle plant: Can medical marijuana heal wounds?” http://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/medical-marijuana-heal-wounds-article-1.3384572

“Cannabis Oil Shows Potential To Heal Cancer Wounds Fast”  http://www.healthaim.com/cannabis-oil-shows-potential-heal-cancer-wounds-fast/71395

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Effectiveness of Cannabidiol Oil for Pediatric Anxiety and Insomnia as Part of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report.

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“Anxiety and sleep disorders are often the result of posttraumatic stress disorder and can contribute to an impaired ability to focus and to demonstration of oppositional behaviors.

CASE PRESENTATION:

These symptoms were present in our patient, a ten-year-old girl who was sexually abused and had minimal parental supervision as a young child under the age of five. Pharmaceutical medications provided partial relief, but results were not long-lasting, and there were major side effects. A trial of cannabidiol oil resulted in a maintained decrease in anxiety and a steady improvement in the quality and quantity of the patient’s sleep.

DISCUSSION:

Cannabidiol oil, an increasingly popular treatment of anxiety and sleep issues, has been documented as being an effective alternative to pharmaceutical medications. This case study provides clinical data that support the use of cannabidiol oil as a safe treatment for reducing anxiety and improving sleep in a young girl with posttraumatic stress disorder.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27768570

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Inhibition of the cataleptic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol by other constituents of Cannabis sativa L.

“Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) induced catalepsy in mice, whereas a cannabis oil (6.68% w/w THC), four cannabinoids and a synthetic mixture did not. Cannabinol (CBN) and olivetol inhibited THC-induced catalepsy in the mornings and the evenings, but cannabidiol (CBD) exhibited this effect only in the evenings. A combination of CBN and CBD inhibited THC-induced catalepsy equal to that of CBN alone in the mornings, but this inhibition was greater than that produced by CBN alone in the evenings.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2897447

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Variability in Seed Traits in a Collection of Cannabis sativa L. Genotypes.

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“Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) is a wind-pollinated annual plant that originated in central Asia. Hemp, naturally, is a dioecious crop, but some monoecious cultivars have been obtained as a result of earlier breeding efforts.

Hemp is an ancient crop that has been cultivated worldwide until the early twentieth century, after which its cultivation declined.

Recently, interest in this multipurpose crop delivering fibers, shives, and seeds, has been renewed by an increasing demand not only for natural fibers but also for the high content and quality of seed protein and oil. Hemp seed contains 25–35% oil, 20–25% protein, 20–30% carbohydrates, 10–15% insoluble fiber, vitamins, and minerals such as phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, and calcium.

The increasing demand for vegetable oils and proteins, along with current awareness about their nutritional and functional role in human diet, has made indispensable to characterize new plant sources. In this regard, hemp seed contains all the essential amino acids and fatty acids necessary to maintain healthy human life, and it might be a new good source of nutrients for both humans and livestock.

The principal value of hemp seed oil resides in its fatty acid composition. It contains the two dietary essential fatty acids: linoleic acid (LA; 18:2ω6) and the α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3ω3) in the ratio of 2.5–3:1, which has been claimed as ideal for human nutrition.

The seed of Cannabis sativa L. is an expanding source of proteins and oil for both humans and animals.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4873519/

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[Study on the extraction process for cannabinoids in hemp seed oil by orthogonal design].

“OBJECTIVE: To select the optimum extracting procedure for cannabinoids from hemp seed oil.

METHODS: The optimum extracting procedure was selected with the content of cannabinol and delta9-tetrehydrocannabinol from hemp seed oil by orthogonal test design. We have examined three factors that may influence the extraction rate: the time of extraction, the times of extraction and the amount of methanol.

RESULTS: The optimum extraction condition was adding 5 ml, two times amount of methanol into hemp seed oil for 15 min.

CONCLUSION: The above extraction process gave the most rational, stable, feasible and satisfactory results. The method is convenient.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16131037

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Polyphenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Cold-Pressed Seed Oil from Finola Cultivar of Cannabis sativa L.

“The aim of this study was to characterize the polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cold-pressed seed oil from Finola cultivar of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

Several methodologies have been employed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of Finola hempseed oil (FHSO) and both lipophilic (LF) and hydrophilic fractions (HF). The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phenolic fraction of FHSO was performed by HPLC analyses.

From the results is evident that FHSO has high antioxidative activity, as measured by DPPH radical (146.76 mmol of TE/100 g oil), inhibited β-carotene bleaching, quenched a chemically generated peroxyl radical in vitro and showed high ferrous ion chelating activity. Reactivity towards 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation and ferric-reducing antioxidant power values were 695.2 µmol of TE/100g oil and 3690.6 µmol of TE/100 g oil respectively.

FHSO contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds of which 2780.4 mg of quercetin equivalent/100 g of total flavonoids.

The whole oil showed higher antioxidant activity compared with LF and HF.

Our findings indicate that the significant antioxidant properties shown from Finola seed oil might generally depend on the phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, such as flavanones, flavonols, flavanols and isoflavones.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27076277

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