Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA).

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis

“Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. is a very rich natural source of important nutrients, not only polyunsaturated fatty acids and proteins, but also terpenes and cannabinoids, which contribute to the overall beneficial effects of the oil.

Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein.

This work presents the development and validation of a highly sensitive, selective and rapid HPLC-UV method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the main cannabinoids, namely cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabidivarin (CBDV), present in 13 commercial hemp seed oils.

Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid (CBDA) were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions.”

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Cannabinoid receptor 1 binding activity and quantitative analysis of Cannabis sativa L. smoke and vapor.

cpb

“Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) extracts, vapor produced by the Volcano vaporizer and smoke made from burning cannabis joints were analyzed by GC-flame ionization detecter (FID), GC-MS and HPLC. Three different medicinal cannabis varieties were investigated Bedrocan, Bedrobinol and Bediol.

Cannabinoids plus other components such as terpenoids and pyrolytic by-products were identified and quantified in all samples. Cannabis vapor and smoke was tested for cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) binding activity and compared to pure Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC).

The top five major compounds in Bedrocan extracts were Delta(9)-THC, cannabigerol (CBG), terpinolene, myrcene, and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBG, cannabichromene (CBC), and camphene in Bediol cannabidiol (CBD), Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC, and CBG.

The major components in Bedrocan vapor (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, terpinolene, myrcene, CBG, cis-ocimene and CBD in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, myrcene and CBD in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene.

The major components in Bedrocan smoke (>1.0 mg/g) were Delta(9)-THC, cannabinol (CBN), terpinolene, CBG, myrcene and cis-ocimene in Bedrobinol Delta(9)-THC, CBN and myrcene in Bediol CBD, Delta(9)-THC, CBN, myrcene, CBC and terpinolene.

There was no statistically significant difference between CB1 binding of pure Delta(9)-THC compared to cannabis smoke and vapor at an equivalent concentration of Delta(9)-THC.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20118579

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Determination of 11 Cannabinoids in Biomass and Extracts of Different Varieties of Cannabis Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

“An HPLC single-laboratory validation was performed for the detection and quantification of the 11 major cannabinoids in most cannabis varieties, namely, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabinol (CBN), Δ9-trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ8- trans-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), cannabicyclol (CBL), cannabichromene (CBC), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-A (THCAA). The analysis was carried out on the biomass and extracts of these varieties. Methanol-chloroform (9:1, v/v) was used for extraction, 4-androstene-3,17-dione was used as the internal standard, and separation was achieved in 22.2 min on a C18 column using a two- step gradient elution. The method was validated for the 11 cannabinoids. The concentration-response relationship of the method indicated a linear relationship between the concentration and peak area with r2 values of >0.99 for all 11 cannabinoids. Method accuracy was determined through a spike study, and recovery ranged from 89.7 to 105.5% with an RSD of 0.19 to 6.32% for CBDA, CBD, THCV, CBN, Δ9-THC, CBL, CBC, and THCAA; recovery was 84.7, 84.2, and 67.7% for the minor constituents, CBGA, CBG, and Δ8-THC, respectively, with an RSD of 2.58 to 4.96%. The validated method is simple, sensitive, and reproducible and is therefore suitable for the detection and quantification of these cannabinoids in different types of cannabis plant materials.”

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Cannabinoids Destroy Leukemia Cells, New Study Finds

(Photo: Alternative Medicine Solutions)

“New research from the University of London suggests chemicals in marijuana could be used to fight leukemia.

Published online in Anticancer Research, researchers at the Department of Oncology at St. George’s, University of London studied six different cannabinoids and found each to have anti-cancer action in leukemia cells.

Lead author Wai Liu, Ph.D explained the results of the latest study in Monday’s press release.

These agents are able to interfere with the development of cancerous cells, stopping them in their tracks and preventing them from growing. In some cases, by using specific dosage patterns, they can destroy cancer cells on their own.

The scientists were able to replicate previous findings on the anti-cancer effects of THC – the compound in marijuana responsible for the high.

However, in the latest study, Dr. Liu’s team decided to focus on cannabinoids that lacked psychoactive activity, including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG) and cannabigevarin (CBGV).

This study is a critical step in unpicking the mysteries of cannabis as a source of medicine. The cannabinoids examined have minimal, if any, hallucinogenic side effects, and their properties as anti-cancer agents are promising.

The non-psychoactive cannabinoids were shown to inhibit growth of leukemia cells at all stages of the cell cycle. Interestingly, the team observed even greater effects when different cannabinoids were administered together.

“These compounds are inexpensive to produce”

Dr. Liu says drugs derived from cannabis are much cheaper to produce than traditional cancer therapies. He also thinks they could be combined with existing treatments to enhance their effects.

Used in combination with existing treatment, we could discover some highly effective strategies for tackling cancer. Significantly, these compounds are inexpensive to produce and making better use of their unique properties could result in much more cost effective anti-cancer drugs in future.

Dr. Liu’s next study will investigate the potential of cannabinoids when combined with existing treatments as well as different treatment schedules that could maximize their anti-cancer activity.”

http://www.leafscience.com/2013/10/14/cannabinoids-destroy-leukemia-cells-new-study-finds/

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/leukemia/

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A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells

“It has been shown that leukemia and glioma cells are sensitive to cannabidiol (CBD)-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death)….the cellular events and sensitivity to CBD-induced apoptosis between murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells were compared. Cannabidiol markedly induced apoptosis in a time- and concentration-related manner in both cells… The results demonstrated that both thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells were susceptible to CBD-induced apoptosis…”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387516

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