Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

 Food Chemistry

“In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated.

Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29751921

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814618307180?via%3Dihub

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Cannabis, from Plant to Pill.

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“The therapeutic application of Cannabis is attracting substantial public and clinical interest. The Cannabis plant has been described as a veritable ‘treasure trove’, producing more than a hundred different cannabinoids, although the focus to date has been on the psychoactive molecule delta-9-tetraydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).

Other numerous secondary metabolites of Cannabis the terpenes, some of which share the common intermediary geranyl diphosphate (GPP) with the cannabinoids, are hypothesised to contribute synergistically to their therapeutic benefits, an attribute that has been described as the ‘entourage effect’.

The effective delivery of such a complex multicomponent pharmaceutical relies upon the stable genetic background and standardised growth of the plant material, particularly if the raw botanical product in the form of the dried pistillate inflorescence (flos) is the source.

Following supercritical CO2 extraction of the inflorescence (and possibly bracts), the secondary metabolites can be blended to provide a specific ratio of major cannabinoids (THC:CBD) or individual cannabinoids can be isolated, purified and supplied as the pharmaceutical. Intensive breeding strategies will provide novel cultivars of Cannabis possessing elevated levels of specific cannabinoids or other secondary metabolites.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29701252

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bcp.13618

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Palatability and oral cavity tolerability of THC:CBD oromucosal spray and possible improvement measures in multiple sclerosis patients with resistant spasticity: a pilot study.

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“Complaints about Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC):cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex®; GW Pharma Ltd, Sailsbury, UK) in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity include unpleasant taste and oral mucosal anomalies.

This pilot study assessed the use of sugar-free chewing gum and/or a refrigerated bottle of THC:CBD oromucosal spray to mitigate these effects.

RESULTS:

Taste perception in patients receiving chewing gum ± cold bottle intervention (Groups A and C combined) was significantly (p = 0.0001) improved from baseline to week 4 while maintaining spasticity control.

CONCLUSION:

Patient comfort, satisfaction and treatment adherence may benefit from these interventions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29683408

https://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/10.2217/nmt-2017-0056

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Marijuana Use by Adolescents and Young Adults with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

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“Marijuana use by adolescents and young adults with IBD is common and perceived as beneficial.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29673723

http://www.jpeds.com/article/S0022-3476(18)30388-3/fulltext

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Cannabidiol to Improve Mobility in People with Multiple Sclerosis

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“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects an estimated 2.3 million people worldwide. The symptoms of MS are highly varied but frequently include pain, muscle spasticity, fatigue, inflammation, and depression. These symptoms often lead to reduced physical activity, negatively impact functional mobility, and have a detrimental impact on patients’ quality of life.

Although recent years have seen significant advances in disease modifying therapy, none of the current treatments halts or cures MS related symptoms. As a consequence, many people with MS (PwMS) look for alternative and complementary therapies such as cannabis.

The cannabis plant contains many biologically active chemicals, including ~60 cannabinoids. Cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are typically the most concentrated chemical components of cannabis and believed to primarily drive therapeutic benefit.

There is evidence that CBD has a number of beneficial pharmacological effects. It is anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiemetic, antipsychotic, and neuroprotective. The review of 132 original studies by Bergamaschi et al. describes the safety profile of CBD by highlighting that catalepsy is not induced and physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature) are not altered. Moreover, psychomotor and psychological functions are not negatively affected. High doses of up to 1,500 mg per day and chronic use have been repeatedly shown to be well tolerated by humans.

Additionally, there is also evidence that CBD may reduce the negative psychotropic effects, memory impairment, and appetite stimulation, anxiety and psychotic-like states of THC while enhancing its positive therapeutic actions.

 Anecdotal reports indicate that an increasing number of PwMS use cannabis (medical marijuana) as a supplement to improve their mobility.

Based on the following considerations, it is our opinion that CBD supplementation maybe advisable for PwMS to reduce fatigue, pain, spasticity, and ultimately improve mobility. “

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2018.00183/full

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The Role of Cannabis Legalization in the Opioid Crisis

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“The United States remains gripped by the opioid crisis. Each day, 90 Americans die from opioid overdoses. Owing to the incredible reach of the opioid crisis—it has affected people of every race, sex, and age across our country—many stakeholders are trying to combat the crisis using multipronged approaches emphasizing prevention, treatment, and law enforcement.

In this issue of JAMA Internal Medicine, Bradford et al and Wen and Hockenberry report results suggesting that cannabis legalization may play a beneficial role in the opioid crisis.”

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2676997

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Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model.

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“Gastroschisis (GS) is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients.

Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol(CBD) has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases.

Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS.

Maternal use of CBD had a beneficial effect on the intestinal loops of GS with decreased nitrite/nitrate and iNOS expression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29561958

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018000500607&lng=en&tlng=en

“Is CBD Oil Safe To Use During Pregnancy? It’s Said To Relieve Pain & Your Body Is Hurting” https://www.romper.com/p/is-cbd-oil-safe-to-use-during-pregnancy-its-said-to-relieve-pain-your-body-is-hurting-8280324

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A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group, Pilot Study of Cannabidiol-rich Botanical Extract in the Symptomatic Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis.

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“Cannabidiol (CBD) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties that could improve disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease.

This proof-of-concept study assessed efficacy, safety and tolerability of CBD-rich botanical extract in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients.

Although the primary endpoint was not reached, several signals suggest CBD-rich botanical extract may be beneficial for symptomatic treatment of UC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29538683

“Cannabinoid administration is associated with a number of beneficial effects in the gut including decreasing emesis, gastric acid secretion, inflammation and intestinal motility. Cannabis has been reported to produce symptom improvement in people with IBD and some patients self-medicate with cannabis.”

https://academic.oup.com/ibdjournal/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ibd/izy002/4925788

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Hypoxia mimetic activity of VCE-004.8, a cannabidiol quinone derivative: implications for multiple sclerosis therapy.

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“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by a combination of inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes variously dominant in different stages of the disease. Thus, immunosuppression is the goal standard for the inflammatory stage, and novel remyelination therapies are pursued to restore lost function.

Cannabinoids such as 9Δ-THC and CBD are multi-target compounds already introduced in the clinical practice for multiple sclerosis (MS). Semisynthetic cannabinoids are designed to improve bioactivities and druggability of their natural precursors. VCE-004.8, an aminoquinone derivative of cannabidiol (CBD), is a dual PPARγ and CB2agonist with potent anti-inflammatory activity.

Activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) can have a beneficial role in MS by modulating the immune response and favoring neuroprotection and axonal regeneration.

We investigated the effects of VCE-004.8 on the HIF pathway in different cell types.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study provides new significant insights about the potential role of VCE-004.8 for MS treatment by ameliorating neuroinflammation and demyelination.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29495967

https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-018-1103-y

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Heavy Cannabis Use Associated With Reduction in Activated and Inflammatory Immune Cell Frequencies in Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Individuals

Journals“Cannabis is a widely used drug in the United States, and the frequency of cannabis use in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected population is disproportionately high. Previous human and macaque studies suggest that cannabis may have an impact on plasma viral load; however, the relationship between cannabis use and HIV-associated systemic inflammation and immune activation has not been well defined.

Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR+CD38+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell frequencies, compared to frequencies of these cells in non-cannabis-using individuals. Heavy cannabis users had decreased frequencies of intermediate and nonclassical monocyte subsets, as well as decreased frequencies of interleukin 23– and tumor necrosis factor-α–producing antigen-presenting cells.

Conclusions

While the clinical implications are unclear, our findings suggest that cannabis use is associated with a potentially beneficial reduction in systemic inflammation and immune activation in the context of antiretroviral-treated HIV infection.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29471387

https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/cid/cix1116/4869752?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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