Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

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“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

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Comparative in silico analyses of Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera compounds elucidating the medicinal properties against rheumatoid arthritis

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“From last decade, there has been progressive improvement in computational drug designing. Several diseases are being cured from different plant extracts and products.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most shared disease among auto-inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is associated with RA pathway and has adverse effects.

Extensive literature review showed that plant species under study (Cannabis sativa, Prunella vulgaris and Withania somnifera) possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and anti-rheumatic properties.

13 anti-inflammatory compounds were characterized and filtered out from medicinal plant species and analyzed for RA by targeting TNF-α through in silicoanalyses. By using ligand based pharmacophore generation approach and virtual screening against natural products libraries we retrieved twenty unique molecules that displayed utmost binding affinity, least binding energies and effective drug properties. The docking analyses revealed that Ala-22, Glu-23, Ser-65, Gln-67, Tyr-141, Leu-142, Asp-143, Phe-144 and Ala-145 were critical interacting residues for receptor-ligand interactions.

It is proposed that the RA patients should use reported compounds for the prescription of RA by targeting TNF-α. This report is opening new dimensions for designing innovative therapeutic targets to cure RA.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472734

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1093326317302735

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Combined cannabinoid therapy via an oromucosal spray.

“Extensive basic science research has identified the potential therapeutic benefits of active compounds extracted from the Cannabis sativa L. plant (the cannabinoids). It is recognized that a significant proportion of patients suffering with the debilitating symptoms of pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis or other conditions smoke cannabis despite the legal implications and stigma associated with this controlled substance. GW Pharmaceuticals have developed Sativex (GW- 1000-02), a combined cannabinoid medicine that delivers and maintains therapeutic levels of two principal cannabinoids, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), via an oromucosal pump spray, that aims to minimize psychotropic side effects.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16969427

“Sativex has proved to be well tolerated and successfully self-administered and self-titrated in both healthy volunteers and patient cohorts. Clinical assessment of this combined cannabinoid medicine has demonstrated efficacy in patients with intractable pain (chronic neuropathic pain, pain due to brachial plexus nerve injury, allodynic peripheral neuropathic pain and advanced cancer pain), rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis (bladder problems, spasticity and central pain), with no significant intoxication-like symptoms, tolerance or withdrawal syndrome.”  https://journals.prous.com/journals/servlet/xmlxsl/pk_journals.xml_summaryn_pr?p_JournalId=4&p_RefId=1021517

“Sativex(®) (nabiximols, USAN name) oromucosal spray contains the two main active constituents of Cannabis sativa, tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in a 1:1 molecular ratio, and acts as an endocannabinoid system modulator.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21449855

“Abuse potential and psychoactive effects of δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol oromucosal spray (Sativex), a new cannabinoid medicine. Evidence to date suggests that abuse or dependence on Sativex is likely to occur in only a very small proportion of recipients.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21542664

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Cannabis Use in Palliative Oncology: A Review of the Evidence for Popular Indications.

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“A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Currently, cannabis is approved in several countries for indications of symptomatic alleviation. However, limited knowledge on the benefits and risks precludes inclusion of cannabis in standard treatment guidelines. This review provides a summary of the available literature on the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines in palliative oncology. Favorable outcomes are demonstrated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain, with evidence of advantageous neurological interactions. Benefit in the treatment of anorexia, insomnia and anxiety is also suggested. Short- and long-term side effects appear to be manageable and to subside after discontinuation of the drug. Finally, cannabinoids have shown anti-neoplastic effects in preclinical studies in a wide range of cancer cells and some animal models. Further research is needed before cannabis can become a part of evidence-based oncology practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28457056

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Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease

“A Nevada company is hoping to develop new medicines for heart failure using compounds in marijuana and a novel therapy identified by a University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa researcher. Dr. Alexander Stokes, assistant research professor in the Department of Cell and Molecular Biology at the UH John A. Burns School of Medicine, obtained a U.S. patent for his novel therapy in 2015. The patent claims the cannabinoid receptor TRPV1 can be regulated therapeutically by plant-based cannabinoids.”  https://medicalxpress.com/news/2017-01-marijuana-compounds-treatment-cardiac-disease.html

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://manoa.hawaii.edu/news/article.php?aId=8355

“Marijuana compounds show promise in treatment of cardiac disease”  http://www.hawaii.edu/news/2017/01/12/marijuana-compounds-show-promise-in-treatment-of-cardiac-disease/

 

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(-)-β-Caryophyllene, a CB2 Receptor-Selective Phytocannabinoid, Suppresses Motor Paralysis and Neuroinflammation in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis.

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“(-)-β-caryophyllene (BCP), a cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2)-selective phytocannabinoid, has already been shown in precedent literature to exhibit both anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

Herein, we endeavored to investigate the therapeutic potential of BCP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Furthermore, we sought to demonstrate some of the mechanisms that underlie the modulation BCP exerts on autoimmune activated T cells, the pro-inflammatory scenery of the central nervous system (CNS), and demyelination.

Our findings demonstrate that BCP significantly ameliorates both the clinical and pathological parameters of EAE. In addition, data hereby presented indicates that mechanisms underlying BCP immunomodulatory effect seems to be linked to its ability to inhibit microglial cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, it diminished axonal demyelination and modulated Th1/Treg immune balance through the activation of CB2 receptor.

Altogether, our study represents significant implications for clinical research and strongly supports the effectiveness of BCP as a novel molecule to target in the development of effective therapeutic agents for MS.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28368293

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

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Can Marijuana Cure Cancer? Mom Claims To Have Cured Son’s Leukemia By Secretly Giving Him Weed

deryn

“Boy’s miracle recovery from rare cancer after mum gave him cannabis”  http://metro.co.uk/2017/03/26/boys-miracle-recovery-from-rare-cancer-after-mum-gave-him-cannabis-6534160/

“A mother in England reports that she secretly gave her son marijuana, and credits it with curing his leukemia, and saving the teen’s life. Callie Blackwell chose to secretly give her dying son illegally bought marijuana to help him deal with the pain and anxiety from his aggressive leukemia, because she felt he had “nothing else to lose,” The Independent reported. The drug did far more than the mother could have hoped; it not only relieved Deryn’s pain, it reportedly cured his cancer. Now, Blackwell hopes to share her family’s story in an effort to raise awareness about the healing potential of marijuana.

Deryn was first diagnosed with his severe and aggressive form of leukemia, a type of cancer that originates in the blood cells, at age 10. At 14, doctors informed him that there was nothing more they could do, and the young teen went to live out the rest of his short life in a hospice facility. However, that was three years ago, and now at 17, Deryn has fully recovered from his disease and plans to start a career in the food industry. Callie teamed up with author Karen Hockney to write The Boy in 7 Million, a book detailing the family’s experience and highlighting the potential of marijuana in cancer treatment.

There have been a number of instances where marijuana was suspected of significantly improving, and in some cases even curing cancer, but the science remains inconclusive. Research suggests that cannabinoids—chemicals found in the marijuana plants—can target and kill cancer cells in ways that drugs cannot.” http://www.medicaldaily.com/can-marijuana-cure-cancer-mom-claims-have-cured-sons-leukemia-secretly-giving-414375

“Teenager dying of cancer ‘recovers after mother gives him marijuana'” http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/teenager-deryn-boy-dying-cancer-mother-callie-blackwell-recover-medical-marijuana-cannabis-weed-a7652106.html

‘I GAVE MY BOY CANNABIS’. Mum reveals she gave her cancer-stricken son CANNABIS in bid to ease his pain… and now he’s made a miracle recovery. Deryn Blackwell, who was expected to die, has defied doctors by surviving two deadly cancers”  https://www.thesun.co.uk/news/3181956/mum-callie-blackwell-cancer-stricken-son-deryn-cannabis/

“I gave my little boy CANNABIS to help cure his cancer: Mother reveals how her teenage son who was given days to live made a miracle recovery when she gave him the drug behind his doctors’ backs” http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-4349232/Mother-gave-young-son-cannabis-help-cure-cancer.html

One in 7 Billion: Deryn Blackwell begins his hospital ordeal aged 10

“‘I gave my dying son cannabis to ease his cancer symptoms and he made a miracle recovery’ reveals mum” http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/i-gave-dying-son-cannabis-10103387

“I Secretly Gave My Son Cannabis to Save His Life | This Morning”  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqvJOAV7oAc&t=4s

“This Morning fans praise mum who risks prosecution after giving son cannabis cancer drug” http://www.express.co.uk/showbiz/tv-radio/784387/This-Morning-Phillip-Schofield-Holly-Willoughby-cannabis-based-drug-cancer

“Mum claims cannabis cured son’s cancer after he was given days to live. A MUM has claimed that cannabis cured her son’s terminal cancer.”  http://www.dailystar.co.uk/showbiz-tv/hot-tv/600294/cannabis-cures-cancer-this-morning-holly-willoughby

“As teenage boy ‘beats’ cancer with cannabis oil here are nine illnesses the drug could ‘cure’. Deryn Blackwell’s parents secretly gave him the class B drug to ease his pain and anxiety as he underwent gruelling treatment in hospital for leukaemia and cancer.” http://www.mirror.co.uk/lifestyle/health/after-cannabis-oil-miracle-recovery-10111458

I gave my cancer-stricken son weed and it saved his life” http://nypost.com/2017/03/26/i-gave-my-cancer-stricken-son-weed-and-it-saved-his-life/

“London mother claims cannabis helped her dying son recover from rare cancer” http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/u-mother-claims-cannabis-helped-dying-son-recover-cancer-article-1.3010404

“Mother gives marijuana to cancer-struck son and he makes full recovery”  http://topexaminer.com/2017/03/28/mother-gives-marijuana-cancer-struck-son-makes-full-recovery/

“CALLIE BLACKWELL SAYS CANNABIS OIL HELPED SON’S CANCER: ‘THE BOY IN 7 BILLION’” http://www.inquisitr.com/4095508/callie-blackwell-says-cannabis-oil-helped-sons-cancer-the-boy-in-7-billion/

“Teenager Dying Of Cancer Survives After His Mother Gives Him A Dose Of Marijuana” http://www.indiatimes.com/health/buzz/teenager-dying-of-cancer-survives-after-his-mother-gives-him-a-dose-of-marijuana-274499.html

http://www.thctotalhealthcare.com/category/leukemia/

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Terpene synthases from Cannabis sativa.

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“Cannabis (Cannabis sativa) plants produce and accumulate a terpene-rich resin in glandular trichomes, which are abundant on the surface of the female inflorescence.

Bouquets of different monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes are important components of cannabis resin as they define some of the unique organoleptic properties and may also influence medicinal qualities of different cannabis strains and varieties.

Transcriptome analysis of trichomes of the cannabis hemp variety ‘Finola’ revealed sequences of all stages of terpene biosynthesis. Nine cannabis terpene synthases (CsTPS) were identified in subfamilies TPS-a and TPS-b.

Functional characterization identified mono- and sesqui-TPS, whose products collectively comprise most of the terpenes of ‘Finola’ resin, including major compounds such as β-myrcene, (E)-β-ocimene, (-)-limonene, (+)-α-pinene, β-caryophyllene, and α-humulene.

Transcripts associated with terpene biosynthesis are highly expressed in trichomes compared to non-resin producing tissues. Knowledge of the CsTPS gene family may offer opportunities for selection and improvement of terpene profiles of interest in different cannabis strains and varieties.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28355238

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Cannabis for Pain and Headaches: Primer.

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“Marijuana has been used both medicinally and recreationally since ancient times and interest in its compounds for pain relief has increased in recent years. The identification of our own intrinsic, endocannabinoid system has laid the foundation for further research.

Synthetic cannabinoids are being developed and synthesized from the marijuana plant such as dronabinol and nabilone. The US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of dronabinol and nabilone for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting and HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) wasting. Nabiximols is a cannabis extract that is approved for the treatment of spasticity and intractable pain in Canada and the UK. Further clinical trials are studying the effect of marijuana extracts for seizure disorders.

Phytocannabinoids have been identified as key compounds involved in analgesia and anti-inflammatory effects.  Other compounds found in cannabis such as flavonoids and terpenes are also being investigated as to their individual or synergistic effects.

This article will review relevant literature regarding medical use of marijuana and cannabinoid pharmaceuticals with an emphasis on pain and headaches.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28281107

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Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury.

 

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“The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG).

Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology remains mostly refractory to currently available drugs, perhaps due to its heterogeneous nature in etiology, clinical presentation, and severity. Here, we review pre-clinical studies assessing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and manipulations of the endocannabinoid system to ameliorate TBI pathology.

Specifically, manipulations of endocannabinoid degradative enzymes (e.g., fatty acid amide hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase, and α/β-hydrolase domain-6), CB1and CB2 receptors, and their endogenous ligands have shown promise in modulating cellular and molecular hallmarks of TBI pathology such as; cell death, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular breakdown, and cell structure and remodeling.

TBI-induced behavioral deficits, such as learning and memory, neurological motor impairments, post-traumatic convulsions or seizures, and anxiety also respond to manipulations of the endocannabinoid system.

As such, the endocannabinoid system possesses potential drugable receptor and enzyme targets for the treatment of diverse TBI pathology.

Yet, full characterization of TBI-induced changes in endocannabinoid ligands, enzymes, and receptor populations will be important to understand that role this system plays in TBI pathology.

Promising classes of compounds, such as the plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids, as well as their non-cannabinoid receptor targets, such as TRPV1 receptors, represent important areas of basic research and potential therapeutic interest to treat TBI.”

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