The Seed of Industrial Hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.): Nutritional Quality and Potential Functionality for Human Health and Nutrition

nutrients-logo“Hempseeds, the edible fruits of the Cannabis sativa L. plant, were initially considered a by-product of the hemp technical fibre industry. Nowadays, following the restorationing of the cultivation of C. sativa L. plants containing an amount of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) <0.3% or 0.2% (industrial hemp) there is a growing interest for the hempseeds production due to their high nutritional value and functional features.

The goal of this review is to examine the scientific literature concerning the nutritional and functional properties of hempseeds. Furthermore, we revised the scientific literature regarding the potential use of hempseeds and their derivatives as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory and chronic-degenerative diseases on animal models and humans too.

In the first part of the work, we provide information regarding the genetic, biochemical, and legislative aspects of this plant that are, in our opinion essential to understand the difference between “industrial” and “drug-type” hemp. In the final part of the review, the employment of hempseeds by the food industry as livestock feed supplement and as ingredient to enrich or fortify daily foods has also revised.

Overall, this review intends to encourage further and comprehensive investigations about the adoption of hempseeds in the functional foods field.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32610691/

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/12/7/1935

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Interactions Between Cannabidiol and Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol in Modulating Seizure Susceptibility and Survival in a Mousae Model of Dravet Syndrome

British Journal of Pharmacology “Extracts from the cannabis plant can dramatically improve the health of children suffering from refractory epilepsies such as Dravet syndrome.

These extracts typically contain cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with well-documented anticonvulsant effects, but may also contain Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9 -THC). It is unclear whether the presence of Δ9 -THC modulates the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD. Here we utilized the Scn1a+/- mouse model of Dravet syndrome to examine this question.

Key results: Administered alone, CBD (100 mg/kg i.p.) was anticonvulsant against hyperthermia-induced seizures as were low (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg i.p.) but not higher doses of Δ9 -THC. A subthreshold dose of CBD (12 mg/kg) enhanced the anticonvulsant effects Δ9 -THC (0.1 mg/kg). Subchronic oral administration of Δ9 -THC or CBD alone did not affect spontaneous seizure frequency or mortality while, surprisingly, their co-administration increased the severity of spontaneous seizures and overall mortality.

Conclusion and implications: Low doses of Δ9 -THC are anticonvulsant against hyperthermia-induced seizures in Scn1a+/ mice, effects that are enhanced by a sub-anticonvulsant dose of CBD. However, proconvulsant effects and increased premature mortality are observed when CBD and Δ9 -THC are subchronically dosed in combination. The possible explanations and implications of this are discussed.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32608111/

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.15181

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The Effectiveness of Cannabis Flower for Immediate Relief From Symptoms of Depression

 Logo of yjbm“Scientific research on how consumption of whole, natural Cannabis flower affects low mood and behavioral motivations more generally is largely nonexistent, and few studies to date have measured how common and commercially available Cannabis flower used in vivo may affect the experience of “depression” in real-time.

Results: On average, 95.8% of users experienced symptom relief following consumption with an average symptom intensity reduction of -3.76 points on a 0-10 visual analogue scale (SD = 2.64, d = 1.71, p <.001). Symptom relief did not differ by labeled plant phenotypes (“C. indica,” “C. sativa,” or “hybrid”) or combustion method. Across cannabinoid levels, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) levels were the strongest independent predictors of symptom relief, while cannabidiol (CBD) levels, instead, were generally unrelated to real-time changes in symptom intensity levels. Cannabis use was associated with some negative side effects that correspond to increased depression (e.g. feeling unmotivated) in up to 20% of users, as well as positive side effects that correspond to decreased depression (e.g. feeling happy, optimistic, peaceful, or relaxed) in up to 64% of users.

Conclusions: The findings suggest that, at least in the short term, the vast majority of patients that use cannabis experience antidepressant effects, although the magnitude of the effect and extent of side effect experiences vary with chemotypic properties of the plant.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32607086/

“In conclusion, almost all patients in our sample experienced symptom relief from using Cannabis to treat depression and with minimal evidence of serious side effects in the short run.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7309674/

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Pharmacological Analysis of Cannabis Sativa: A Potent Herbal Plant

“Genus Cannabis belong to family Cannabaceae and is traditionally used as medicinal plant against many diseases notably asthma, malaria, treatment of skin diseases, diabetes and headache. The plant Cannabis sativa L. is flowering and an annual herbaceous plant located to eastern Asia but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to extensive cultivation.

Aim of the study: The aim of review is to provide a complete evaluation of the botanical, ethnological and chemical aspects of Cannabis sativa L., and its importance in pharmacological studies.

Results and discussions: This article briefly reviews the botany, traditional knowledge, pharmacological and therapeutic application of the plant C. sativa. This is an attempt to compile and document information about the chemical constituent, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of C. sativa as important herbal drug due to its safety and effectiveness. Studies have revealed its use as anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and improving testicular function in rats. Consumption of C. sativa is greater in all over the world among all other drugs of abuse in its various forms such as marijuana, hashish and cannabis oil. The study of herbal medicine spans the knowledge of biology, history, source, physical and chemical nature, and mechanism of action, traditional, medicinal and therapeutic use of drug. This article also provide knowledge about macroscopically and microscopically characters of Cannabis sativa with geographical sources. The wellknown cannabinoids are Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), Cannabidiol (CBD) and Cannabichromene (CBC) and their pharmacological properties and importance have been extensively studied. Hence, efforts are required to establish and validate evidence regarding safety and practices of Ayurveda medicines.

Conclusion: Thes studies will help in expanding the current therapeutic potential of C. sativa and it also provide a strong support to its future clinical use as herbal medicines having safe in use with no side effects.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32600228/

https://www.eurekaselect.com/183226/article

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Antioxidants Help Favorably Regulate the Kinetics of Lipid Peroxidation, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Degradation and Acidic Cannabinoids Decarboxylation in Hempseed Oil

 Scientific Reports“The seed of the hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has been revered as a nutritional resource in Old World Cultures. This has been confirmed by contemporary science wherein hempseed oil (HSO) was found to exhibit a desirable ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) considered optimal for human nutrition. HSO also contains gamma-linoleic acid (GLA) and non-psychoactive cannabinoids, which further contribute to its’ potential bioactive properties. Herein, we present the kinetics of the thermal stability of these nutraceutical compounds in HSO, in the presence of various antioxidants (e.g. butylated hydroxytoluene, alpha-tocopherol, and ascorbyl palmitate). We focussed on oxidative changes in fatty acid profile and acidic cannabinoid stability when HSO was heated at different temperatures (25 °C to 85 °C) for upto 24 h. The fatty acid composition was evaluated using both GC/MS and 1H-NMR, and the cannabinoids profile of HSO was obtained using both HPLC-UV and HPLC/MS methods. The predicted half-life (DT50) for omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs in HSO at 25 °C was about 3 and 5 days, respectively; while that at 85 °C was about 7 and 5 hours respectively, with respective activation energies (Ea) being 54.78 ± 2.36 and 45.02 ± 2.87 kJ/mol. Analysis of the conjugated diene hydroperoxides (CDH) and p-Anisidine value (p-AV) revealed that the addition of antioxidants significantly (p < 0.05) limited lipid peroxidation of HSO in samples incubated at 25-85 °C for 24 h. Antioxidants reduced the degradation constant (k) of PUFAs in HSO by upto 79%. This corresponded to a significant (p < 0.05) increase in color stability and pigment retention (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids) of heated HSO. Regarding the decarboxylation kinetics of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in HSO, at both 70 °C and 85 °C, CBDA decarboxylation led to predominantly cannabidiol (CBD) production. The half-life of CBDA decarboxylation (originally 4 days) could be increased to about 17 days using tocopherol as an antioxidant. We propose that determining acidic cannabinoids decarboxylation kinetics is a useful marker to measure the shelf-life of HSO. The results from the study will be useful for researchers looking into the thermal treatment of hempseed oil as a functional food product, and those interested in the decarboxylation kinetics of the acidic cannabinoids.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32601363/

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-67267-0

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Cannabis, the Endocannabinoid System and Immunity-the Journey From the Bedside to the Bench and Back

ijms-logo“The Cannabis plant contains numerous components, including cannabinoids and other active molecules. The phyto-cannabinoid activity is mediated by the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoids affect the nervous system and play significant roles in the regulation of the immune system.

While Cannabis is not yet registered as a drug, the potential of cannabinoid-based medicines for the treatment of various conditions has led many countries to authorize their clinical use. However, the data from basic and medical research dedicated to medical Cannabis is currently limited.

A variety of pathological conditions involve dysregulation of the immune system. For example, in cancer, immune surveillance and cancer immuno-editing result in immune tolerance. On the other hand, in autoimmune diseases increased immune activity causes tissue damage.

Immuno-modulating therapies can regulate the immune system and therefore the immune-regulatory properties of cannabinoids, suggest their use in the therapy of immune related disorders.

In this contemporary review, we discuss the roles of the endocannabinoid system in immunity and explore the emerging data about the effects of cannabinoids on the immune response in different pathologies. In addition, we discuss the complexities of using cannabinoid-based treatments in each of these conditions.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32585801/

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/12/4448

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Medical Cannabis for the Management of Pain and Quality of Life in Chronic Pain Patients: A Prospective Observational Study

Pain Medicine (Journal) by Oxford University Press

“Objective: To evaluate the short-term and long-term effects of plant-based medical cannabis in a chronic pain population over the course of one year.

Results: Medical cannabis treatment was associated with improvements in pain severity and interference (P < 0.001) observed at one month and maintained over the 12-month observation period. Significant improvements were also observed in the SF-12 physical and mental health domains (P < 0.002) starting at three months. Significant decreases in headaches, fatigue, anxiety, and nausea were observed after initiation of treatment (P ≤ 0.002). In patients who reported opioid medication use at baseline, there were significant reductions in oral morphine equivalent doses (P < 0.0001), while correlates of pain were significantly improved by the end of the study observation period.

Conclusions: Taken together, the findings of this study add to the cumulative evidence in support of plant-based medical cannabis as a safe and effective treatment option and potential opioid medication substitute or augmentation therapy for the management of symptoms and quality of life in chronic pain patients.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32556203/

https://academic.oup.com/painmedicine/article-abstract/doi/10.1093/pm/pnaa163/5859722?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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Cannabidiol Anticonvulsant Effect Is Mediated by the PI3Kγ Pathway

Neuropharmacology“The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway has been associated with several pathologies in the central nervous system (CNS), including epilepsy. There is evidence supporting the hypothesis that the PI3Kγ signaling pathway may mediate the powerful anticonvulsant properties associated with the cannabinoidergic system.

This work aims to investigate if the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of cannabidiol (CBD) are mediated by PI3Kγ.

CDB increased latency and reduced the severity of pilocarpine-induced behavioral seizures, as well as prevented postictal changes, such as neurodegeneration, microgliosis and astrocytosis, in WT animals, but not in PI3Kγ-/-. CBD in vivo effects were abolished by pharmacological inhibition of cannabinoid receptor or mTOR. In vitro, PI3Kγ inhibition or deficiency also changed CBD protection observed in glutamate-induced cell death assay. Thus, we suggest that the modulation of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway is involved in the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of CBD.

These findings are important not only for the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of CBD, which are currently poorly understood, but also to allow the prediction of therapeutic and side effects, ensuring efficacy and safety in the treatment of patients with epilepsy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32574650/

“CBD is anticonvulsant in a model of pilocarpine-induced behavioral seizures. CB1 receptor mediates the effects of CBD. PI3Kγ pathway mediates the anticonvulsant neuroprotective effects of CBD.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0028390820302240?via%3Dihub

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Plant Derived Versus Synthetic Cannabidiol: Wishes and Commitment of Epilepsy Patients

 cannabidiol | www.thctotalhealthcare.com“A special component of cannabis, cannabidiol (CBD), is currently in the focus of epilepsy treatment and research. In this context, we investigated patients’ expectations and preferences pertaining to plant-derived versus synthetic formulation of cannabidiol, as well as their willingness to get this treatment.

Methods: One hundred and four of 153 patients with different forms of epilepsy (54 % female, mean age 40 ± 16 yrs.) responded to the survey. The survey consisted of 8 questions addressing expectations of and concerns towards CBD treatment, preferences of plant-derived versus synthetic CBD, estimated monthly costs, and willingness to buy CBD at one’s own expense.

Results: The majority (73 %) of the responding epilepsy patients wished to receive plant-derived CBD; 5 % preferred synthetic CBD. Reasons for this choice were botanic origin, lack of chemistry, and the assumption of fewer and less dangerous side effects. Eighty-two percent of the patients estimated the monthly costs of CBD treatment to be below €500. Using the willingness-to-pay approach to assess the commitment of patients, 68 % could imagine buying the drug themselves. Fifty-three percent of these would be willing to pay up to €100, 40 % €100 to €200, and another 7 % €200 to €500 per month.

Conclusion: There is an overwhelming preference towards plant-derived cannabidiol in epilepsy patients, driven by the idea of organic substances being safer and better tolerated than synthetic. The willingness-to-pay approach reflects the high burden and pressure of uncontrolled epilepsy and the expectation of relief. Non-realistic ideas of pricing as well as what patients would be willing and able to pay confirm this perception.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32554292/

“Epilepsy patients preferred plant-derived cannabidiol to synthetic cannabidiol.”

https://www.seizure-journal.com/article/S1059-1311(20)30175-8/pdf

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(‒)-Cannabidiolic Acid, a Still Overlooked Bioactive Compound: An Introductory Review and Preliminary Research

molecules-logo“Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main phytocannabinoid in fiber and seed-oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) plants, but its potential health-related capabilities have been masked for years by a greater scientific interest towards its neutral derivative cannabidiol (CBD). This review aims to collect from the literature and critically discuss all the information about this molecule, starting from its biosynthesis, and focusing on its bioactivity, as an anti-inflammatory, anti-emetic, anti-convulsant, and anti-cancerogenic drug. Furthermore, in the awareness that, despite its multiple bioactive effects, currently poor efforts have been made to achieve its reliable purification, herein, we propose a relatively simple, fast, and inexpensive procedure for its recovery from pollen of industrial hemp cultivars. Spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques allowed us to unequivocally identify pure isolated CBDA and to distinguish it from the constitutional isomer tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA-A).”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32517131/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/11/2638

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