Cell Suspensions of Cannabis sativa (var. Futura): Effect of Elicitation on Metabolite Content and Antioxidant Activity.

molecules-logo“Cannabis sativa L. is one of the most-studied species for its phytochemistry due to the abundance of secondary metabolites, including cannabinoids, terpenes and phenolic compounds. In the last decade, fiber-type hemp varieties have received interest for the production of many specialized secondary metabolites derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The interest in these molecules is due to their antioxidant activity.

Since secondary metabolite synthesis occurs at a very low level in plants, the aim of this study was to develop a strategy to increase the production of such compounds and to elucidate the biochemical pathways involved. Therefore, cell suspensions of industrial hemp (C. sativa L. var. Futura) were produced, and an advantageous elicitation strategy (methyl jasmonate, MeJA) in combination with precursor feeding (tyrosine, Tyr) was developed.

The activity and expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) increased upon treatment. Through 1H-NMR analyses, some aromatic compounds were identified, including, for the first time, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (4-HPP) in addition to tyrosol. The 4-day MeJA+Tyr elicited samples showed a 51% increase in the in vitro assay (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH) radical scavenging activity relative to the control and a 80% increase in the cellular antioxidant activity estimated on an ex vivo model of human erythrocytes.

Our results outline the active metabolic pathways and the antioxidant properties of hemp cell extracts under the effect of specific elicitors.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31717508

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/22/4056

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Evaluation of the effects of CBD hemp extract on opioid use and quality of life indicators in chronic pain patients: a prospective cohort study.

Publication Cover “Chronic pain is highly prevalent in most of the industrialized nations around the world. Despite the documented adverse effects, opioids are widely used for pain management. Cannabinoids, and specifically Cannabidiol, is proposed as an opioid alternative, having comparable efficacy with better safety profile.

Objectives: We aim to investigate the impact of full hemp extract cannabidiol (CBD) on opioid use and quality of life indicators among chronic pain patients.

Results: Over half of chronic pain patients (53%) reduced or eliminated their opioids within 8 weeks after adding CBD-rich hemp extract to their regimens. Almost all CBD users (94%) reported quality of life improvements. The results indicated a significant relationship between CBD and PSQI (p = 0.003), and PEG (p = 0.006). There was a trend toward improvement but no significant relationship between CBD use and PHQ and PDI.

Conclusion: CBD could significantly reduce opioid use and improve chronic pain and sleep quality among patients who are currently using opioids for pain management.

Key Message: This is a prospective, single-arm cohort study for the potential role of cannabinoids as an alternative for opioids. The results indicate that using the CBD-rich extract enabled our patients to reduce or eliminate opioids with significant improvement in their quality of life indices.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31711352

“Cannabis, the plant source of cannabinoids (CB), have been used for millennia for different purposes such as pain control and stress relief. Recent evidence highlights cannabinoids’ efficacy and safety for pain control. Besides its potential direct effects on pain, cannabinoids are suggested to have a role in reducing opioid intake. This study concludes that using CBD for chronic pain in patients using opioids has a significant effect on reducing opioid intake, reducing pain and improving quality of life (QoL). Over half of the participants who added CBD hemp extract reduced or eliminated opioids over the course of 8 weeks, and almost all CBD users reported improvements in QoL.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00325481.2019.1685298

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Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for psychosis

Image result for therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology“Accumulating evidence implicates the endocannabinoid system in the pathophysiology of psychosis.

If the endocannabinoid system plays a role in psychosis pathophysiology, it raises the interesting possibility that pharmacological compounds that modulate this system may have therapeutic value.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa, has been heralded as one such potential treatment.

Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating constituent of the cannabis plant, has emerged as a potential novel class of antipsychotic with a unique mechanism of action.

In this review, we set out the prospects of CBD as a potential novel treatment for psychotic disorders.

In sum, CBD currently represents a promising potential novel treatment for patients with psychosis.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2045125319881916

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Whole blood transcriptome analysis in ewes fed with hemp seed supplemented diet.

Image result for scientific reports “The hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long tradition of being used for many different purposes such as industry, medicine and nutrition. In particular, because hemp seed (HS) is rich in oil protein and considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals that are particularly suitable also for animal nutrition.

Different studies have evaluated HS on qualitative and quantitative properties of livestock products but as of today, nobody has investigated the molecular pathway behind HS supplementation in farm animals. Thus, in this study, we will report the first RNA sequencing of the whole-blood transcriptome of ewes fed either with a controlled diet (CTR, n = 5) or with a diet supplemented with 5% of hemp seed (HSG, n = 5).

These results indicate that HS supplementation positively affects the energy production pathway in lactating ewes conferring them also more resistance to adverse climatic conditions such as low temperature. Finally, the higher milk lactose content makes the derived dairy products more profitable.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31700124

“In conclusion, in this study, we have assessed the transcriptome signature induced by 5% hemp seed supplemented diet in ewes. The findings suggest that pathways related to energy production were the most affected. In addition, we found that this condition could also be potentially beneficial for adaptation to low temperatures. Moreover, we found a higher content of lactose, which makes the derived dairy products more profitable.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-52712-6

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A new mechanism for Cannabidiol in regulating the one-carbon cycle and methionine levels in Dictyostelium and in mammalian epilepsy models.

Publication cover image“EpidiolexTM , a form of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) derived from Cannabis plants has demonstrated seizure control activity in patients with Dravet syndrome, without a fully-elucidated mechanism of action. We have employed an unbiased approach to investigate this mechanism at a cellular level.

We use a tractable biomedical model organism, Dictyostelium, to identify protein controlling the effect of CBD and characterize this mechanism. We then translate these results to a Dravet Syndrome mouse model and an acute in vitro seizure model.

Key Results CBD activity is partially dependent upon the mitochondrial glycine cleavage system component, GcvH1 in Dictyostelium, orthologous to the human GCSH protein, which is functionally linked to folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM). Analysis of FOCM components identified a mechanism for CBD in directly inhibiting methionine synthesis.

Analysis of brain tissue from a Dravet syndrome mouse model also showed drastically altered levels of one-carbon components including methionine, and an in vitro rat seizure model showed an elevated level of methionine that is attenuated following CBD treatment. Conclusions and Implications

Our results suggest a novel mechanism for CBD in the regulating methionine levels, and identify altered one-carbon metabolism in Dravet syndrome and seizure activity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31693171

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.14892

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Pharmacokinetics of Phytocannabinoid Acids and Anticonvulsant Effect of Cannabidiolic Acid in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome.

 Go to Volume 0, Issue 0“Cannabis sativa produces a complex mixture of many bioactive molecules including terpenophenolic compounds known as phytocannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids come in neutral forms (e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC; cannabidiol, CBD; etc.) or as acid precursors, which are dominant in the plant (e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCA; cannabidiolic acid, CBDA; etc.).

There is increasing interest in unlocking the therapeutic applications of the phytocannabinoid acids; however, the present understanding of the basic pharmacology of phytocannabinoid acids is limited. Herein the brain and plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of CBDA, THCA, cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), and cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA) were examined following intraperitoneal administration in mice.

Next it was examined whether CBDA was anticonvulsant in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome (Scn1aRX/+ mice). All the phytocannabinoid acids investigated were rapidly absorbed with plasma tmax values of between 15 and 45 min and had relatively short half-lives (<4 h). The brain-plasma ratios for the acids were very low at ≤0.04. However, when CBDA was administered in an alternate Tween 80-based vehicle, it exhibited a brain-plasma ratio of 1.9. The anticonvulsant potential of CBDA was examined using this vehicle, and it was found that CBDA significantly increased the temperature threshold at which the Scn1aRX/+ mice had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31686510

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.9b00600

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Antibacterial properties of hemp hurd powder against E. coli

Publication cover image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an eco‐friendly and multifunctional plant. Hemp hurd is a by‐product of hemp plant during hemp fiber separation. Although hemp hurd is repeatedly announced owing antibacterial activity, it has never been systematically investigated and reported. In this study, the antibacterial activity of hemp hurd powder against Escherichia coli is investigated. This article reveals antibacterial activity of hemp hurd where hemp hurd powder inhibits the growth of E. coli. Meanwhile, the self‐contamination (forming during retting process) inside hemp hurd has dramatic impact on the antibacterial performance. To achieve better antibacterial activity, hemp hurd was heat treated to eliminate self‐contaminations. The impact of the particle sizes and heat treatment on the antibacterial effectiveness was evaluated.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/app.41588

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267628173_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_Hurd_Powder_Against_E_coli

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Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.

 “Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) are motor disorders with significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, pharmacological treatments that improve these disorders without causing severe side effects are not yet available. Delay in initiating L-DOPA is no longer recommended as LID development is a function of disease duration rather than cumulative L-DOPA exposure.

Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system could be a promising therapy to control PD and LID symptoms.

In this way, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), the principal non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, have received considerable attention in the last decade.

In this review, we present clinical and preclinical evidence suggesting CBD and other cannabinoids have therapeutic effects in PD and LID. Here, we discuss CBD pharmacology, as well as its neuroprotective effects and those of other cannabinoids.

Finally, we discuss the modulation of several pro- or anti-inflammatory factors as possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic/neuroprotective potential of Cannabis-derived/cannabinoid synthetic compounds in motor disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637586

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-019-00109-8

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Antitumor Activity of Abnormal Cannabidiol and Its Analog O-1602 in Taxol-Resistant Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabinoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties.

Contrary to most cannabinoids present in the Cannabis plant, some, such as O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, have no or only little affinity to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors and instead exert their effects through other receptors.

Here, we investigated whether the synthetic regioisomers of cannabidiol, abnormal cannabidiol, and a closely related compound, O-1602, display antitumorigenic effects in cellular models of breast cancer and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in vivo.

Several studies have shown the effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, but less is known about the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids in chemotherapy-resistant cell lines.

Paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were used to study the effect of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on viability, apoptosis, and migration. The effects of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on cell viability were completely blocked by the combination of GPR55 and GPR18-specific siRNAs. Both O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol decreased viability in paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through induction of apoptosis. The effect of these cannabinoids on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a zebrafish xenograft model. In this model, treatment with O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol (2 µM) significantly reduced tumor growth.

Our results suggest that atypical cannabinoids, like O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, exert antitumorigenic effects on paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Due to their lack of central sedation and psychoactive effects, these atypical cannabinoids could represent new leads for the development of additional anticancer treatments when resistance to conventional chemotherapy occurs during the treatment of breast and possibly other cancers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611800

“Our results suggest that some cannabinoids acting through the GPR55 and/or GPR18 receptors can be helpful in inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines that are unresponsive to paclitaxel. The effects of O-1602 and Abn-CBD on cell viability were observed both in vitro and in a zebrafish xenograft model. These drugs were also reducing cell migration. Taken together, even if no synergistic antitumor effect is always observed when cannabinoids and chemotherapeutic agents are combined as an anticancer treatment, cannabinoids can still provide anticancer benefits on top of their palliative effects. This is particularly important in the context of cancers that have developed resistance to current chemotherapies.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01124/full

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Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings.

Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is one of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

In this narrative review, we have summarized a selected number of pre-clinical and clinical studies, examining the effects of CBD in neuropsychiatric disorders. In some pre-clinical studies, CBD was demonstrated to potentially exhibit anti-epileptic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-psychotic, anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce addictive effects of some drugs of abuse.

In clinical studies, CBD was shown to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in mitigating the symptoms associated with several types of seizure disorders and childhood epilepsies.

Given that treatment with CBD alone was insufficient at managing choreic movements in patients with Huntington’s disease, other cannabis-derived treatments are currently being investigated. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported improvements in sleep and better quality of life with CBD; however, to fully elucidate the therapeutic potential of CBD on the symptoms of PD-associated movement disorders, larger scale, randomized, placebo-controlled studies still need to be conducted in the future.

Currently, there are no human studies that investigated the effects of CBD in either Alzheimer’s disease or unipolar depression, warranting further investigation in this area, considering that CBD was shown to have effects in pre-clinical studies.

Although, anxiolytic properties of CBD were reported in the Social Anxiety Disorder, antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia and anti-addictive qualities in alcohol and drug addictions, here too, larger, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31601406

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187711731930095X?via%3Dihub

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