Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol promotes oligodendrocyte development and CNS myelination in vivo

“Δ9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main bioactive compound found in the plant Cannabis sativa, exerts its effects by activating cannabinoid receptors present in many neural cells.

Cannabinoid receptors are also physiologically engaged by endogenous cannabinoid compounds, the so-called endocannabinoids. Specifically, the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol has been highlighted as an important modulator of oligodendrocyte (OL) development at embryonic stages and in animal models of demyelination. However, the potential impact of THC exposure on OL lineage progression during the critical periods of postnatal myelination has never been explored.

Here, we show that acute THC administration at early postnatal ages in mice enhanced OL development and CNS myelination in the subcortical white matter by promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell cycle exit and differentiation. Mechanistically, THC-induced-myelination was mediated by CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors, as demonstrated by the blockade of THC actions by selective receptor antagonists. Moreover, the THC-mediated modulation of oligodendroglial differentiation relied on the activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway, as mTORC1 pharmacological inhibition prevented the THC effects.

Our study identifies THC as an effective pharmacological strategy to enhance oligodendrogenesis and CNS myelination in vivo.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32956517/

“In summary, our findings identify THC as a novel pharmacological candidate to enhance OL development and CNS myelination in vivo.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/glia.23911

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Use of Cannabidiol for the Treatment of Anxiety: A Short Synthesis of Pre-Clinical and Clinical Evidence

View details for Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research cover image“Anxiety disorders have the highest lifetime prevalence of any mental illness worldwide, leading to high societal costs and economic burden. Current pharmacotherapies for anxiety disorders are associated with adverse effects and low efficacy.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a constituent of the Cannabis plant, which has potential therapeutic properties for various indications. After the recent legalization of cannabis, CBD has drawn increased attention as a potential treatment, as the majority of existing data suggest it is safe, well tolerated, has few adverse effects, and demonstrates no potential for abuse or dependence in humans.

Pre-clinical research using animal models of innate fear and anxiety-like behaviors have found anxiolytic, antistress, anticompulsive, and panicolytic-like effects of CBD. Preliminary evidence from human trials using both healthy volunteers and individuals with social anxiety disorder, suggests that CBD may have anxiolytic effects.

Although these findings are promising, future research is warranted to determine the efficacy of CBD in other anxiety disorders, establish appropriate doses, and determine its long-term efficacy. The majority of pre-clinical and clinical research has been conducted using males only. Among individuals with anxiety disorders, the prevalence rates, symptomology, and treatment response differ between males and females. Thus, future research should focus on this area due to the lack of research in females and the knowledge gap on sex and gender differences in the effectiveness of CBD as a potential treatment for anxiety.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32923656/

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a constituent of the Cannabis plant, which has potential therapeutic properties across many neuropsychiatric disorders. Overall, existing pre-clinical and clinical evidence supports a possible role for CBD as a novel treatment for anxiety disorders.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/can.2019.0052

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol Content and In Vitro Biological Activities of Commercial Cannabidiol Oils and Hemp Seed Oils

medicines-logo“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed contains high contents of various nutrients, including fatty acids and proteins.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive compound that can be extracted from C. sativa and used for treating epilepsy and pain.

Industrial hemp products, including CBD and hemp seed oils, have become increasingly popular. Some products are marketed without a clear distinction between CBD and hemp seed oils.

Herein, the CBD content and biological activities of commercial CBD and hemp seed oils were examined.

Methods: CBD content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. For in vitro antioxidant activity determination, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging assays were performed.

Results: The CBD concentrations in the two CBD oil samples were 18.9 ± 0.5 and 9.2 ± 0.4 mg/mL. Of the seven hemp seed oil samples, six samples contained CBD in concentrations ranging from 2.0 ± 0.1 to 20.5 ± 0.5 µg/mL, but it was not detected in one sample. Antioxidant activity was observed in both CBD oil samples.

Conclusions: The results indicate that (1) CBD content varied by hemp seed oil sample and that (2) antioxidant activity could be a useful landmark for discriminating CBD oils from hemp seed oils.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32906708/

https://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/7/9/57

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Industrial Hemp ( Cannabis sativa subsp. sativa) as an Emerging Source for Value-Added Functional Food Ingredients and Nutraceuticals

molecules-logo“Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae) is an ancient cultivated plant originating from Central Asia and historically has been a multi-use crop valued for its fiber, food, and medicinal uses. Various oriental and Asian cultures kept records of its production and numerous uses.

Due to the similarities between industrial hemp (fiber and grain) and the narcotic/medical type of Cannabis, the production of industrial hemp was prohibited in most countries, wiping out centuries of learning and genetic resources. In the past two decades, most countries have legalized industrial hemp production, prompting a significant amount of research on the health benefits of hemp and hemp products.

Current research is yet to verify the various health claims of the numerous commercially available hemp products. Hence, this review aims to compile recent advances in the science of industrial hemp, with respect to its use as value-added functional food ingredients/nutraceuticals and health benefits, while also highlighting gaps in our current knowledge and avenues of future research on this high-value multi-use plant for the global food chain.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32906622/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4078

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

molecules-logo“Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it.

Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs).

Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects.

PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation.

The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32899626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4036

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Topical cannabis-based medicines – A novel paradigm and treatment for non-uremic calciphylaxis leg ulcers: An open label trial

“Non-Uremic Calciphylaxis (NUC) is a rare condition that often manifests as intractable and painful integumentary wounds, afflicting patients with a high burden of co-morbidity.

The Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is a ubiquitous signalling system that is theorised to be dysregulated within wound beds and associated peri-wound tissues.

Preclinical research has shown that the dominant chemical classes derived from the cannabis plant, cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids, interact with the integumentary ECS to promote wound closure and analgesia.

This is a prospective open label cohort study involving two elderly Caucasian females with recalcitrant NUC leg ulcers of greater than 6 months duration.

Topical Cannabis-Based Medicines (TCBM) composed of cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids were applied daily to both the wound bed and peri-wound tissues until complete wound closure was achieved.

Wounds were photographed regularly, and the digital images were subjected to planimetric analysis to objectively quantify the degree of granulation and epithelization. Analgesic utilisation, as a surrogate/proxy for pain scores, was also tracked. The cohort had a mean M3 multimorbidity index score of 3.31. Complete wound closure was achieved in a mean of 76.3 days. Additionally, no analgesics were required after a mean of 63 days.

The treatments were well tolerated with no adverse reactions. The positive results demonstrated in very challenging wounds such as NUC, among highly complex patients, suggest that TCBM may have an even broader role within integumentary and wound management.

This treatment paradigm warrants being trialled in other wound types and classes, and ultimately should be subjected to randomised controlled trials.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32875692/

“Topical Cannabis‐Based Medicines, applied to both wound beds and peri‐wound tissues, represent a promising novel, non‐invasive, and safe treatment option for NUC leg ulcers.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/iwj.13484

image

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

A molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrosis properties of cannabidiol

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is considered a non-psychoactive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory compound derived from the Cannabis sativa plant.

There are various reports on the versatile function of CBD, including ameliorating chronic inflammation and fibrosis formation in several tissue types.

This review focused on the anti-inflammation and anti-fibrotic effects of CBD based on modulating the associated chemokines/cytokines and receptor-mediated pathways.

This review thus recommends the continued study of CBD’s molecular mechanism in treating established and emerging inflammatory and fibrosis-related diseases.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32885502/

“In all, CBD shows immense promise as a possible treatment for chronic inflammation and the progression or development of fibrosis.”

https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fj.202000975R

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol (CBD): a killer for inflammatory rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts

 Cell Death & Disease“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating phytocannabinoid from cannabis sativa that has demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects in several inflammatory conditions including arthritis.

In this study, we show that CBD increases intracellular calcium levels, reduces cell viability and IL-6/IL-8/MMP-3 production of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASF).

CBD reduced cell viability, proliferation, and IL-6/IL-8 production of RASF. Moreover, CBD increased intracellular calcium and uptake of the cationic viability dye PoPo3 in RASF, which was enhanced by pre-treatment with TNF.

Thus, CBD possesses anti-arthritic activity and might ameliorate arthritis via targeting synovial fibroblasts under inflammatory conditions.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32873774/

“In conclusion, CBD might be beneficial as an adjuvant treatment in rheumatoid arthritis that might support the action of currently used disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-02892-1

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Δ9 Tetrahydrocannabinol attenuates Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced inflammatory lung injury and prevents mortality in mice by modulation of miR-17-92 cluster and induction of T-regulatory cells

Logo of brjpharm“Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a potent activator of Vβ8+T-cells resulting in the clonal expansion of ∼30% of the T-cell pool. Consequently, this leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines, toxic shock, and eventually death.

In the current study, we investigated if Δ9tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid known for its anti-inflammatory properties, could prevent SEB-induced mortality and alleviate symptoms of toxic shock.

Key Results

Exposure to SEB resulted in acute mortality, while THC treatment led to 100% survival of mice. SEB induced the miRNA-17-92 cluster, specifically miRNA-18a, which targeted Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue), an inhibitor of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway, thereby suppressing T-regulatory cells. In contrast, THC treatment inhibited the individual miRNAs in the cluster, reversing the effects of SEB.

Conclusions and Implications

We report, for the first time a role for the miRNA 17–92 cluster in SEB-mediated inflammation. Furthermore, our results suggest that THC is a potent anti-inflammatory compound that may serve as a novel therapeutic to suppress SEB-induced pulmonary inflammation by modulating critical miRNA involved in SEB-induced toxicity and death.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a marijuana plant-derived cannabinoid known for its robust anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of THC are diverse and function effectively to abrogate a number of inflammatory processes.

Taken together, our data demonstrate that THC is a strong anti-inflammatory agent capable of rescuing mice from SEB-mediated toxicity and death.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376457/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Coronavirus Disease-2019 Treatment Strategies Targeting Interleukin-6 Signaling and Herbal Medicine

View details for OMICS: A Journal of Integrative Biology cover image“Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is evolving across the world and new treatments are urgently needed as with vaccines to prevent the illness and stem the contagion. The virus affects not only the lungs but also other tissues, thus lending support to the idea that COVID-19 is a systemic disease. The current vaccine and treatment development strategies ought to consider such systems medicine perspectives rather than a narrower focus on the lung infection only.

COVID-19 is associated with elevated levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Elevated levels of cytokines and the cytokine storm have been linked to fatal disease. This suggests new therapeutic strategies through blocking the cytokine storm. IL-6 is one of the major cytokines associated with the cytokine storm. IL-6 is also known to display pleiotropic/diverse pathophysiological effects. We suggest the blockage of IL-6 signaling and its downstream mediators such as Janus kinases (JAKs), and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STATs) offer potential hope for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19. Thus, repurposing of already approved IL-6-JAK-STAT signaling inhibitors as well as other anti-inflammatory drugs, including dexamethasone, is under development for severe COVID-19 cases.

We conclude this expert review by highlighting the potential role of precision herbal medicines, for example, the Cannabis sativa, provided that omics technologies can be utilized to build a robust scientific evidence base on their clinical safety and efficacy. Precision herbal medicine buttressed by omics systems science would also help identify new molecular targets for drug discovery against COVID-19.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32857671/

Cannabis sativa is a plant known to contain anti-inflammatory compounds such as cannabinoid cannabidiol. In addition to other compounds such as terpenes, these compounds have been suggested to have potential anticancer properties. Like other herbal plants, we suggest C. sativa warrants further mechanistic research in relationship to putative effects in COVID-19.”

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/omi.2020.0122

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous