Cannabidiol Effectively Promoted Cell Death in Bladder Cancer and the Improved Intravesical Adhesion Drugs Delivery Strategy Could Be Better Used for Treatment

pharmaceutics-logo“Cannabidiol (CBD), a primary bioactive phytocannabinoid extracted from hemp, is reported to possess potent anti-tumorigenic activity in multiple cancers.

However, the effects of CBD on bladder cancer (BC) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are rarely reported.

Here, several experiments proved that CBD promoted BC cells (T24, 5637, and UM-UC-3) death.

In summary, this work demonstrates that CBD may become a novel reliable anticancer drug and the developed intravesical adhesion system is expected to turn into a potential means of BC chemotherapy drug delivery.

We believe that our study makes a significant contribution to the field because these results can be developed as a promising strategy for a safer and more efficient anticancer therapy.”

https://www.mdpi.com/1999-4923/13/9/1415/htm

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The antitumor activity of cannabidiol on lung cancer cell lines A549 and H1299: the role of apoptosis

Publication Cover“In the recent years, the application of new antitumor drugs has focused on the replacement of conventional chemotherapeutics with compounds derived from natural products.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the 113 cannabinoids derived from the plant Cannabis sativa and is characterized with complex and not entirely understood biological function. Unlike the other most abundant cannabinoid in Cannabis sativa – tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol has low affinity to the endocannabinoid receptors and the manifestation of its activity does not appear to rely on the endocannabinoid system.

Cannabidiol is used in the treatment of many diseases including some types of cancer.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of cannabidiol and its effect on the process of programmed cell death. This process is directly involved in the antitumor effect of many drugs.

We found that CBD treatment led to a dose-dependant apoptosis increase in p53 positive A549 cells.

Several studies have demonstrated that cannabinoids also have antineoplastic effect and are usually accompanied with no negative side effects such as the ones produced by the conventional chemotherapy treatment.”

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13102818.2021.1915870

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The Pathophysiology and the Therapeutic Potential of Cannabinoids in Prostate Cancer

cancers-logo“Prostate cancer is the second most frequently occurring cancer diagnosed among males. Recent preclinical evidence implicates cannabinoids as powerful regulators of cell growth and differentiation. In this review, we focused on studies that demonstrated anticancer effects of cannabinoids and their possible mechanisms of action in prostate cancer. Besides the palliative effects of cannabinoids, research from the past two decades has demonstrated their promising potential as antitumor agents in a wide variety of cancers. This analysis may provide pharmacological insights into the selection of specific cannabinoids for the development of antitumor drugs for the treatment of prostate cancer.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34439262/

“Prostate cancer, after lung cancer, is the leading cause of death among men. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms and the etiological factors of prostate cancer development are still poorly understood, there are several factors associated with the risk of developing the disease such as age, family history, lifestyle-related factors (e.g., smoking, diet), and testosterone levels. Cannabinoids are an emerging class of pharmacological molecules that may exert their therapeutic effect against different cancers, including those from the prostate. Several studies have shown that various agonists are able to target cannabinoid receptors exhibited on prostate cancer cells.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6694/13/16/4107

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A Novel Mechanism of Cannabidiol in Suppressing Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inducing GSDME Dependent Pyroptosis

Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology - Institut de Myologie“Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytochemical derived from Cannabis sativa L., has been demonstrated to exhibit promising anti-tumor properties in multiple cancer types. However, the effects of CBD on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unknown. We have shown that CBD effectively suppresses HCC cell growth in vivo and in vitro, and induced HCC cell pyroptosis in a caspase-3/GSDME-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that accumulation of integrative stress response (ISR) and mitochondrial stress may contribute to the initiation of pyroptotic signaling by CBD. Simultaneously, CBD can repress aerobic glycolysis through modulation of the ATF4-IGFBP1-Akt axis, due to the depletion of ATP and crucial intermediate metabolites. Collectively, these observations indicate that CBD could be considered as a potential compound for HCC therapy.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34350183/

“Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an extremely malignant cancer, accounting for almost 95% of primary liver cancer cases. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytochemical derived from Cannabis sativa L., has been shown to have anti-tumor activity and to be a potential compound for tumor therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated that CBD treatment could effectively induce cell apoptosis in tumor cells. In this study, we have shown that CBD can effectively suppress HCC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, which was similar to the anti-tumor activity of CBD observed in other cancer types. In summary, a mechanistic model of CBD anti-tumor activity in HCC cell pyroptosis and growth was demonstrated. All the observations described herein reveal a novel mechanism of the anti-tumor activity of CBD in HCC cells, suggesting that CBD could be considered as a promising compound for HCC therapy.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2021.697832/full

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Combination therapy with cannabidiol and chemotherapeutics in canine urothelial carcinoma cells

“Background: Canine urothelial carcinoma is the most common form of canine bladder cancer. Treatment with chemotherapy has variable response rates leading to most dogs succumbing to their disease within a year. Cannabidiol is an emerging treatment within the field of oncology. In reported in vivo studies, cannabidiol has induced apoptosis, reduced cell migration, and acted as a chemotherapy sensitizer in various human tumor types. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of cannabidiol on canine urothelial carcinoma cell viability and apoptosis as both a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy in vitro.

Results: Cannabidiol reduced cell viability and induced apoptosis in canine urothelial cells as determined by crystal violet viability assay and annexin V/propidium iodide flow cytometry. Furthermore, combinations of cannabidiol with mitoxantrone and vinblastine chemotherapy yielded significantly reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis compared to single agent treatment alone. The drug interactions were deemed synergistic based on combination index calculations. Conversely, the combination of cannabidiol and carboplatin did not result in decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis compared to single agent treatment. Combination index calculations suggested an antagonistic interaction between these drugs. Finally, the combination of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug piroxicam with cannabidiol did not significantly affect cell viability, although, some cell lines demonstrated decreased cell viability when mitoxantrone was combined with piroxicam.

Conclusions: Cannabidiol showed promising results as a single agent or in combination with mitoxantrone and vinblastine for treatment of canine urothelial carcinoma cells. Further studies are justified to investigate whether these results are translatable in vivo.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34352013/

“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a phytocannabinoid derived from the Cannabis sativa plant with well-documented analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anxiolytic effects. This study determined that CBD treatment reduced viability and induced cell death in canine urothelial carcinoma cells in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that CBD may be a potential treatment for use in combination with chemotherapeutic agents to improve canine UC carcinoma response rates and survival.”

https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255591

 

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Therapeutic Attributes of Endocannabinoid System against Neuro-Inflammatory Autoimmune Disorders

molecules-logo“In humans, various sites like cannabinoid receptors (CBR) having a binding affinity with cannabinoids are distributed on the surface of different cell types, where endocannabinoids (ECs) and derivatives of fatty acid can bind. The binding of these substance(s) triggers the activation of specific receptors required for various physiological functions, including pain sensation, memory, and appetite.

The ECs and CBR perform multiple functions via the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1); cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), having a key effect in restraining neurotransmitters and the arrangement of cytokines. The role of cannabinoids in the immune system is illustrated because of their immunosuppressive characteristics. These characteristics include inhibition of leucocyte proliferation, T cells apoptosis, and induction of macrophages along with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion.

The review seeks to discuss the functional relationship between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and anti-tumor characteristics of cannabinoids in various cancers.

The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for cancer-both in vivo and in vitro clinical trials-has also been highlighted and reported to be effective in mice models in arthritis for the inflammation reduction, neuropathic pain, positive effect in multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes mellitus, and found beneficial for treating in various cancers.

In human models, such studies are limited; thereby, further research is indispensable in this field to get a conclusive outcome. Therefore, in autoimmune disorders, therapeutic cannabinoids can serve as promising immunosuppressive and anti-fibrotic agents.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34205169/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/11/3389

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Cannabinoids and their derivatives in struggle against melanoma

SpringerLink“Melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignances in human. Recently developed therapies improved overall survival rate, however, the treatment of melanoma still remains a challenging issue.

This review attempts to summarize recent advances in studies on cannabinoids used in the setting of melanoma treatment.

Conclusions after analysis of available data suggest that cannabinoids limit number of metastasis, and reduce growth of melanoma. The findings indicate that cannabinoids induce apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, cell cycle arrest and exert significant interactions with tumor microenvironment.

Cannabinoids should be rather considered as a part of multi-targeted anti-tumor therapy instead of being standalone agent. Moreover, cannabinoids are likely to improve quality of life in patients with cancer, due to different supportive effects, like analgesia and/or anti-emetic effects.

In this review, it was pointed out that cannabinoids may be potentially useful in the melanoma therapy. Nevertheless, due to limited amount of data, great variety of cannabinoids available and lack of clinical trials, further studies are required to determine an exact role of cannabinoids in the treatment of melanoma.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34264513/

“The endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in numerous pathological conditions, including malignancies. Recently, cannabinoids have received increasing amount of interest in the setting of treatment of various cancers.  Cannabinoids seem to be promising agents in the setting of melanoma treatment. In the case of melanoma, most important actions of cannabinoids described so far are decrease of cells viability by increase of apoptosis, necrosis and cell cycle arrest. Moreover, cannabinoids slow down disease progress by reduction of metastasis and tumor vascularization. Due to large variety of cannabinoids, there are many potential derivatives, which may be found useful in the therapy of melanoma.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs43440-021-00308-1

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Pros and Cons of the Cannabinoid System in Cancer: Focus on Hematological Malignancies

molecules-logo“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a composite cell-signaling system that allows endogenous cannabinoid ligands to control cell functions through the interaction with cannabinoid receptors. Modifications of the ECS might contribute to the pathogenesis of different diseases, including cancers. However, the use of these compounds as antitumor agents remains debatable.

Pre-clinical experimental studies have shown that cannabinoids (CBs) might be effective for the treatment of hematological malignancies, such as leukemia and lymphoma.

Specifically, CBs may activate programmed cell death mechanisms, thus blocking cancer cell growth, and may modulate both autophagy and angiogenesis. Therefore, CBs may have significant anti-tumor effects in hematologic diseases and may synergistically act with chemotherapeutic agents, possibly also reducing chemoresistance.

Moreover, targeting ECS might be considered as a novel approach for the management of graft versus host disease, thus reducing some symptoms such as anorexia, cachexia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and neuropathic pain. The aim of the present review is to collect the state of the art of CBs effects on hematological tumors, thus focusing on the essential topics that might be useful before moving into the clinical practice.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34202812/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/26/13/3866

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Cannabinoids in the landscape of cancer

SpringerLinkCannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There is a growing body of evidence from cell culture and animal studies in support of cannabinoids possessing anticancer properties.

Method: A database search of peer reviewed articles published in English as full texts between January 1970 and April 2021 in Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science was undertaken. References of relevant literature were searched to identify additional studies to construct a narrative literature review of oncological effects of cannabinoids in pre-clinical and clinical studies in various cancer types.

Results: Phyto-, endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids demonstrated antitumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, these effects are dependent on cancer type, the concentration and preparation of the cannabinoid and the abundance of receptor targets. The mechanism of action of synthetic cannabinoids, (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has mainly been described via the traditional cannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2, but reports have also indicated evidence of activity through GPR55, TRPM8 and other ion channels including TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2.

Conclusion: Cannabinoids have shown to be efficacious both as a single agent and in combination with antineoplastic drugs. These effects have occurred through various receptors and ligands and modulation of signalling pathways involved in hallmarks of cancer pathology. There is a need for further studies to characterise its mode of action at the molecular level and to delineate efficacious dosage and route of administration in addition to synergistic regimes.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34259916/

“Since time immemorial, the Cannabis plant has been used as a source of fibre, herbal remedy, medicinal and religious purposes. In the mid-nineteenth century, O’Shaughnessy and Moreau reported positive effects of cannabis on muscle spasms, vomiting, convulsions, rheumatism, tetanus, and rabies. However, during the twentieth century, its utilisation in Western medicine started to decline as a result of political prejudices and economic interests rather than scientific or medical reasons.

Plant-based, endogenous and synthetic cannabinoid compounds have shown merits in not only alleviating the unwanted side effects of antineoplastic drug regiments, but have also shown promising evidence in decreasing tumour burden, and one in vivo study so far concludes increasing survival rates in mice. Various extracted forms of cannabinoids from C. sativa have shown varying cytotoxic effects which should be explored in more detail in future studies as majority of the evidence originates from studies investigating mainly ∆9-THC and CBD’s actions.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00432-021-03710-7

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A Phase 2 Randomised Clinical Trial Assessing the Tolerability of Two Different Ratios of Medicinal Cannabis in Patients With High Grade Gliomas

Frontiers in Oncology (@FrontOncology) | Twitter“Background: Cannabis for cancer is very topical and, given the use of illicit cannabis preparations used in this vulnerable population, research investigating standardised, quality-assured medicinal cannabis is critical to inform clinicians and assist patient safety.

Methods: A randomized trial involving adult patients diagnosed with a high-grade glioma, no history of substance abuse, liver or kidney damage or myocardial infarction were eligible for inclusion in a tolerability study on two different ratios of medicinal cannabis. Baseline screening of brain morphology, blood pathology, functional status, and cognition was conducted. A retrospective control group was used for comparison for secondary outcomes.

Results: Participants (n=88) were on average 53.3 years old. A paired t-test assessed the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy for Brain Cancer (FACT-Br) between groups from baseline to week 12 found that the 1:1 ratio favoured both physical (p=0.025) and functional (p=0.014) capacity and improved sleep (p=0.009). Analysis of changes from baseline to week 12 also found 11% of 61 participants had a reduction in disease, 34% were stable, 16% had slight enhancement, and 10% had progressive disease. No serious adverse events occurred. Side effects included dry mouth, tiredness at night, dizziness, drowsiness.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that a single nightly dose of THC-containing medicinal cannabis was safe, had no serious adverse effects and was well tolerated in patients. Medicinal cannabis significantly improved sleep, functional wellbeing, and quality of life.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34094937/

“From this study we have shown that a single nightly dose of THC-containing cannabis was well tolerated in patients in both groups with high-grade gliomas and significantly improved sleep, functional wellbeing and contentment with QoL in a sample of patients compared to baseline. From this trial, the 1:1 ratio has been identified as the preferred combination the moving forward to further trials. This study significantly informs MC product choice for ongoing studies into cannabis being a potential adjunct treatment option for this patient population.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2021.649555/full

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