Cannabinoid receptor activation on hematopoietic cells and enterocytes protects against colitis

Oxford University Press“Cannabinoid receptor (CB) activation can attenuate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in experimental models and human cohorts. However, the role of the microbiome, metabolome, or the respective contributions of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells in the anti-colitic effects of cannabinoids has yet to be determined.

Methods: Female C57BL/6 mice were treated with either cannabidiol (CBD), Δ 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a combination of CBD and THC or vehicle, in several models of chemically induced colitis. Clinical parameters of colitis were assessed by colonoscopy, histology, flow cytometry and detection of serum biomarkers; single-cell RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the effects of cannabinoids on enterocytes. Immune cell transfer from CB2 knockout mice was used to evaluate the contribution of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells to colitis protection.

Results: We found that THC prevented colitis, and that CBD, at the dose tested, provided little benefit to the amelioration of colitis, or when added synergistically with THC. THC increased colonic barrier integrity by stimulating mucus, tight junction and antimicrobial peptide production, and these effects were specific to the large intestine. THC increased colonic gram-negative bacteria, but the anti-colitic effects of THC were independent of the microbiome. THC acted on both immune cells via CB2 and on enterocytes to attenuate colitis.

Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate how cannabinoid receptor activation on both immune cells and colonocytes is critical to prevent colonic inflammation. These studies also suggest how cannabinoid receptor activation can be used as a preventive and therapeutic modality against colitis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33331878/

https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa253/6040793?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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Multi-Target Effects of the Cannabinoid CP55940 on Familial Alzheimer’s Disease PSEN1 E280A Cholinergic-Like Neurons: Role of CB1 Receptor

Get IOS Press NewsAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by structural damage, death, and functional disruption of cholinergic neurons (ChNs) as a result of intracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, extracellular neuritic plaques, and hyperphosphorylation of protein tau (p-Tau) overtime.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CP55940 (CP) on PSEN1 E280A cholinergic-like nerve cells (PSEN1 ChLNs)-a natural model of familial AD.

Results: CP in the presence of both inverse agonists (hereafter SR) almost completely inhibits the aggregation of intracellular sAβPPβf and p-Tau, increases ΔΨm, decreases oxidation of DJ-1Cys106-SH residue, and blocks the activation of c-Jun, p53, PUMA, and caspase-3 independently of CB1Rs signaling in mutant ChLNs. CP also inhibits the generation of reactive oxygen species partially dependent on CB1Rs. Although CP reduced extracellular Aβ 42, it was unable to reverse the Ca2 + influx dysregulation as a response to acetylcholine stimuli in mutant ChLNs. Exposure to anti-Aβ antibody 6E10 (1:300) in the absence or presence of SR plus CP completely recovered transient [Ca2 +]i signal as a response to acetylcholine in mutant ChLNs.

Conclusion: Taken together our findings suggest that the combination of cannabinoids, CB1Rs inverse agonists, and anti-Aβ antibodies might be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of familial AD.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33252082/

“It is therefore proposed that combinations of cannabinoids, anti-Aβ 42 antibodies (e.g., crenezumab), and CB1 inverse agonists might be a promising multi-target drugs for therapy in the early treatment of FAD PSEN 1 E280A ChLNs neurodegeneration.”

https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad201045

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CB2 receptor-selective agonists as candidates for targeting infection, inflammation, and immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infections

“The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is a deadly disease afflicting millions. The pandemic continues affecting population due to nonavailability of drugs and vaccines. The pathogenesis and complications of infection mainly involve hyperimmune-inflammatory responses. Thus, therapeutic strategies rely on repurposing of drugs aimed at reducing infectivity and inflammation and modulate immunity favourably.

Among, numerous therapeutic targets, the endocannabinoid system, particularly activation of cannabinoid type-2 receptors (CB2R) emerged as an important one to suppress the hyperimmune-inflammatory responses. Recently, potent antiinflammatory, antiviral and immunomodulatory properties of CB2R selective ligands of endogenous, plant, and synthetic origin were showed mediating CB2R selective functional agonism.

CB2R activation appears to regulate numerous signaling pathways to control immune-inflammatory mediators including cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, prostanoids, and eicosanoids. Many CB2R ligands also exhibit off-target effects mediating activation of PPARs, opioids, and TRPV, suggestive of adjuvant use with existing drugs that may maximize efficacy synergistically and minimize therapeutic doses to limit adverse/ side effects.

We hypothesize that CB2R agonists, due to immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, and antiviral properties may show activity against COVID-19. Based on the organoprotective potential, relative safety, lack of psychotropic effects, and druggable properties, CB2R selective ligands might make available promising candidates for further investigation.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33190277/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ddr.21752

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Cannabinoid Receptor Subtype 2 (CB2R) in a Multitarget Approach: Perspective of an Innovative Strategy in Cancer and Neurodegeneration

 Go to Volume 0, Issue 0“The cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2R) represents an interesting and new therapeutic target for its involvement in the first steps of neurodegeneration as well as in cancer onset and progression.

Several studies, focused on different types of tumors, report a promising anticancer activity induced by CB2R agonists due to their ability to reduce inflammation and cell proliferation. Moreover, in neuroinflammation, the stimulation of CB2R, overexpressed in microglial cells, exerts beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders.

With the aim to overcome current treatment limitations, new drugs can be developed by specifically modulating, together with CB2R, other targets involved in such multifactorial disorders.

Building on successful case studies of already developed multitarget strategies involving CB2R, in this Perspective we aim at prompting the scientific community to consider new promising target associations involving HDACs (histone deacetylases) and σ receptors by employing modern approaches based on molecular hybridization, computational polypharmacology, and machine learning algorithms.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33094613/

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01357

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The Activation of Cannabinoid Type-2 Receptor with JWH-133 Protects Uterine Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Damage

 Pharmacology - Home - Karger Publishers“Uterus transplantation is a complex surgical procedure. Uterine ischemia/reperfusion (IR) damage occurring in this process may cause loss of function in the uterus. Cell damage must be prevented for a healthy uterine function and successful transplantation.

Cannabinoids, with their increasing clinical use, are substances with strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects and have a role in immune system regulation. However, their efficacy in uterine IR damage is still unknown.

This study provides information on the potential applications cannabinoids agonist JWH-133 in uterine IR damage and, hence, in the transplant process.

Results: In the uterine IR group, NF-κB expression and MDA levels were detected at high levels. Histopathological examinations and TUNEL staining revealed extensive cell damage. On the other hand, in groups treated with JWH-133, dose-dependent NF-κB expression and MDA levels decreased (p < 0.05). Depending on the dose, the rate of surviving cells increased in TUNEL staining results.

Conclusion: The results showed that JWH-133 was effective in reducing uterine IR damage. Cannabinoids may be a new alternative that may be used in the transplantation process in the future.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33105141/

https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/511457

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Signaling Through the Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor Regulates the Severity of Acute and Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

Blood“Graft versus host disease (GVHD) pathophysiology is a complex interplay between cells that comprise the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system. Effective prophylactic strategies are therefore contingent upon approaches that address contributions from both immune cell compartments.

In the current study, we examined the role of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R) which is expressed on nearly all immune cells and demonstrated that absence of the CB2R on donor CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, or administration of a selective CB2R pharmacological antagonist, exacerbated acute GVHD lethality. This was accompanied primarily by the expansion of proinflammatory CD8+ T cells indicating that constitutive CB2R expression on T cells preferentially regulated CD8+ T cell alloreactivity. Using a novel CB2R-EGFP reporter mouse, we observed significant loss of CB2R expression on T cells, but not macrophages, during acute GVHD, indicative of differential alterations in receptor expression under inflammatory conditions.

Therapeutic targeting of the CB2R with the agonists, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and JWH-133, revealed that only THC mitigated lethal T cell-mediated acute GVHD. Conversely, only JWH-133 was effective in a sclerodermatous chronic GVHD model where macrophages contribute to disease biology. In vitro, both THC and JWH-133 induced arrestin recruitment and ERK phosphorylation via CB2R, but THC had no effect on CB2R-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase.

These studies demonstrate that the CB2R plays a critical role in the regulation of GVHD and suggest that effective therapeutic targeting is dependent upon agonist signaling characteristics and receptor selectivity in conjunction with the composition of pathogenic immune effector cells.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33027805/

https://ashpublications.org/blood/article-abstract/doi/10.1182/blood.2020004871/464166/Signaling-Through-the-Type-2-Cannabinoid-Receptor?redirectedFrom=fulltext

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The CB2 Agonist β-Caryophyllene in Male and Female Rats Exposed to a Model of Persistent Inflammatory Pain

frontiers – Page 2 – Retraction Watch “Cannabinoids help in pain treatment through their action on CB1 and CB2 receptors.

β-caryophyllene (BCP), an ancient remedy to treat pain, is a sesquiterpene found in large amounts in the essential oils of various spice and food plants such as oregano, cinnamon, and black pepper. It binds to the CB2 receptor, acting as a full agonist.

Sex differences in the BCP-induced analgesic effect were studied by exposing male and female rats to a persistent/repeated painful stimulation.

In conclusion, long-term intake of BCP appears to be able to decrease pain behaviors in a model of repeated inflammatory pain in both sexes, but to a greater degree in males.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33013287/

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2020.00850/full

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

“Beta-caryophyllene is a dietary cannabinoid.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18574142

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A Cannabinoid Type 2 (CB2) Receptor Agonist Augments NOS-Dependent Responses of Cerebral Arterioles during Type 1 Diabetes

Microvascular Research “While activation of cannabinoid (CB2) receptors has been shown to be neuroprotective, no studies have examined whether this neuroprotection is directed at cerebral arterioles and no studies have examined whether activation of CB2 receptors can rescue cerebrovascular dysfunction during a chronic disease state such as type 1 diabetes (T1D).

Our goal was to test the hypothesis that administration of a CB2 agonist (JWH-133) would improve impaired endothelial (eNOS)- and neuronal (nNOS)- dependent dilation of cerebral arterioles during T1D.

In vivo diameter of cerebral arterioles in nondiabetic and T1D rats was measured in response to an eNOS-dependent agonist (adenosine 5′-diphosphate; ADP), an nNOS-dependent agonist (N-methyl-D-aspartate; NMDA), and an NOS-independent agonist (nitroglycerin) before and 1 hour following JWH-133 (1 mg/kg IP). Dilation of cerebral arterioles to ADP and NMDA was greater in nondiabetic than in T1D rats.

Treatment with JWH-133 increased responses of cerebral arterioles to ADP and NMDA in both nondiabetic and T1D rats. Responses of cerebral arterioles to nitroglycerin were similar between nondiabetic and T1D rats, and JWH-133 did not influence responses to nitroglycerin in either group. The restoration in responses to the agonists by JWH-133 could be inhibited by treatment with a specific inhibitor of CB2 receptors (AM-630; 3 mg/kg IP).

Thus, activation of CB2 receptors can potentiate reactivity of cerebral arterioles during physiologic and pathophysiologic states. We speculate that treatment with CB2 receptor agonists may have potential therapeutic benefits for the treatment of cerebral vascular diseases via a mechanism that can increase cerebral blood flow.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32979391/

“Activation of CB2 receptors improves cerebral vascular function. Activation of CB2 receptors improves responses in type 1 diabetes. We speculate that treatment with CB2 receptor agonists may have potential therapeutic benefits for the treatment of cerebral vascular disease that can contribute to the pathogenesis of stroke.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0026286220301370?via%3Dihub

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It Is Our Turn to Get Cannabis High: Put Cannabinoids in Food and Health Baskets

molecules-logo“Cannabis is an annual plant with a long history of use as food, feed, fiber, oil, medicine, and narcotics. Despite realizing its true value, it has not yet found its true place. Cannabis has had a long history with many ups and downs, and now it is our turn to promote it.

Cannabis contains approximately 600 identified and many yet unidentified potentially useful compounds. Cannabinoids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and alkaloids are some of the secondary metabolites present in cannabis. However, among a plethora of unique chemical compounds found in this plant, the most important ones are phytocannabinoids (PCs).

Over hundreds of 21-22-carbon compounds exclusively produce in cannabis glandular hairs through either polyketide and or deoxyxylulose phosphate/methylerythritol phosphate (DOXP/MEP) pathways. Trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are those that first come to mind while talking about cannabis. Nevertheless, despite the low concentration, cannabinol (CBN), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabinodiol (CBND), and cannabinidiol (CBDL) may have potentially some medical effects.

PCs and endocannabinoids (ECs) mediate their effects mainly through CB1 and CB2 receptors. Despite all concerns regarding cannabis, nobody can ignore the use of cannabinoids as promising tonic, analgesic, antipyretic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-epileptic, anticancer agents, which are effective for pain relief, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis, cardiovascular disorders, and appetite stimulation.

The scientific community and public society have now increasingly accepted cannabis specifically hemp as much more than a recreational drug. There are growing demands for cannabinoids, mainly CBD, with many diverse therapeutic and nutritional properties in veterinary or human medicine. The main objective of this review article is to historically summarize findings concerning cannabinoids, mainly THC and CBD, towards putting these valuable compounds into food, feed and health baskets and current and future trends in the consumption of products derived from cannabis.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32899626/

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4036

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Cannabidiol as a Novel Therapeutic for Immune Modulation

 “The immune-suppressive effects of cannabidiol (CBD) are attributed to the modulation of essential immunological signaling pathways and receptors. Mechanistic understanding of the pharmacological effects of CBD emphasizes the therapeutic potential of CBD as a novel immune modulator.

Studies have observed that the antagonists of CB1 and CB2 receptors and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 reverse the immunomodulatory effects of CBD. CBD also inhibits critical activators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, as well as the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor signaling pathway, in turn decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, CBD protects against cellular damage incurred during immune responses by modulating adenosine signaling.

Ultimately, the data overwhelmingly support the immunosuppressive effects of CBD and this timely review draws attention to the prospective development of CBD as an effective immune modulatory therapeutic.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32903924/

https://www.dovepress.com/cannabidiol-as-a-novel-therapeutic-for-immune-modulation-peer-reviewed-article-ITT

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