CLG from Hemp Seed Inhibits LPS-Stimulated Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia by Regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 Pathways.

Go to Volume 4, Issue 15“The healthy benefits of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed have often been attributed to its oils and proteins.

Recent studies reveal that hemp seed phenylpropionamides could also show various bioactivities. Continuation of our study on hemp seed provided a phenylpropionamide, coumaroylaminobutanol glucopyranoside (CLG). This work investigated the neuroprotective effect of CLG and its underlying mechanism using lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia.

Our study demonstrated that CLG increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CLG reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species and stimulated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggested that CLG effectively and simultaneously inhibited inflammatory responses and oxidative stress through the NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AMPK was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of CLG. This study provides new insights into the diverse bioactive constituents of hemp seed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31616830

“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed has been used as food and traditional medicine for centuries. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of diverse bioactive compounds from hemp seed and the potential of hemp seed in the treatment of microglia-related neuroinflammatory diseases.”

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.9b02168

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Modulation of the Endocannabinoid and Oxytocinergic Systems as a Potential Treatment Approach for Social Anxiety Disorder.

 “Social anxiety disorder (SAD), or social phobia, is one of the most common types of anxiety disorder, with a lifetime prevalence that can reach 15%.

Pharmacological treatments for SAD have moderate efficacy and are associated with significant adverse reactions. Therefore, recent studies have focused on searching for new treatments for this disorder.

Preclinical studies and preliminary evidence in humans suggest that the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol and the neuropeptide oxytocin have anxiolytic effects. In the present text, we review this evidence and its implications for pharmacological treatment.

We conclude that although current available studies show promising results regarding both the safety and efficacy of cannabidiol and oxytocin for the treatment of SAD, most studies were performed using single or few doses of these compounds, with small sample sizes.

Therefore, future studies should explore the anxiolytic potential of these compounds using long-term, placebo-controlled designs with larger samples to elucidate the possible use of these compounds in the treatment of SAD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31617149

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40263-019-00669-5

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Antitumor Activity of Abnormal Cannabidiol and Its Analog O-1602 in Taxol-Resistant Preclinical Models of Breast Cancer.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabinoids exhibit anti-inflammatory and antitumorigenic properties.

Contrary to most cannabinoids present in the Cannabis plant, some, such as O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, have no or only little affinity to the CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors and instead exert their effects through other receptors.

Here, we investigated whether the synthetic regioisomers of cannabidiol, abnormal cannabidiol, and a closely related compound, O-1602, display antitumorigenic effects in cellular models of breast cancer and whether it could reduce tumorigenesis in vivo.

Several studies have shown the effects of cannabinoids on chemotherapy-sensitive breast cancer cell lines, but less is known about the antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids in chemotherapy-resistant cell lines.

Paclitaxel-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines were used to study the effect of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on viability, apoptosis, and migration. The effects of O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol on cell viability were completely blocked by the combination of GPR55 and GPR18-specific siRNAs. Both O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol decreased viability in paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner through induction of apoptosis. The effect of these cannabinoids on tumor growth in vivo was studied in a zebrafish xenograft model. In this model, treatment with O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol (2 µM) significantly reduced tumor growth.

Our results suggest that atypical cannabinoids, like O-1602 and abnormal cannabidiol, exert antitumorigenic effects on paclitaxel-resistant breast cancer cells. Due to their lack of central sedation and psychoactive effects, these atypical cannabinoids could represent new leads for the development of additional anticancer treatments when resistance to conventional chemotherapy occurs during the treatment of breast and possibly other cancers.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611800

“Our results suggest that some cannabinoids acting through the GPR55 and/or GPR18 receptors can be helpful in inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines that are unresponsive to paclitaxel. The effects of O-1602 and Abn-CBD on cell viability were observed both in vitro and in a zebrafish xenograft model. These drugs were also reducing cell migration. Taken together, even if no synergistic antitumor effect is always observed when cannabinoids and chemotherapeutic agents are combined as an anticancer treatment, cannabinoids can still provide anticancer benefits on top of their palliative effects. This is particularly important in the context of cancers that have developed resistance to current chemotherapies.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01124/full

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Cannabidiol directly targets mitochondria and disturbs calcium homeostasis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

 Image result for cell death & disease“Anticancer properties of non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) have been demonstrated on tumors of different histogenesis. Different molecular targets for CBD were proposed, including cannabinoid receptors and some plasma membrane ion channels. Here we have shown that cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemia of T lineage (T-ALL), but not resting healthy T cells, are highly sensitive to CBD treatment. CBD effect does not depend on cannabinoid receptors or plasma membrane Ca2+-permeable channels. Instead, CBD directly targets mitochondria and alters their capacity to handle Ca2+. At lethal concentrations, CBD causes mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, stable mitochondrial transition pore formation and cell death. Our results suggest that CBD is an attractive candidate to be included into chemotherapeutic protocols for T-ALL treatment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611561

“Considering the pivotal role of mitochondria in oncogenic re-programming, CBD may be plausible candidate to be included into chemotherapeutic protocols.”

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-019-2024-0

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Effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in neuropsychiatric disorders: A review of pre-clinical and clinical findings.

Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science“Cannabis sativa (cannabis) is one of the oldest plants cultivated by men. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major non-psychomimetic compound derived from cannabis. It has been proposed to have a therapeutic potential over a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders.

In this narrative review, we have summarized a selected number of pre-clinical and clinical studies, examining the effects of CBD in neuropsychiatric disorders. In some pre-clinical studies, CBD was demonstrated to potentially exhibit anti-epileptic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory anti-psychotic, anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Moreover, CBD was shown to reduce addictive effects of some drugs of abuse.

In clinical studies, CBD was shown to be safe, well-tolerated and efficacious in mitigating the symptoms associated with several types of seizure disorders and childhood epilepsies.

Given that treatment with CBD alone was insufficient at managing choreic movements in patients with Huntington’s disease, other cannabis-derived treatments are currently being investigated. Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) have reported improvements in sleep and better quality of life with CBD; however, to fully elucidate the therapeutic potential of CBD on the symptoms of PD-associated movement disorders, larger scale, randomized, placebo-controlled studies still need to be conducted in the future.

Currently, there are no human studies that investigated the effects of CBD in either Alzheimer’s disease or unipolar depression, warranting further investigation in this area, considering that CBD was shown to have effects in pre-clinical studies.

Although, anxiolytic properties of CBD were reported in the Social Anxiety Disorder, antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia and anti-addictive qualities in alcohol and drug addictions, here too, larger, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31601406

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187711731930095X?via%3Dihub

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Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Derivative-Loaded Nanoformulation Lowers Intraocular Pressure in Normotensive Rabbits.

“Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate, a hydrophilic prodrug of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, synthesized with the aim of improving the ocular bioavailability of the parent molecule, was investigated in a lipid-based nanoparticle dosage form for ocular delivery.

RESULTS:

A peak intraocular pressure (IOP) drop of 30% from baseline was observed in rabbits treated with SLNs loaded with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate at 90 minutes. Treated eyes of rabbits receiving Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate SLNs had significantly lower IOP than untreated eyes until 360 minutes, whereas the group receiving the emulsion formulation showed a drop in IOP until 90 minutes only. In comparison to marketed pilocarpine and timolol maleate ophthalmic solutions, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate SLNs produced a greater effect on IOP in terms of both intensity and duration. In terms of tissue concentrations, significantly higher concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate were observed in iris-ciliary bodies and retina-choroid with SLNs.

CONCLUSION:

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol-valine-hemisuccinate formulated in a lipid-based nanoparticulate carrier shows promise in glaucoma pharmacotherapy.

TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE:

Glaucoma therapies usually focus on decreased aqueous humor production and increased outflow. However, such therapy is not curative, and there lies a need in preclinical research to focus efforts on agents that not only affect the aqueous humor dynamics but also provide neuroprotection. Historically, there have been bench-scale studies looking at retinal ganglion cell death post-axonal injury. However, for a smooth translation of this in vitro activity to the clinic, animal models examining IOP reduction, i.e., connecting the neuroprotective activity to a measurable outcome in glaucoma management (IOP), need to be investigated. This study investigated the IOP reduction efficacy of cannabinoids for glaucoma pharmacotherapy in a normotensive rabbit model, bringing forth a new class of agents with the potential of IOP reduction and improved permeation to the back of the eye, possibly providing neuroprotective benefits in glaucoma management.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31588378

“THC has been demonstrated to be effective in glaucoma management, helping to lower IOP in human subjects after smoking marijuana; however, the molecule fails to manifest a similar effect when dosed topically. This research explores molecular bioengineering and formulation-based strategies to improve the ocular bioavailability of THC, facilitating the molecule to translate into a dosage form capable of demonstrating a desired IOP-lowering effect even on topical application. These studies suggest that formulation development efforts along with prodrug derivatization can effectively improve the overall ocular bioavailability of THC. Thus, THC-VHS represents a potential new therapy option for the treatment and management of glaucoma by virtue of its superiority in lowering IOP when compared to antiholinergic and beta blockers, as studied in this model.”
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The evaluation of Cannabidiol’s effect on the immunotherapy of Burkitt lymphoma.

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications

“AF1q has a precise oncogenic function.

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether CBD has an effect on the AF1q/ICAM-1 regulatory axis in Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL), and thus has potential to enhance immunotherapy and reduce side effects.

 

RESULTS:

AF1q increased oncogenic growth and colony formation, and induced resistance against cell-mediated cytotoxic chemotherapy through attenuation of ICAM-1 expression in BL. CBD was able to reverse the acquired resistance mediated by AF1q/ICAM-1 regulatory axis.

CONCLUSION:

CBD holds potential to enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy for BL with hyperactive AF1q/ICAM-1 regulatory axis, and warrants further study.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31587870

“Non-psychoactive CBD could potentially enhance the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer treatment, especially against aggressive B.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006291X1931890X?via%3Dihub

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Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds.

 “Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds are well known for their potential use as a source of nutrients, fiber, and bioactive compounds.

A hemp protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp flour, was hydrolyzed by alcalase and flavourzyme under specific conditions.

The resulting hydrolysates were evaluated for the selection of potentially bioactive hemp protein hydrolysates (HPHs) owing to their DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power activity. In vitro cell-free experiments led to the identification of two bioactive HPHs, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF, which were used at 50 and 100 μg mL-1 on BV-2 microglial cells in order to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

Our results showed that HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF down-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA transcriptional levels in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. In addition, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF up-regulated the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

This study suggests for the first time that HPHs may improve the neuroinflammatory and inflammatory states, supporting the nutraceutical value of hemp seeds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31576391

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/FO/C9FO01904A#!divAbstract

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Concomitant Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumours With CBD – A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

“Grade IV glioblastoma multiforme is a deadly disease, with a median survival of around 14 to 16 months. Maximal resection followed by adjuvant radiochemotherapy has been the mainstay of treatment since many years, although survival is only extended by a few months. In recent years, an increasing number of data from in vitro and in vivo research with cannabinoids, particularly with the non-intoxicating cannabidiol (CBD), point to their potential role as tumour-inhibiting agents. Herein, a total of nine consecutive patients with brain tumours are described as case series; all patients received CBD in a daily dose of 400 mg concomitantly to the standard therapeutic procedure of maximal resection followed by radiochemotherapy. By the time of the submission of this article, all but one patient are still alive with a mean survival time of 22.3 months (range=7-47 months). This is longer than what would have been expected.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31570484

http://ar.iiarjournals.org/content/39/10/5797

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Cannabidiol Counteracts the Psychotropic Side-Effects of Δ-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in the Ventral Hippocampus Through Bi-Directional Control of ERK1-2 Phosphorylation

Journal of Neuroscience“Evidence suggests that the phytocannabinoids Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) differentially regulate salience attribution and psychiatric risk. The ventral hippocampus (vHipp) relays emotional salience via control of dopamine (DA) neuronal activity states, which are dysregulated in psychosis and schizophrenia. Using in-vivo electrophysiology in male Sprague Dawley rats, we demonstrate that intra-vHipp THC strongly increases ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neuronal frequency and bursting rates, decreases GABA frequency, and amplifies VTA beta, gamma and epsilon oscillatory magnitudes via modulation of local extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation (pERK1-2). Remarkably, whereas intra-vHipp THC also potentiates salience attribution in morphine place-preference and fear conditioning assays, CBD co-administration reverses these changes by down-regulating pERK1-2 signaling, as pharmacological re-activation of pERK1-2 blocked the inhibitory properties of CBD. These results identify vHipp pERK1-2 signaling as a critical neural nexus point mediating THC-induced affective disturbances and suggest a potential mechanism by which CBD may counteract the psychotomimetic and psychotropic side-effects of THC.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

Strains of marijuana with high levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of cannabidiol (CBD) have been shown to underlie neuropsychiatric risks associated with high potency cannabis use. However, the mechanisms by which CBD mitigates the side effects of THC have not been identified. We demonstrate that THC induces cognitive and affective abnormalities resembling neuropsychiatric symptoms directly in the hippocampus, while dysregulating dopamine activity states and amplifying oscillatory frequencies in the ventral tegmental area via modulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. In contrast, CBD co-administration blocked THC-induced ERK phosphorylation, and prevented THC-induced behavioural and neural abnormalities. These findings identify a novel molecular mechanism that may account for how CBD functionally mitigates the neuropsychiatric side-effects of THC.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31570536

https://www.jneurosci.org/content/early/2019/09/27/JNEUROSCI.0708-19.2019

“Western University researchers show how CBD blocks side-effects of THC in cannabis. Research out of Western University is showing for the first time how cannabidiol (CBD) helps to lessen negative psychiatric side effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis.”  https://globalnews.ca/news/5970908/western-university-research-cbd-thc-cannabis/

“Cannabis study reveals how CBD offsets the psychiatric side-effects of THC”  https://neurosciencenews.com/cbd-thc-psychosis-15002/

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