The effect of high maternal linoleic acid on endocannabinoid signalling in rodent hearts.

Image result for journal of developmental origins of health and disease “The endocannabinoid system (ECS), modulated by metabolites of linoleic acid (LA), is important in regulating cardiovascular function.

In pregnancy, LA is vital for foetal development.

Data indicate that a high LA diet alters cell viability and CB2 expression, potentially influencing cardiac function during pregnancy and development of the offspring’s heart.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31814560

https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease/article/effect-of-high-maternal-linoleic-acid-on-endocannabinoid-signalling-in-rodent-hearts/C92E2C1126249B7CF9D8A929F0E52FA2

“A number of previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and phytosterols are critically important for human health. Hempseed is a rich source of plant oil, which contains more than 80% PUFAs. The fatty acids in hempseed oil include a variety of essential fatty acids, including linoleic acid ”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10059-011-0042-6

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Orally consumed cannabinoids provide long-lasting relief of allodynia in a mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain.

 

Image result for neuropsychopharmacology“Chronic pain affects a significant percentage of the United States population, and available pain medications like opioids have drawbacks that make long-term use untenable.

Cannabinoids show promise in the management of pain, but long-term treatment of pain with cannabinoids has been challenging to implement in preclinical models. We developed a voluntary, gelatin oral self-administration paradigm that allowed male and female mice to consume ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, or morphine ad libitum.

Mice stably consumed these gelatins over 3 weeks, with detectable serum levels. Using a real-time gelatin measurement system, we observed that mice consumed gelatin throughout the light and dark cycles, with animals consuming less THC-gelatin than the other gelatin groups.

Consumption of all three gelatins reduced measures of allodynia in a chronic, neuropathic sciatic nerve injury model, but tolerance to morphine developed after 1 week while THC or CBD reduced allodynia over three weeks. Hyperalgesia gradually developed after sciatic nerve injury, and by the last day of testing, THC significantly reduced hyperalgesia, with a trend effect of CBD, and no effect of morphine. Mouse vocalizations were recorded throughout the experiment, and mice showed a large increase in ultrasonic, broadband clicks after sciatic nerve injury, which was reversed by THC, CBD, and morphine.

This study demonstrates that mice voluntarily consume both cannabinoids and opioids via gelatin, and that cannabinoids provide long-term relief of chronic pain states. In addition, ultrasonic clicks may objectively represent mouse pain status and could be integrated into future pain models.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31812152

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41386-019-0585-3

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Oral medicinal cannabinoids to relieve symptom burden in the palliative care of patients with advanced cancer: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomised clinical trial of efficacy and safety of cannabidiol (CBD).

 

Image result for bmc palliative care“Despite improvements in medical care, patients with advanced cancer still experience substantial symptom distress. There is increasing interest in the use of medicinal cannabinoids, but there is little high quality evidence to guide clinicians. This study aims to define the role of cannabidiol (CBD) in the management of symptom burden in patients with advanced cancer undergoing standard palliative care.

METHODS AND DESIGN:

This study is a multicentre, randomised, placebo controlled, two arm, parallel trial of escalating doses of oral CBD. It will compare efficacy and safety outcomes of a titrated dose of CBD (100 mg/mL formulation, dose range 50 mg to 600 mg per day) against placebo. There is a 2-week patient determined titration phase, using escalating doses of CBD or placebo to reach a dose that achieves symptom relief with tolerable side effects. This is then followed by a further 2-week assessment period on the stable dose determined in collaboration with clinicians.

DISCUSSION:

A major strength of this study is that it will target symptom burden as a whole, rather than just individual symptoms, in an attempt to describe the general improvement in wellbeing previously reported by some patients in open label, non controlled trials of medicinal cannabis. Randomisation with placebo is essential because of the well-documented over reporting of benefit in uncontrolled trials and high placebo response rates in cancer pain trials. This will be the first placebo controlled clinical trial to evaluate rigorously the efficacy, safety and acceptability of CBD for symptom relief in advanced cancer patients. This study will provide the medical community with evidence to present to patients wishing to access medicinal cannabis for their cancer related symptoms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31810437

https://bmcpalliatcare.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12904-019-0494-6

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CBD loaded microparticles as a potential formulation to improve paclitaxel and doxorubicin-based chemotherapy in breast cancer.

International Journal of Pharmaceutics“Cannabidiol (CBD) has emerged as a potential agent for breast cancer management.

In this work, the potential use of cannabidiol in solution (CBDsol) and encapsulated in polymeric microparticles when combined with paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) in breast cancer treatment has been evaluated for the first time using MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. CBDsol, previously administered at suboptimal concentrations (cell death <10%), enhanced the PTX and DOX effect in both breast cancer cells.

The co-administration of CBDsol and PTX or DOX showed a synergistic effect. PLGA-502 was selected as the most suitable polymer to develop CBD-loaded microparticles. The developed formulation (CBD-Mps) was effective as monotherapy, showing extended antiproliferative activity for at least 10 days, and when combined with PTX or DOX.

In fact, the use of CBD-Mps allows the combination of both, pre and co-administration strategies, with a single administration, also showing a significant increase in PTX and DOX antiproliferative activity. Finally, the anticancer effect of both CBDsol and CBD-Mps as monotherapy or in combination with PTX was also confirmed in ovo, usingMDA-MB-231-derived tumours.

This data evidences the promising inclusion of CBD in conventional breast cancer chemotherapy and the use of CBD-Mps for the extended release of this cannabinoid, optimising the effect of the chemotherapeutic agents.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31811927

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378517319309615?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoids and the Microbiota-Gut-Brain-Axis: Emerging Effects of Cannabidiol and Potential Applications to Alcohol Use Disorders.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research banner“The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has emerged in recent years as a potential treatment target for alcohol use disorders (AUD).

In particular, the non-psychoactive cannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has shown preclinical promise in ameliorating numerous clinical symptoms of AUD.

There are several proposed mechanism(s) through which cannabinoids (and CBD in particular) may confer beneficial effects in the context of AUD. First, CBD may directly impact specific brain mechanisms underlying AUD to influence alcohol consumption and the clinical features of AUD. Second, CBD may influence AUD symptoms through its actions across the digestive, immune, and central nervous systems, collectively known as the microbiota-gut-brain-axis (MGBA).

Notably, emerging work suggests that alcohol and cannabinoids exert opposing effects on the MGBA.

Alcohol is linked to immune dysfunction (e.g., chronic systemic inflammation in the brain and periphery) as well as disturbances in gut microbial species (microbiota) and increased intestinal permeability. These MGBA disruptions have been associated with AUD symptoms such as craving and impaired cognitive control.

Conversely, existing preclinical data suggest that cannabinoids may confer beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal and immune system, such as reducing intestinal permeability, regulating gut bacteria and reducing inflammation. Thus, cannabinoids may exert AUD harm-reduction effects, at least in part, through their beneficial actions across the MGBA.

This review will provide a brief introduction to the ECS and the MGBA, discuss the effects of cannabinoids (particularly CBD) and alcohol in the brain, gut, and immune system (i.e., across the MGBA), and put forth a theoretical framework to inform future research questions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31803950

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14256

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Effects of O-1602 and CBD on TNBS-induced colonic disturbances.

Neurogastroenterology &amp; Motility banner“This study attempted to provide the effects and mechanisms of two cannabinoids, O-1602 and cannabidiol (CBD), on colonic motility of 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis.

METHODS:

TNBS was used to induce the model of motility disorder. G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) expression was detected using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry in colon. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase were also measured. The colonic motility was measured by upper GI transit in vivo and recorded using electrical stimulation organ bath technique in vitro. Freshly isolated smooth muscle from the rat colon were applied to determine the membrane potential and Ca2+ -ATPase activity, respectively.

KEY RESULTS:

CBD or O-1602 separately improved inflammatory conditions significantly in TNBS-induced colitis rats. However, sole CBD pretreatment reduced GPR55 expression, which was up-regulated in TNBS colitis. O-1602 and CBD each lowered MPO and IL-6 levels remarkably in TNBS colitis, while TNF-α levels experienced no change. CBD rescued the downward colonic motility in TNBS colitis in vivo; however, it decreased the upward contraction of the smooth muscle strip under electrical stimulation in vitro. Pretreatment with CBD prevented against TNBS-induced changes of Ca2+ -ATPase activity of smooth muscle cells. However, membrane potential of the smooth muscle cells decreased by TNBS experienced no change after O-1602 or CBD import.

CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES:

The present study suggested that CBD participated in the regulation of colonic motility in rats, and the mechanisms may be involved in the regulation of inlammatory factors and Ca2+ -ATPase activity through GPR55.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31802588

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/nmo.13756

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A Phase I, Open-Label, Parallel-Group, Single-Dose Trial of the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Tolerability of Cannabidiol in Subjects with Mild to Severe Renal Impairment.

“As patients who receive cannabidiol (CBD) may have co-existing renal morbidities, it is important to understand whether dose adjustments are necessary to mitigate the risk of exposure-related toxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of CBD in patients with renal impairment.

METHODS:

The pharmacokinetics and safety of a single oral 200 mg dose of a plant-derived pharmaceutical formulation of highly purified CBD in oral solution (Epidiolex® in the USA; 100 mg/mL) were assessed in subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment (n = 8/group) relative to matched subjects with normal renal function (n = 8). Blood samples were collected until 48 h post-dose and evaluated by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of variance was used to compare primary pharmacokinetic parameters (maximum measured plasma concentration [Cmax], oral clearance of drug from plasma [CL/F], renal clearance [CLR], area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUC] from time zero to last measurable concentration [AUCt], and AUC from time zero to infinity [AUC]); descriptive analysis was used for secondary pharmacokinetic parameters (time to Cmax [tmax], terminal [elimination] half-life [t½], cumulative amount excreted from time zero to the last quantifiable sample [Aelast], and fraction of the systemically available drug excreted into the urine [fe]).

RESULTS:

No statistically significant differences were observed in Cmax, AUCt, AUC, or tmax values between subjects with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment and subjects with normal renal function for CBD or its major metabolites, 7-carboxy-CBD (7-COOH-CBD) and 7-hydroxy-CBD (7-OH-CBD), and minor metabolite, 6-hydroxy-CBD (6-OH-CBD); geometric mean ratio for Cmax values ranged from 0.68 to 1.35. No differences were observed for other secondary parameters (Aelast and fe). CBD, 7-COOH-CBD, 7-OH-CBD, and 6-OH-CBD were highly protein bound (> 90%); binding was similar in all subject groups. Urine analysis for CBD recorded no appreciable amount, and thus no urinary pharmacokinetic parameters could be derived. Adverse events (AEs) affected two subjects; all five AEs were mild in severity and resolved during the trial. There were no serious AEs or discontinuations due to AEs. Laboratory, physical examination, vital sign, and 12-lead electrocardiogram findings were not clinically significant.

CONCLUSION:

Renal impairment had no effect on the metabolism of CBD after a single oral 200 mg dose. CBD was generally well tolerated in subjects with varying degrees of renal function.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31802404

“Renal impairment status had no effect on CBD pharmacokinetics following a single oral 200 mg dose, with no statistically significant effects on Cmax, AUCt, AUC, or tmax. CBD was generally well tolerated; there were no serious or severe AEs, and no new safety concerns were identified.”

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40262-019-00841-6

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Transcriptomic Analysis of Stem Cells Treated with Moringin or Cannabidiol: Analogies and Differences in Inflammation Pathways.

ijms-logo“Inflammation is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases.

The treatment of stem cells as a therapeutic approach to repair damage in the central nervous system represents a valid alternative.

In this study, using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology, we analyzed the transcriptomic profile of human Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hGMSCs) treated with Moringin [4-(α-l-ramanosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate] (hGMSCs-MOR) or with Cannabidiol (hGMSCs-CBD) at dose of 0.5 or 5 µM, respectively. Moreover, we compared their transcriptomic profiles in order to evaluate analogies and differences in pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways.

The hGMSCs-MOR selectively downregulate TNF-α signaling from the beginning, reducing the expression of TNF-α receptor while hGMSCs-CBD limit its activity after the process started.

The treatment with CBD downregulates the pro-inflammatory pathway mediated by the IL-1 family, including its receptor while MOR is less efficient.

Furthermore, both the treatments are efficient in the IL-6 signaling. In particular, CBD reduces the effect of the pro-inflammatory JAK/STAT pathway while MOR enhances the pro-survival PI3K/AKT/mTOR.

In addition, both hGMSCs-MOR and hGMSCs-CBD improve the anti-inflammatory activity enhancing the TGF-β pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31801206

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/23/6039

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Vasodilatory effects of cannabidiol in human pulmonary and rat small mesenteric arteries: modification by hypertension and the potential pharmacological opportunities.

 Image result for ovid journal“Cannabidiol (CBD) has been suggested as a potential antihypertensive drug.

The aim of our study was to investigate its vasodilatory effect in isolated human pulmonary arteries (hPAs) and rat small mesenteric arteries (sMAs).

METHODS:

Vascular effects of CBD were examined in hPAs obtained from patients during resection of lung carcinoma and sMAs isolated from spontaneously hypertensive (SHR); 11-deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt) hypertensive rats or their appropriate normotensive controls using organ bath and wire myography, respectively.

RESULTS:

CBD induced almost full concentration-dependent vasorelaxation in hPAs and rat sMAs. In hPAs, it was insensitive to antagonists of CB1 (AM251) and CB2 (AM630) receptors but it was reduced by endothelium denudation, cyclooxygenase inhibitors (indomethacin and nimesulide), antagonists of prostanoid EP4 (L161982), IP (Cay10441), vanilloid TRPV1 (capsazepine) receptors and was less potent under KCl-induced tone and calcium-activated potassium channel (KCa) inhibitors (iberiotoxin, UCL1684 and TRAM-34) and in hypertensive, overweight and hypercholesteremic patients. The time-dependent effect of CBD was sensitive to the PPARγ receptor antagonist GW9662. In rats, the CBD potency was enhanced in DOCA-salt and attenuated in SHR. The CBD-induced relaxation was inhibited in SHR and DOCA-salt by AM251 and only in DOCA-salt by AM630 and endothelium denudation.

CONCLUSION:

The CBD-induced relaxation in hPAs that was reduced in hypertensive, obese and hypercholesteremic patients was endothelium-dependent and mediated via KCa and IP, EP4, TRPV1 receptors. The CBD effect in rats was CB1-sensitive and dependent on the hypertension model. Thus, modification of CBD-mediated responses in disease should be considered when CBD is used for therapeutic purposes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31800399

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004872-900000000-97067

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Cannabinoids: A Guide for Use in the World of Gastrointestinal Disease.

Image result for ovid journal“Cannabinoids have been known as the primary component of cannabis for decades, but the characterization of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in the 1990s opened the doors for cannabis’ use in modern medicine.

The 2 main receptors of this system, cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, are found on cells of various tissues, with significant expression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The characterization of the ECS also heralded the understanding of endocannabinoids, naturally occurring compounds synthesized in the human body.

Although research on the effects of both endogenous and exogenous cannabinoids has been slow due to the complicated legal history of cannabis, discoveries of cannabinoids‘ treatment potential have been found in various fields of medicine, including the GI world.

Medical cannabis has since been offered as a treatment for a myriad of conditions and malignancies, including cancer, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, multiple sclerosis, chronic pain, nausea, posttraumatic stress disorder, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, cachexia, glaucoma, and epilepsy.

This article hopes to create an overview of current research on cannabinoids and the ECS, detail the potential advantages and pitfalls of their use in GI diseases, and explore possible future developments in this field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31789770

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00004836-900000000-97668

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