Self-management strategies amongst Australian women with endometriosis: a national online survey.

 Image result for bmc complementary and alternative medicine

“Endometriosis has a significant negative impact on the lives of women, and current medical treatments often do not give sufficient pain relief or have intolerable side effects for many women. The majority of women with primary dysmenorrhea use self-management strategies (including self-care techniques or lifestyle choices) to help manage period related symptoms, but little is known about self-management in women with endometriosis.

The aim of this survey was to determine the prevalence of use, safety, and self-rated effectiveness of common forms of self-management.

Cannabis, heat, hemp/CBD oil, and dietary changes were the most highly rated in terms of self-reported effectiveness in pain reduction. Physical interventions such as yoga/Pilates, stretching, and exercise were rated as being less effective.

Self-management was very commonly used by women with endometriosis and form an important part of self-management.

Women using cannabis reported the highest self-rated effectiveness.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30646891

https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12906-019-2431-x

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Preclinical safety and efficacy of cannabidivarin for early life seizures.

Neuropharmacology

“A significant proportion of neonatal and childhood seizures are poorly controlled by existing anti-seizure drugs (ASDs), likely due to prominent differences in ionic homeostasis and network connectivity between the immature and mature brain. In addition to the poor efficacy of current ASDs, many induce apoptosis, impair synaptic development, and produce behavioral deficits when given during early postnatal development.

There is growing interest in new targets, such as cannabidiol (CBD) and its propyl analog cannabidivarin (CBDV) for early life indications. While CBD was recently approved for treatment of refractory childhood epilepsies, little is known about the efficacy or safety of CBDV.

Here, we addressed this gap through a systematic evaluation of CBDV against multiple seizure models in postnatal day (P) 10 and 20 animals. We also evaluated the impact of CBDV on acute neurotoxicity in immature rats.

CBDV (50-200 mg/kg) displayed an age and model-specific profile of anticonvulsant action.

Finally, CBDV treatment generally avoided induction of neuronal degeneration in immature rats.

Together, the efficacy and safety profile of CBDV suggest it may have therapeutic value for early life seizures.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30633929

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390818306786?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Latitudinal Adaptation and Genetic Insights Into the Origins of Cannabis sativa L.

Image result for frontiers in plant science

“Cannabis is one of the most important industrial crops distributed worldwide. However, the phylogeographic structure and domestication knowledge of this crop remains poorly understood.

In this study, sequence variations of five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions were investigated to address these questions. For the 645 individuals from 52 Cannabis accessions sampled (25 wild populations and 27 domesticated populations or cultivars), three haplogroups (Haplogroup H, M, L) were identified and these lineages exhibited distinct high-middle-low latitudinal gradients distribution pattern.

This pattern can most likely be explained as a consequence of climatic heterogeneity and geographical isolation. Therefore, we examined the correlations between genetic distances and geographical distances, and tested whether the climatic factors are correlated with the cpDNA haplogroup frequencies of populations. The “isolation-by-distance” models were detected for the phylogeographic structure, and the day-length was found to be the most important factor (among 20 BioClim factors) that influenced the population structures.

Considering the distinctive phylogeographic structures and no reproductive isolation among members of these lineages, we recommend that Cannabis be recognized as a monotypic genus typified by Cannabis sativa L., containing three subspecies: subsp. sativa, subsp. Indica, and subsp. ruderalis. Within each haplogroup which possesses a relatively independent distribution region, the wild and domesticated populations shared the most common haplotypes, indicating that there are multiregional origins for the domesticated crop.

Contrast to the prevalent Central-Asia-Origin hypothesis of C. saltiva, molecular evidence reveals for the first time that the low latitude haplogroup (Haplogroup L) is the earliest divergent lineage, implying that Cannabis is probably originated in low latitude region.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30627133

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2018.01876/full

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabis sativa L. and Nonpsychoactive Cannabinoids: Their Chemistry and Role against Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Cancer.

 Related image“In the last decades, a lot of attention has been paid to the compounds present in medicinal Cannabis sativa L., such as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), and their effects on inflammation and cancer-related pain.

The National Cancer Institute (NCI) currently recognizes medicinal C. sativa as an effective treatment for providing relief in a number of symptoms associated with cancer, including pain, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and anxiety.

Several studies have described CBD as a multitarget molecule, acting as an adaptogen, and as a modulator, in different ways, depending on the type and location of disequilibrium both in the brain and in the body, mainly interacting with specific receptor proteins CB1 and CB2.

CBD is present in both medicinal and fibre-type C. sativa plants, but, unlike Δ9-THC, it is completely nonpsychoactive. Fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) differs from medicinal C. sativa, since it contains only few levels of Δ9-THC and high levels of CBD and related nonpsychoactive compounds.

In recent years, a number of preclinical researches have been focused on the role of CBD as an anticancer molecule, suggesting CBD (and CBD-like molecules present in the hemp extract) as a possible candidate for future clinical trials.

CBD has been found to possess antioxidant activity in many studies, thus suggesting a possible role in the prevention of both neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. In animal models, CBD has been shown to inhibit the progression of several cancer types. Moreover, it has been found that coadministration of CBD and Δ9-THC, followed by radiation therapy, causes an increase of autophagy and apoptosis in cancer cells. In addition, CBD is able to inhibit cell proliferation and to increase apoptosis in different types of cancer models.

These activities seem to involve also alternative pathways, such as the interactions with TRPV and GRP55 receptor complexes. Moreover, the finding that the acidic precursor of CBD (cannabidiolic acid, CBDA) is able to inhibit the migration of breast cancer cells and to downregulate the proto-oncogene c-fos and the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) highlights the possibility that CBDA might act on a common pathway of inflammation and cancer mechanisms, which might be responsible for its anticancer activity.

In the light of all these findings, in this review we explore the effects and the molecular mechanisms of CBD on inflammation and cancer processes, highlighting also the role of minor cannabinoids and noncannabinoids constituents of Δ9-THC deprived hemp.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30627539

https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/1691428/

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Epidiolex (Cannabidiol): A New Hope for Patients With Dravet or Lennox-Gastaut Syndromes.

 SAGE Journals

“OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy, safety, pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of pure, plant-derived cannabidiol (CBD; Epidiolex) in the treatment of Dravet syndrome (DS) and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS).

DATA SYNTHESIS: Pure, plant-based CBD is a pharmaceutical grade extract that exhibits clinically significant antiseizure properties, with a hypothesized multimodal mechanism of action. In the GWPCARE trial series, CBD displayed superior efficacy in reducing key seizure frequencies (convulsive seizures in DS; drop seizures in LGS) by 17% to 23% compared with placebo as adjunctive therapy to standard antiepileptic drugs in patients 2 years of age and older. Common adverse effects were somnolence, diarrhea, and elevated hepatic transaminases. Noteworthy drug-drug interactions included clobazam, valproates, and significant inducers/inhibitors of CYP2C19 and 3A4 enzymes.

Relevance to Patient Care and Clinical Practice: A discussion regarding CBD dosing, administration, adverse effects, monitoring parameters, and interactions is provided to guide clinicians. CBD offers patients with DS and LGS a new treatment option for refractory seizures.

CONCLUSION:

This is the first cannabis-derived medication with approval from the US Food and Drug Administration. This CBD formulation significantly reduces seizures as an adjunct to standard antiepileptic therapies in patients ≥2 years old with DS and LGS and is well tolerated.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30616356

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1060028018822124?journalCode=aopd

“Why marijuana is headed for the mainstream. The credibility of cannabis as a source of a legitimate pharmaceutical ingredient in prescription medications took a major step forward in 2018 when the FDA approved Epidiolex (cannabidiol) for two types of severe seizures. Epidiolex was a stellar candidate for approval. It reduced convulsive seizures by about 40% and has a good safety profile.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30620324

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Production, digestibility and allergenicity of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) protein isolates.

Food Research International

“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), traditionally cultivated for industrial use and harvested for fibers and seeds, has raised much interest as a sustainable crop in the last years.

Recently, hemp seeds and derived oil have started to be used in a variety of food products. Hemp-based food products are considered less allergenic than those from other edible seeds, although this statement has never been experimentally verified.

In this study high purity grade hemp flour (HF) and hemp protein isolate (HPI) were obtained through a fast and cheap process starting from defatted hemp cakes, a residue of hempseed oil extraction.

HPI resulted enriched at nearly 86% protein, mainly constituted by the storage protein edestin (accounting for 70% total protein). In vitro protein digestibility was determined using a static model of gastrointestinal digestion (GID), which included a final step with purified brush border membrane (BBM) enzyme preparations. HF and HPI showed a high degree of digestibility. The survival of potential bioactive and/or allergenic peptide sequences in digests was investigated by peptidomic analysis. Only a limited number of sequences survived GID. Among them, fragments from 12 seed proteins. These fragments were precursors of sequences with potential bioactive peptides, which might justify the bioactivity of HPI hydrolysates, reported in previous studies.

More importantly, all known hemp allergens, including the major thaumatin-like protein and LTP, were entirely eliminated by the HPI production process, neither fragments of the proteins were present after GID.

These data support the use of HPI as an ingredient for hypoallergenic foods.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30599980

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963996918307427?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol.

Chemical structure

“Cannabidiol has not been studied in nursing women taking the pharmaceutical product.

Cannabidiol has been detected in the breastmilk of some mothers who used cannabis products recreationally.

If cannabidiol is required by the mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding.

However, since no information is available on the use of cannabidiol during breastfeeding, an alternate drug may be preferred, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.”

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seed Phenylpropionamides Composition and Effects on Memory Dysfunction and Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide in Mice.

ACS Omega

“Hempseed has achieved a growing popularity in human nutrition, particularly regarding essential amino acids and fatty acids. The multiple positive attributes of hempseed have led to the further study of its constituents.

In this study, hempseed extract containing phenylpropionamides (TPA) was obtained and its chemical profile and content were obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography technology based on previous study.

The anti-neuroinflammatory effect of TPA extract was evaluated using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model. Fourteen phenylpropionamides (TPA) were identified in the obtained extract with a total content of 233.52 ± 2.50 μg/mg extract.

In mice, TPA prevented the learning and spatial memory damage induced by LPS. Increased brain levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the LPS-induced mice were reduced by TPA treatment. Furthermore, TPA attenuated LPS-induced hippocampal neuronal damage in mice.

This study demonstrates the nutraceutical potential of hempseed from a neuroprotective perspective.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30556022

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.8b02250

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Chemical characterization of leaves, male and female flowers from spontaneous cannabis (Cannabis sativa var. spontanea) growing in Hungary.

Chemistry & Biodiversity banner

“Cannabis sativa var. spontanea is a spontaneous form of hemp with a low content of psychoactive cannabinoids and can be considered as a valuable source of other phytoconstituents to be used in nutraceuticals or for their health promoting properties.

Chemical data on this hemp variety are rather scarce. In this paper we report a comprehensive phytochemical characterization of leaves, male and female inflorescences of C. sativa var. spontanea growing wild in Hungary.

The results indicated that female inflorescence essential oil contains high amounts of the CB2 agonists (E)-caryophyllene (28.3%) and cannabidiol (CBD) (24.9%), whereas leaves and male inflorescence essential oils contained lower amounts of both compounds. HPLC-MS allowed to quantify CBD and CBD-A in the ethyl acetate extracts from leaves, male and female inflorescences; they were 0.3, 0.8 and 0.9%, and 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%, respectively. Flavonoids were formed by C-glycosides and glucuronic acids of kaempferol and apigenin, with a total content of 3.8, 6.1 and 7.8 mg/g in methanolic extracts from leaves, male and female inflorescences, respectively.

Based on these results, C. sativa var. spontanea may represent an important source of CB2 agonists and bioflavonoids to be used in nutraceuticals, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30548994

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cbdv.201800562

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol modulates serotonergic transmission and reverses both allodynia and anxiety-like behavior in a model of neuropathic pain

Image result for wolters kluwer

“Clinical studies indicate that cannabidiol (CBD), the primary nonaddictive component of cannabis that interacts with the serotonin (5-HT)1A receptor, may possess analgesic and anxiolytic effects.

Overall, repeated treatment with low-dose CBD induces analgesia predominantly through TRPV1 activation, reduces anxiety through 5-HT1A receptor activation, and rescues impaired 5-HT neurotransmission under neuropathic pain conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30157131

https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006396-900000000-98870

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous