Review of the neurological benefits of phytocannabinoids.

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“Numerous physical, psychological, and emotional benefits have been attributed to marijuana since its first reported use in 2,600 BC in a Chinese pharmacopoeia. The phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD), and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) are the most studied extracts from cannabis sativa subspecies hemp and marijuana. CBD and Δ9-THC interact uniquely with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Through direct and indirect actions, intrinsic endocannabinoids and plant-based phytocannabinoids modulate and influence a variety of physiological systems influenced by the ECS.

METHODS:

In 1980, Cunha et al. reported anticonvulsant benefits in 7/8 subjects with medically uncontrolled epilepsy using marijuana extracts in a phase I clinical trial. Since then neurological applications have been the major focus of renewed research using medical marijuana and phytocannabinoid extracts.

RESULTS:

Recent neurological uses include adjunctive treatment for malignant brain tumors, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, neuropathic pain, and the childhood seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut and Dravet syndromes. In addition, psychiatric and mood disorders, such as schizophrenia, anxiety, depression, addiction, postconcussion syndrome, and posttraumatic stress disorders are being studied using phytocannabinoids.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this review we will provide animal and human research data on the current clinical neurological uses for CBD individually and in combination with Δ9-THC. We will emphasize the neuroprotective, antiinflammatory, and immunomodulatory benefits of phytocannabinoids and their applications in various clinical syndromes.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29770251

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938896/

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Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

 Food Chemistry

“In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated.

Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29751921

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814618307180?via%3Dihub

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[The impact of cannabinoids on the endocrine system].

 

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“Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds, derivatives of Indian hemp, in which tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most important. Marijuana, hashish and hash oil are among those most commonly used in the group.

Cannabinoids (marjhuana and hashish) have been used throughout recorded history as effective drugs in treating various diseases and conditions such as: malaria, hypertension, constipation, bronchial asthma, rheumatic pains, and as natural pain relief in labour and joint pains.

Marijuana acts through cannabinoid receptors CB 1 and CB2. Both receptors inhibit cAMP accummulation (through Gi/o proteins) and stimulate mitrogen- activated protein kinase. CB1 rceptors are located in CNS and in adipose tissue, digestive tract, muscles, heart, lungs, liver, kidneys, gonads, prostate gland and other peripheral tissues. CB2 cannabinoid receptors are located in the peripheral nervous system (at the ends of peripheral nerves), and on the surfaces of the cells of the immunological system.

The discovery of endogenous cannabinoids has contributed to a better understanding of their role in the regulation of the intake of food, energetic homeostasis and their significant influence on the endocrine system.”

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Hemp shows potential for treating ovarian cancer

“Researchers demonstrate hemp’s ability to slow cancer growth and uncover mechanism for its cancer-fighting ability.

Results from some of the first studies to examine hemp’s ability to fight cancer show that it might one day be useful as plant-based treatment for ovarian cancer. Hemp is part of the same cannabis family as marijuana but doesn’t have any psychoactive properties or cause addiction.

“Hemp, like marijuana, contains therapeutically valuable components such as cannabidiol, cannabinol, and tetrahydrocannabinol,”

“Our findings from this research as well as prior research show that KY hemp slows ovarian cancer comparable to or even better than the current ovarian cancer drug Cisplatin,” said Turner. “Since Cisplatin exhibits high toxicity, we anticipate that hemp would carry less side effects.”

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180423155046.htm

“Hemp Shows Potential for Treating Ovarian Cancer”  https://www.eurekalert.org/multimedia/pub/167927.php

“Hemp Can Fight Cancer Too, Reveal Scientists in New Cannabis Study”  https://www.inverse.com/article/44039-cancer-hemp-plant-based-treatment

“Studies show hemp’s potential for treating ovarian cancer”         https://www.news-medical.net/news/20180424/Studies-show-hemps-potential-for-treating-ovarian-cancer.aspx

“Hemp shows potential for treating ovarian cancer”  https://www.europeanpharmaceuticalreview.com/news/75103/hemp-treating-ovarian-cancer/

“Hemp portrays possibility for curing ovarian cancer”  https://ebuzzcommunity.com/2018/04/hemp-portrays-possibility-for-curing-ovarian-cancer/

“Hemp Extract Inhibits Growth Of Ovarian Cancer, Research Finds”  https://thefreshtoast.com/rx/hemp-extract-inhibits-growth-of-ovarian-cancer-research-finds/

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Cannabis Essential Oil: A Preliminary Study for the Evaluation of the Brain Effects.

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“We examined the effects of essential oil from legal (THC <0.2% w/v) hemp variety on the nervous system in 5 healthy volunteers. GC/EIMS and GC/FID analysis of the EO showed that the main components were myrcene and β-caryophyllene.

The experiment consisted of measuring autonomic nervous system (ANS) parameters; evaluations of the mood state; and electroencephalography (EEG) recording before treatment, during treatment, and after hemp inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. The results revealed decreased diastolic blood pressure, increased heart rate, and significant increased skin temperature.

The subjects described themselves as more energetic, relaxed, and calm.

The analysis EEG showed a significant increase in the mean frequency of alpha (8-13 Hz) and significant decreased mean frequency and relative power of beta 2 (18,5-30 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increased power, relative power, and amplitude of theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha brain waves activities and an increment in the delta wave (0,5-4 Hz) power and relative power was recorded in the posterior region of the brain.

These results suggest that the brain wave activity and ANS are affected by the inhalation of the EO of Cannabis sativa suggesting a neuromodular activity in cases of stress, depression, and anxiety.”

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Nutritional Value of Commercial Protein-Rich Plant Products.

 Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

“The goal of this work was to analyze nutritional value of various minimally processed commercial products of plant protein sources such as faba bean (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius), rapeseed press cake (Brassica rapa/napus subsp. Oleifera), flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum), oil hemp seed (Cannabis sativa), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). Basic composition and various nutritional components like amino acids, sugars, minerals, and dietary fiber were determined. Nearly all the samples studied could be considered as good sources of essential amino acids, minerals and dietary fiber. The highest content of crude protein (over 30 g/100 g DW) was found in faba bean, blue lupin and rapeseed press cake. The total amount of essential amino acids (EAA) ranged from 25.8 g/16 g N in oil hemp hulls to 41.5 g/16 g N in pearled quinoa. All the samples studied have a nutritionally favorable composition with significant health benefit potential. Processing (dehulling or pearling) affected greatly to the contents of analyzed nutrients.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29500810

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11130-018-0660-7

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Exploration of Potentially Bioactive Peptides Generated from the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hempseed Proteins.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“The seed of industrial hemp is an underexploited protein source. In view of a possible use in functional foods, a hempseed protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, or a mixture of these enzymes. A detailed peptidomic analysis using data-dependent acquisition showed that the numbers of peptides identified ranged from 90 belonging to 33 parent proteins in the peptic hydrolysate to 9 belonging to 6 proteins in the pancreatin digest. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates resulted to be the most efficient inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-coenzyme A reductase activity when tested on the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Using the open access tools PeptideRanker and BIOPEP, a list of potentially bioactive peptides was generated: the alleged activities included the antioxidant property, the glucose uptake stimulating activity, the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme I.”

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Effects of Hemp seed soft capsule on colonic ion transport in rats.

“To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats.

CONCLUSION:

HSSC ameliorates constipation by increasing colonic secretion, which is mediated via the coaction of cAMP-dependent and Ca2+-dependent Cl channels, NKCC, Na+-HCO3 cotransporter or Cl/HCO3 exchanger.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29204056

https://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v23/i42/7563.htm

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Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

“Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed, has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells.

This study demonstrated that grossamide significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and decreased the level of LPS-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. In addition, it significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB subunit p65 in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus. Furthermore, grossamide markedly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88).

Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28224333

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11010-016-2923-7

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Identification of a sustainable two-plant diet that effectively prevents age-related metabolic syndrome and extends lifespan in aged mice.

The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry

“The current system of food production is linked to both the increasing prevalence of chronic disease and the deterioration of the environment, and thereby calls for novel ways of producing nutritious foods in a sustainable manner.

In the “longevity village” of Bama, China, we have identified two plant foods, hemp seed and bitter vegetable (Sonchus oleraceus), that are commonly consumed by its residents and grow abundantly in unfarmed land without fertilizers or pesticides.

Here, we show that a diet composed of these two foods (the “HB diet”) provides a sufficient variety of nutrients and confers significant health benefits.

Aged mice allowed ad libitum access to the HB diet not only had longer life spans and improved cognitive function but were also protected against age-related metabolic syndrome, fatty liver, gut dysbiosis and chronic inflammation compared to aged mice fed a control Western diet.

Furthermore, longevity-related genes (including 5’adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, sirtuin 1, nuclear respiratory factor 1 and forkhead box O3) were significantly up-regulated, while aging-related genes (including mammalian target of rapamycin and nuclear factor kappa B) were down-regulated.

These results demonstrate that the HB diet is capable of promoting health and longevity, and present a sustainable source of healthy foods that can help control the prevalence of chronic diseases and reduce agricultural impact on the environment.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29080417

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0955286316303461?via%3Dihub

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