Terpenoids, Cannabimimetic Ligands, beyond the Cannabis Plant.

molecules-logo “Medicinal use of Cannabis sativa L. has an extensive history and it was essential in the discovery of phytocannabinoids, including the Cannabis major psychoactive compound-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)-as well as the G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors (CBR), named cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) and cannabinoid receptor type-2 (CB2R), both part of the now known endocannabinoid system (ECS).

Cannabinoids is a vast term that defines several compounds that have been characterized in three categories: (i) endogenous, (ii) synthetic, and (iii) phytocannabinoids, and are able to modulate the CBR and ECS. Particularly, phytocannabinoids are natural terpenoids or phenolic compounds derived from Cannabis sativa.

However, these terpenoids and phenolic compounds can also be derived from other plants (non-cannabinoids) and still induce cannabinoid-like properties. Cannabimimetic ligands, beyond the Cannabis plant, can act as CBR agonists or antagonists, or ECS enzyme inhibitors, besides being able of playing a role in immune-mediated inflammatory and infectious diseases, neuroinflammatory, neurological, and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as in cancer, and autoimmunity by itself.

In this review, we summarize and critically highlight past, present, and future progress on the understanding of the role of cannabinoid-like molecules, mainly terpenes, as prospective therapeutics for different pathological conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32235333

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/7/1567

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From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

frontiers in pharmacology – Retraction Watch“Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects.

Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabiscannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression.

To this regard, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration.

In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32210795

“The present review provided evidence that the nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids CBD could be a potential pharmacological tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; its excellent safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies renders it a promising therapeutic agent.

The molecular mechanisms associated with CBD’s improvement in PD and AD are likely multifaceted, and although CBD may act on different molecular targets all the beneficial effects are in some extent linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profile, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, this review describes evidence to prove the therapeutical efficacy of CBD in patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and promotes further research in order to better elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00124/full

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Cannabidiol in sport : ergogenic or else?

Pharmacological Research“In the sports domain, cannabis is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) across all sports in competition since 2004. The few studies on physical exercise and cannabis focused on the main compound i.e. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Cannabidiol (CBD) is another well-known phytocannabinoid present in dried or heated preparations of cannabis. Unlike Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CBD is non-intoxicating but exhibits pharmacological properties that are interesting for medical use.

The worldwide regulatory status of CBD is complex and this compound is still a controlled substance in many countries. Interestingly, however, the World Anti-Doping Agency removed CBD from the list of prohibited substances – in or out of competition – since 2018. This recent decision by the WADA leaves the door open for CBD use by athletes.

In the present opinion article we wish to expose the different CBD properties discovered in preclinical studies that could be further tested in the sport domain to ascertain its utility. Preclinical studies suggest that CBD could be useful to athletes due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anxiolytic, neuroprotective properties and its influence on the sleep-wake cycle. Unfortunately, almost no clinical data are available on CBD in the context of exercise, which makes its use in this context still premature.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32205233

“Athletes could benefit from CBD to manage pain, inflammation and the swelling processes associated with injury. CBD could be useful to manage anxiety, fear memory process, sleep and sleepiness in athletes. CBD could be interesting for the management of mild traumatic brain injury and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1043661819326143?via%3Dihub

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Phytocannabinoids: Useful Drugs for the Treatment of Obesity? Special Focus on Cannabidiol.

Image result for frontiers in endocrinology

“Currently, an increasing number of diseases related to insulin resistance and obesity is an alarming problem worldwide. It is well-known that the above states can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. An excessive amount of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a diet also evokes adipocyte hyperplasia and subsequent accumulation of lipids in peripheral organs (liver, cardiac muscle). Therefore, new therapeutic methods are constantly sought for the prevention, treatment and alleviation of symptoms of the above mentioned diseases.

Currently, much attention is paid to Cannabis derivatives-phytocannabinoids, which interact with the endocannabinoid system (ECS) constituents. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most abundant compounds of Cannabis plants and their therapeutic application has been suggested. CBD is considered as a potential therapeutic agent due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, neuroprotective, and potential anti-obesity properties. Therefore, in this review, we especially highlight pharmacological properties of CBD as well as its impact on obesity in different tissues.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32194509

“A well-known ancient plant Cannabis sativa has been a subject of scientific interest for over 50 years. Moreover, it has been used for recreational and medical purposes for thousands of years. The plant comprises about 100 phytocannabinoids, which are C21 terpenophenolic constituents. Nowadays, the most-studied phytocannabinoids are: Δ9– tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (Δ9-THCV), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabidivarin (CBDV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabichromene (CBC). So far, many studies have shown therapeutic properties of the above mentioned Cannabis compounds. Therefore, the aim of the current review is to focus on the emerging potential of CBD and other phytocannabinoids, which act as novel therapeutic agents in obesity treatment. From the existing data, we can conclude that CBD has the promising potential as a therapeutic agent and might be effective in alleviating the symptoms of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2020.00114/full

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Melatonin and cannabinoids: mitochondrial-targeted molecules that may reduce inflammaging in neurodegenerative diseases.

Image result for histology and histopathology“Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of “neuroinflammaging” has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level. Senescence and autophagic processes also play a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory disease associated with aging.

Of particular interest, melatonin, cannabinoids, and the receptors of both molecules which are closely related, exert beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory processes that precede the onset of neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Some of these neuroprotective effects are fundamentally related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions at the mitochondrial level due to the strategic functions of this organelle. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the study of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with age and to consider the use of new mitochondrial therapeutic targets related to the endocannabinoid system and the pineal gland.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32154907

https://www.hh.um.es/Abstracts/Vol_/_/__18212.htm

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The implications of late-life cannabis use on brain health: A mapping review and implications for future research.

Ageing Research Reviews“While medical and recreational cannabis use is becoming more frequent among older adults, the neurocognitive consequences of cannabis use in this age group are unclear. The aim of this literature review was to synthesize and evaluate the current knowledge on the association of cannabis use during older-adulthood with cognitive function and brain aging.

We reviewed the literature from old animal models and human studies while focusing on the link of middle- and old-age use of cannabis with cognition. The report highlights the gap in knowledge on cannabis use in late-life and cognitive health, and discusses the limited findings in the context of substantial changes in attitudes and policies. Furthermore, we outline possible theoretical mechanisms and propose recommendations for future research.

The limited evidence on this important topic suggests that use in older ages may not be linked with poorer cognitive performance, thus detrimental effects of early-life cannabis use may not translate to use in older ages. Rather, use in old ages may be associated with improved brain health, in accordance with the known neuroprotective properties of several cannabinoids.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32109605

“Cannabis use in older ages may be associated with improved brain health.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1568163719303204?via%3Dihub

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Endocannabinoid Modulation of Microglial Phenotypes in Neuropathology.

Image result for frontiers in neurology“Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, mediate brain homeostasis by controlling neuronal proliferation/differentiation and synaptic activity. In response to external signals from neuropathological conditions, homeostatic (M0) microglia can adopt one of two activation states: the classical (M1) activation state, which secretes mediators of the proinflammatory response, and the alternative (M2) activation state, which presumably mediates the resolution of neuroinflammation and tissue repair/remodeling.

Since chronic inflammatory activation of microglia is correlated with several neurodegenerative diseases, functional modulation of microglial phenotypes has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system, composed of cannabinoid receptors and ligands and their metabolic/biosynthetic enzymes, has been shown to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways that modulate immune cell functions. Growing evidence has demonstrated that endogenous, synthetic, and plant-derived eCB agonists possess therapeutic effects on several neuropathologies; however, the molecular mechanisms that mediate the anti-inflammatory effects have not yet been identified.

Over the last decade, it has been revealed that the eCB system modulates microglial activation and population. In this review, we thoroughly examine recent studies on microglial phenotype modulation by eCB in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease conditions.

We hypothesize that cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2R) signaling shifts the balance of expression between neuroinflammatory (M1-type) genes, neuroprotective (M2-type) genes, and homeostatic (M0-type) genes toward the latter two gene expressions, by which microglia acquire therapeutic functionality.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32117037

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fneur.2020.00087/full

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Chronic Treatment with 50 mg/kg Cannabidiol Improves Cognition and Moderately Reduces Aβ42 Levels in 12-Month-Old Male AβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 Transgenic Mice.

Image result for j alzheimers dis“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation causing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for more effective therapeutics.

The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, chronic CBD treatment (20 mg/kg) reverses social and object recognition memory deficits in the AβPPxPS1 transgenic mouse model with only limited effects on AD-relevant brain pathology.

Importantly, studies have indicated that CBD works in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study determined the chronic effects of 50 mg/kg CBD in male AβPPxPS1 mice. 12-month-old mice were treated with 50 mg/kg CBD or vehicle via daily intraperitoneal injections for 3 weeks prior to behavioral testing. A variety of cognitive domains including object and social recognition, spatial and fear-associated memory were evaluated. Pathological brain analyses for AD-relevant markers were conducted using ELISA and western blot.

Vehicle-treated male AβPPxPS1 mice demonstrated impaired social recognition memory and reversal spatial learning. These deficits were restored after CBD treatment. Chronic CBD tended to reduce insoluble Aβ40 levels in the hippocampus of AβPPxPS1 mice but had no effect on neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, or PPARγ markers in the cortex.

This study demonstrates that therapeutic-like effects of 50 mg/kg CBD on social recognition memory and spatial learning deficits in AβPPxPS1 mice are accompanied by moderate brain region-specific reductions in insoluble Aβ40 levels. The findings emphasize the clinical relevance of CBD treatment in AD; however, the underlying mechanisms involved require further investigation.”

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Overview of cannabidiol (CBD) and its analogues: Structures, biological activities, and neuroprotective mechanisms in epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry“Herein, 11 general types of natural cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa as well as 50 (-)-CBD analogues with therapeutic potential were described. The underlying molecular mechanisms of CBD as a therapeutic candidate for epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases were comprehensively clarified. CBD indirectly acts as an endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonist to exert its neuroprotective effects. CBD also promotes neuroprotection through different signal transduction pathways mediated indirectly by cannabinoid receptors. Furthermore, CBD prevents the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) hyperphosphorylation caused by Aβ and may be developed as a new therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer’s disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32109623

“For AD treatment, CBD can rescue the production of neurofibrillary tangles and inhibit neuronal apoptosis.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0223523420301306?via%3DihubImage 1

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Cannabis and the exocannabinoid and endocannabinoid systems. Their use and controversies.

“Cannabis (marijuana) is one of the most consumed psychoactive substances in the world. The term marijuana is of Mexican origin. The primary cannabinoids that have been studied to date include cannabidiol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, which is responsible for most cannabis physical and psychotropic effects. Recently, the endocannabinoid system was discovered, which is made up of receptors, ligands and enzymes that are widely expressed in the brain and its periphery, where they act to maintain balance in several homeostatic processes. Exogenous cannabinoids or naturally-occurring phytocannabinoids interact with the endocannabinoid system. Marijuana must be processed in a laboratory to extract tetrahydrocannabinol and leave cannabidiol, which is the product that can be marketed. Some studies suggest cannabidiol has great potential for therapeutic use as an agent with antiepileptic, analgesic, anxiolytic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties; however, the findings on cannabinoids efficacy and cannabis-based medications tolerability-safety for some conditions are inconsistent. More scientific evidence is required in order to generate recommendations on the use of medicinal cannabis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32091020

http://gacetamedicademexico.com/frame_eng.php?id=348

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