Cannabidiol Protects Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells from Cadmium.

ijerph-logo“The protective effect of cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa, against neuronal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2 10 μM) was investigated in a retinoic acid (RA)-differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line.

CBD (1 μM) was applied 24 h before and removed during cadmium (Cd) treatment. In differentiated neuronal cells, CBD significantly reduced the Cd-dependent decrease of cell viability, and the rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase.

CBD significantly prevented the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (GRP78 increase) and the subcellular distribution of the cytochrome C, as well as the overexpression of the pro-apoptotic protein BAX. Immunocytochemical analysis as well as quantitative protein evaluation by western blotting revealed that CBD partially counteracted the depletion of the growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and of the neuronal specific class III β-tubulin (β3 tubulin) induced by Cd treatment.

These data showed that Cd-induced neuronal injury was ameliorated by CBD treatment and it was concluded that CBD may represent a potential option to protect neuronal cells from the detrimental effects of Cd toxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31718076

https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/22/4420

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Study protocol for a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating the Efficacy of cannabis-based Medicine Extract in slowing the disease pRogression of Amyotrophic Lateral sclerosis or motor neurone Disease: the EMERALD trial.

Image result for bmj open“Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure and with an average life expectancy of 3-5 years post diagnosis.

The use of complementary medicine such as medicinal cannabis in search for a potential treatment or cure is common in ALS.

Preclinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of cannabinoids in extending the survival and slowing of disease progression in animal models with ALS.

There are anecdotal reports of cannabis slowing disease progression in persons with ALS (pALS) and that cannabis alleviated the symptoms of spasticity and pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31719072

https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/9/11/e029449

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Effects of Cannabis and Its Components on the Retina: A Systematic Review.

 Publication Cover“Cannabis is the most prevalent drug in the world and its consumption is growing. Cannabinoid receptors are present in the human central nervous system. Recent studies show evidence of the effects of cannabinoids on the retina, and synthesizing the results of these studies may be relevant for ophthalmologists. Thus, this review adopts standardized, systematic review methodology to investigate the effects of exposure to cannabis and components on the retina.

RESULTS:

We retrieved 495 studies, screened 229 studies, assessed 52 studies for eligibility, and included 16 studies for qualitative analysis. The cannabinoids most frequently investigated were delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), abnormal cannabidiol, synthetic cannabinoid, and cannabidiol (CDB). The outcomes most studied were neuroretinal dysfunction, followed by vascular effects. The studies also included investigation of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and teratogenic effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review suggests that cannabinoids may have an important role in retinal processing and function.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31648567

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15569527.2019.1685534?journalCode=icot20

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Cannabidiol and Cannabinoid Compounds as Potential Strategies for Treating Parkinson’s Disease and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia.

 “Parkinson’s disease (PD) and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) are motor disorders with significant impact on the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, pharmacological treatments that improve these disorders without causing severe side effects are not yet available. Delay in initiating L-DOPA is no longer recommended as LID development is a function of disease duration rather than cumulative L-DOPA exposure.

Manipulation of the endocannabinoid system could be a promising therapy to control PD and LID symptoms.

In this way, phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids, such as cannabidiol (CBD), the principal non-psychotomimetic constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, have received considerable attention in the last decade.

In this review, we present clinical and preclinical evidence suggesting CBD and other cannabinoids have therapeutic effects in PD and LID. Here, we discuss CBD pharmacology, as well as its neuroprotective effects and those of other cannabinoids.

Finally, we discuss the modulation of several pro- or anti-inflammatory factors as possible mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic/neuroprotective potential of Cannabis-derived/cannabinoid synthetic compounds in motor disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31637586

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12640-019-00109-8

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The Endocannabinoid System as a Window Into Microglial Biology and Its Relationship to Autism.

Image result for frontiers in cellular neuroscience“Microglia are the resident, innate immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) and are critical in managing CNS injuries and infections. Microglia also maintain CNS homeostasis by influencing neuronal development, viability, and function. However, aberrant microglial activity and phenotypes are associated with CNS pathology, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Thus, improving our knowledge of microglial regulation could provide insights into the maintenance of CNS homeostasis as well as the prevention and treatment of ASD.

Control of microglial activity is in part overseen by small, lipid-derived molecules known as endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids). Endocannabinoids are one component of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), which also includes the enzymes that metabolize these ligands, in addition to cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2).

Interestingly, increased ECS signaling leads to an anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective phenotype in microglia. Here, we review the literature and propose that ECS signaling represents a largely untapped area for understanding microglial biology and its relationship to ASD, with special attention paid to issues surrounding the use of recreational cannabis (marijuana). We also discuss major questions within the field and suggest directions for future research.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31619967

“Microglial activity can be modulated by eCB signaling, which makes the ECS a potentially forceful tool in the prevention and management of CNS dysfunction.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2019.00424/full

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CLG from Hemp Seed Inhibits LPS-Stimulated Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia by Regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 Pathways.

Go to Volume 4, Issue 15“The healthy benefits of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed have often been attributed to its oils and proteins.

Recent studies reveal that hemp seed phenylpropionamides could also show various bioactivities. Continuation of our study on hemp seed provided a phenylpropionamide, coumaroylaminobutanol glucopyranoside (CLG). This work investigated the neuroprotective effect of CLG and its underlying mechanism using lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia.

Our study demonstrated that CLG increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CLG reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species and stimulated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggested that CLG effectively and simultaneously inhibited inflammatory responses and oxidative stress through the NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AMPK was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of CLG. This study provides new insights into the diverse bioactive constituents of hemp seed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31616830

“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed has been used as food and traditional medicine for centuries. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of diverse bioactive compounds from hemp seed and the potential of hemp seed in the treatment of microglia-related neuroinflammatory diseases.”

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.9b02168

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Cannabidiol Administration Prevents Hypoxia-Ischemia-Induced Hypomyelination in Newborn Rats.

Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a risk factor for myelination disturbances, a key factor for cerebral palsy.

Cannabidiol (CBD) protects neurons and glial cells after HI insult in newborn animals.

We hereby aimed to study CBD’s effects on long-lasting HI-induced myelination deficits in newborn rats.

In conclusion, HI injury in newborn rats resulted in long-lasting myelination disturbance, associated with functional impairment. CBD treatment preserved function and myelination, likely as a part of a general neuroprotective effect.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31611802

“In conclusion, our study confirms that a HI insult in rats at a brain developmental stage equivalent to term infants leads to long-lasting myelination disturbance which is directly related to long-term functional disturbances. The administration of CBD single dose after the neonatal HI insult protects the maturational process of OL cells, as well as the mOL function and relationship with axons, thus, preserving normal myelination and restoring neurobehavioral function. Those results open exciting perspectives regarding a possible role for CBD in NHIE and other demyelinating pediatric conditions.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.01131/full

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Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds.

 “Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds are well known for their potential use as a source of nutrients, fiber, and bioactive compounds.

A hemp protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp flour, was hydrolyzed by alcalase and flavourzyme under specific conditions.

The resulting hydrolysates were evaluated for the selection of potentially bioactive hemp protein hydrolysates (HPHs) owing to their DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power activity. In vitro cell-free experiments led to the identification of two bioactive HPHs, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF, which were used at 50 and 100 μg mL-1 on BV-2 microglial cells in order to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

Our results showed that HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF down-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA transcriptional levels in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. In addition, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF up-regulated the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

This study suggests for the first time that HPHs may improve the neuroinflammatory and inflammatory states, supporting the nutraceutical value of hemp seeds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31576391

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/FO/C9FO01904A#!divAbstract

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Druggable Targets of the Endocannabinoid System: Implications for the Treatment of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

Brain Research“HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) affects nearly half of all HIV-infected individuals. Synaptodendritic damage correlates with neurocognitive decline in HAND, and many studies have demonstrated that HIV-induced neuronal injury results from excitotoxic and inflammatory mechanisms.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system provides on-demand protection against excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation.

Here, we discuss evidence of the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of the eCB system from in vitro and in vivo studies. We examine the pharmacology of the eCB system and evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs that modulate eCB signaling to treat HAND.

Finally, we provide perspective on the need for additional studies to clarify the role of the eCB system in HIV neurotoxicity and speculate that strategies that enhance eCB signaling might slow cognitive decline in HAND.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31539547

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006899319305219?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol improves metabolic dysfunction in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

Chemico-Biological Interactions“Cannabidiol (CBD), a compound obtained from Cannabis sativa, has wide range of therapeutic properties, including mitigation of diabetes and neurodegeneration.

Cerebral ischemia and consequent learning disabilities are aggravated in elderly diabetic subjects. However, there are no studies showing the effect of CBD treatment in elderly diabetes patients suffering cerebral ischemia.

The present work tested the hypothesis that CBD treatment improves metabolic dysfunctions in middle-aged diabetic rats submitted to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.

CBD may be used as therapeutic tool to protect metabolism against injuries from diabetes aggravated by cerebral ischemia.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31499052

“CBD reduced hyperglycemia of middle-aged diabetic rats with CCH. CBD increased insulin secretion and decreased AGEs levels. CBD reduced fructosamine, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels. CBD presented hepatoprotective effect. CBD could mitigate neurodegeneration caused by DM associated to cerebral ischemia.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S000927971930701X?via%3Dihub

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