Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Signaling on Hippocampal GABAergic Neurons Influences Microglial Activity.

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“Microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain, play important roles in defending the brain against pathogens and supporting neuronal circuit plasticity. Chronic or excessive pro-inflammatory responses of microglia damage neurons, therefore their activity is tightly regulated.

Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor activity influences microglial activity, although microglial CB1 receptor expression is very low and activity-dependent. The CB1 receptor is mainly expressed on neurons in the central nervous system (CNS)-with an especially high level on GABAergic interneurons.

Here, we determined whether CB1 signaling on this neuronal cell type plays a role in regulating microglial activity.

Our result suggests that CB1 receptor agonists can modulate microglial activity indirectly, through CB1 receptors on GABAergic neurons.

Altogether, we demonstrated that GABAergic neurons, despite their relatively low density in the hippocampus, have a specific role in the regulation of microglial activity and cannabinoid signaling plays an important role in this arrangement.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30210289

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00295/full

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Antiapoptotic effects of cannabidiol in an experimental model of cognitive decline induced by brain iron overload.

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“Iron accumulation in the brain has been recognized as a common feature of both normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Cognitive dysfunction has been associated to iron excess in brain regions in humans. We have previously described that iron overload leads to severe memory deficits, including spatial, recognition, and emotional memory impairments in adult rats.

In the present study we investigated the effects of neonatal iron overload on proteins involved in apoptotic pathways, such as Caspase 8, Caspase 9, Caspase 3, Cytochrome c, APAF1, and PARP in the hippocampus of adult rats, in an attempt to establish a causative role of iron excess on cell death in the nervous system, leading to memory dysfunction.

Cannabidiol (CBD), the main non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, was examined as a potential drug to reverse iron-induced effects on the parameters analyzed.

These results suggest that iron can trigger cell death pathways by inducing intrinsic apoptotic proteins. The reversal of iron-induced effects by CBD indicates that it has neuroprotective potential through its anti-apoptotic action.”

“In summary, we have shown that iron treatment in the neonatal period disrupts the apoptotic intrinsic pathway. This finding may place iron excess as a central component in neurodegenerative processes since many neurodegenerative disorders are accompanied by iron accumulation in brain regions. Moreover, indiscriminate iron supplementation to toddlers and infants, modeled here by iron overload in the neonatal period, has been considered a potential environmental risk factor for the development of neurodegenerative disorders later in life. Our findings also strongly suggest that CBD has neuroprotective effects, at least in part by blocking iron-induced apoptosis even at later stages, following iron overload, which puts CBD as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.”
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Cannabis cures the spine.

The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Home

“Cannabis cures the spine.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30172587

“Huo and colleagues elegantly demonstrate that the endogenous cannabinoid system can be modulated to provide neuroprotection in ischemic injury of the spine.

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system attenuates ischemic spinal cord injury through CB2-mediated inhibition of the GAPDH/Siah1 signaling cascade, positively influencing neuron survival and function.” https://www.jtcvs.org/article/S0022-5223(18)32080-4/fulltext

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Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Cannabidiol During the Juvenile Period.

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“Anticonvulsant effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, have not been investigated in the juvenile brain. We hypothesized that CBD would attenuate epileptiform activity at an age when the brain first becomes vulnerable to neurotoxicity and social/cognitive impairments.

To induce seizures, kainic acid (KA) was injected either into the hippocampus (KAih) or systemically (KAip) on postnatal (P) day 20. CBD was coadministered (KA + CBDih, KA + CBDip) or injected 30 minutes postseizure onset (KA/CBDih, KA/CBDip).

Hyperactivity, clonic convulsions, and electroencephalogram rhythmic oscillations were attenuated or absent after KA + CBDih and reduced after KA + CBDip. NeuN immunohistochemistry revealed neuroprotection.

Augmented reactive glia number and expression were reversed in CA1 but persisted deep within the dentate hilus. Parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons were reduced in both models, whereas immunolabeling was dramatically increased within ipsilateral and contralateral dendritic/neuropilar fields following KA + CBDih. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) expression was minimally affected after KAih contrasting elevations observed after KAip.

Intracranial coadministration data suggest that CBD has higher efficacy in epilepsy with hippocampal focus rather than when extrahippocampal amygdala/cortical structures are triggered by systemic treatments. Inhibition of surviving PV+ and CB1+ interneurons may be facilitated by CBD implying a protective role in regulating hippocampal seizures and neurotoxicity at juvenile ages.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30169677

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Variability of Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Symptoms in Response to THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray: Tracking Cases through Clinical Scales and Video Recordings.

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“Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Patients exhibit heterogeneous patterns of disabling symptoms, including spasticity. In the majority of patients with MS spasticity, it and its associated symptoms contribute to disability, interfere with performance of everyday activities, and impair quality of life. Even under treatment with oral antispasticity drugs, about a third of patients continue to experience spasticity of moderate to severe intensity, underscoring the need for additional treatment options.

The efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol: cannabidiol (THC:CBD) oromucosal spray as add-on therapy in patients with refractory MS spasticity has been demonstrated in clinical trials and observational studies.

To gain insight into patients’ response to treatment at the individual level, in-depth changes from baseline in various clinical scales and video-assessed parameters were evaluated in patients with resistant MS spasticity before and after 1 month of treatment with THC:CBD oromucosal spray. All 6 patients showed ≥20% improvement in the spasticity Numerical Rating Scale (i.e., were initial responders to treatment), but displayed individual variability in other spasticity-related parameters.

Improved Modified Ashworth Scale scores were observed in 5 cases, with a reduction of -2/-3 points in lower limb scores for 1 patient who also showed benefit in terms of a more stable gait but modest improvement in the timed 10-meter walk test (10MWT). Improvement in the 10MWT (or 25-foot walk test) was noted in 4 of the 6 cases. THC:CBD oromucosal spray also improved upper limb function as indicated by faster 9-Hole Peg Test results.”

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Traditional Uses of Cannabinoids and New Perspectives in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

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“Recent findings highlight the emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in the control of symptoms and disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with no cure so far. It is widely reported in the literature that cannabinoids might be used to control MS symptoms and that they also might exert neuroprotective effects and slow down disease progression. This review aims to give an overview of the principal cannabinoids(synthetic and endogenous) used for the symptomatic amelioration of MS and their beneficial outcomes, providing new potentially possible perspectives for the treatment of this disease.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30111755

http://www.mdpi.com/2305-6320/5/3/91

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The enigma of cannabis use in spinal cord injury.

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“Cannabis use in medicine continues to confound practitioners.

There is confusing interpretation of the efficacy and adverse event data, highlighting the complexity of this unique plant.

Cannabis may have a neuroprotective role in SCI.”

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Neuronal preservation and reactive gliosis attenuation following neonatal sciatic nerve axotomy by a fluorinated cannabidiol derivative.

Neuropharmacology

“Immature peripheral nervous system damage, such as the transection of a peripheral nerve, results in the extensive degeneration of motoneurons and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons, mostly due to apoptotic events.

We have previously shown that cannabidiol (CBD), the most abundant non-psychotropic molecule present in the Cannabis sativa plant, exhibits neuroprotective action when administered daily at a dose of 15 mg/kg.

This study shows that use of the fluorinated synthetic version of CBD (4′-fluoro-cannabidiol, HUF-101) significantly improves neuronal survival by 2-fold compared to that achieved with traditional CBD at one-third the dose. Furthermore, we show that HUF-101 administration significantly upregulates anti-apoptotic genes and blocks the expression of pro-apoptotic nuclear factors.

Two-day-old Wistar rats were subjected to unilateral sectioning of the sciatic nerve and treated daily with HUF-101 (1, 2.5, 5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or a vehicle solution for five days.

The results were evaluated by Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and qRT-PCR. Neuronal counting revealed a 47% rescue of spinal motoneurons and a 79% rescue of DRG neurons (HUF-101, 5 mg/kg). Survival was associated with complete depletion of p53 and a 60-fold elevation in BCL2-like 1 gene expression.

Additionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) gene expression was downregulated by 80%. Neuronal preservation was coupled with a high preservation of synaptic coverage and a reduction in astroglial and microglial reactions that were evaluated in nearby spinal motoneurons present in the ventral horn of the lumbar intumescence.

Overall, these data strongly indicate that HUF-101 exerts potent neuroprotective effects that are related to anti-apoptotic protection and the reduction of glial reactivity.”

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Medicinal properties of terpenes found in Cannabis sativa and Humulus lupulus.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Cannabaceae plants Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus lupulus L. are rich in terpenes – both are typically comprised of terpenes as up to 3-5% of the dry-mass of the female inflorescence.

Terpenes of cannabis and hops are typically simple mono- and sesquiterpenes derived from two and three isoprene units, respectively. Some terpenes are relatively well known for their potential in biomedicine and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries, while others are yet to be studied in detail.

The current, comprehensive review presents terpenes found in cannabis and hops. Terpenes’ medicinal properties are supported by numerous in vitro, animal and clinical trials and show anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anticancer, antitumor, neuroprotective, anti-mutagenic, anti-allergic, antibiotic and anti-diabetic attributes, among others.

Because of the very low toxicity, these terpenes are already widely used as food additives and in cosmetic products. Thus, they have been proven safe and well-tolerated.”

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Neuroprotective effects of the cannabigerol quinone derivative VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice, an experimental model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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“Antioxidant phytocannabinoids, synthetic compounds targeting the CB2 receptor, and inhibitors of the endocannabinoid inactivation afforded neuroprotection in SOD1G93A mutant mice, a model of ALS. These effects may involve the activation of PPAR-γ too.

Here, we have investigated the neuroprotective effects in SOD1G93A mutant mice of the cannabigerol derivative VCE-003.2, which works as by activating PPAR-γ.

As expected, SOD1G93Atransgenic mice experienced a progressive weight loss and neurological deterioration, which was associated with a marked loss of spinal cholinergic motor neurons, glial reactivity, and elevations in several biochemical markers (cytokines, glutamate transporters) that indirectly reflect the glial proliferation and activation in the spinal cord. The treatment with VCE-003.2 improved most of these neuropathological signs.

It attenuated the weight loss and the anomalies in neurological parameters, preserved spinal cholinergic motor neurons, and reduced astroglial reactivity. VCE-003.2 also reduced the elevations in IL-1β and glial glutamate transporters. Lastly, VCE-003.2 attenuated the LPS-induced generation of TNF-α and IL-1β in cultured astrocytes obtained from SOD1G93Atransgenic newborns, an effect also produced by rosiglitazone, then indicating a probable PPAR-γ activation as responsible of its neuroprotective effects.

In summary, our results showed benefits with VCE-003.2 in SOD1G93A transgenic mice supporting PPAR-γ as an additional neuroprotective target available for cannabinoids in ALS. Such benefits would need to be validated in other ALS models prior to be translated to the clinical level.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30076846

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006295218303198

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