“Evidence supports reform to allow the legitimate study, regulation, and prescription of therapeutic cannabinoids.hemp
From its first recorded uses in China through to the early 20th century, cannabis has had a place in the pharmacopoeia. Queen Victoria’s personal physician, Russel Reynolds, opined in the Lancet in 1890, “Indian hemp, when pure and administered carefully, is one of the most valuable medicines we possess.” This opinion was based on current best evidence: the careful and documented observation of its effects in medical conditions.
In a similar vein, calls have been made to reconsider the role of cannabis in today’s society. Two well informed British politicians recently told The BMJ, “We have heard striking testimonies from patients… that cannabis has ‘given them their life back.’” Added to this, the international position on cannabis as a potential medication has changed, with international agencies and many governments relaxing a prohibitionist stance.”
“The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects.
The principle phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ9-THC.
Cannabidiol is without euphoriant properties, and exerts antipsychotic, anxiolytic, anti-seizure, as well as anti-inflammatory properties.
It is essential to parcellate phytocannabinoids into their constituent moieties as the most abundant cannabinoid have differential effects on physiologic systems in psychopathology measures. Disparate findings and reports related to effects of cannabis consumption reflect differential relative concentration of Δ9-THC and CBD.
Existing literature, notwithstanding its deficiencies, provides empirical support for the hypothesis that CBD may exert beneficial effects on brain effector systems/substrates subserving domain-based phenomenology. Interventional studies with purified CBD are warranted with a call to target-engagement proof-of-principle studies using the research domain criteria (RDoC) framework.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28501518
“Cannabis use is associated with reduced prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and mouse disease models. Obesity and DM are a well-established independent risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most prevalent liver disease globally. The effects of cannabis use on NAFLD prevalence in humans remains ill-defined. Our objective is to determine the relationship between cannabis use and the prevalence of NAFLD in humans.
We conducted a population-based case-control study of 5,950,391 patients using the 2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Nationwide Inpatient Survey (NIS) discharge records of patients 18 years and older. After identifying patients with NAFLD (1% of all patients), we next identified three exposure groups: non-cannabis users (98.04%), non-dependent cannabis users (1.74%), and dependent cannabis users (0.22%). We adjusted for potential demographics and patient related confounders and used multivariate logistic regression (SAS 9.4) to determine the odds of developing NAFLD with respects to cannabis use.
Our findings revealed that cannabis users (dependent and non-dependent) showed significantly lower NAFLD prevalence compared to non-users (AOR: 0.82[0.76-0.88]; p<0.0001). The prevalence of NAFLD was 15% lower in non-dependent users (AOR: 0.85[0.79-0.92]; p<0.0001) and 52% lower in dependent users (AOR: 0.49[0.36-0.65]; p<0.0001). Among cannabis users, dependent patients had 43% significantly lower prevalence of NAFLD compared to non-dependent patients (AOR: 0.57[0.42-0.77]; p<0.0001).
Our observations suggest that cannabis use is associated with lower prevalence of NAFLD in patients. These novel findings suggest additional molecular mechanistic studies to explore the potential role of cannabis use in NAFLD development.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28441459
“In the past twenty years, twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia have passed some form of medical marijuana law. Using quarterly data on all fee-for-service Medicaid prescriptions in the period 2007–14, we tested the association between those laws and the average number of prescriptions filled by Medicaid beneficiaries. We found that the use of prescription drugs in fee-for-service Medicaid was lower in states with medical marijuana laws than in states without such laws in five of the nine broad clinical areas we studied. If all states had had a medical marijuana law in 2014, we estimated that total savings for fee-for-service Medicaid could have been $1.01 billion. These results are similar to those in a previous study we conducted, regarding the effects of medical marijuana laws on the number of prescriptions within the Medicare population. Together, the studies suggest that in states with such laws, Medicaid and Medicare beneficiaries will fill fewer prescriptions.” http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/early/2017/04/13/hlthaff.2016.1135
“A prior epidemiological study identified a reduction in opioid overdose deaths in US states that legalized medical cannabis (MC). One theory to explain this phenomenon is a potential substitution effect of MC for opioids. This study evaluated whether this substitution effect of MC for opioids also applies to other psychoactive medications.
New England dispensary members ( n = 1,513) completed an online survey about their medical history and MC experiences. Among respondents that regularly used opioids, over three-quarters (76.7%) indicated that they reduced their use since they started MC. This was significantly ( p < 0.0001) greater than the patients that reduced their use of antidepressants (37.6%) or alcohol (42.0%). Approximately two-thirds of patients decreased their use of anti-anxiety (71.8%), migraine (66.7%), and sleep (65.2%) medications following MC which significantly ( p < 0.0001) exceeded the reduction in antidepressants or alcohol use. The patient’s spouse, family, and other friends were more likely to know about their MC use than was their primary care provider.
In conclusion, a majority of patients reported using less opioids as well as fewer medications to treat anxiety, migraines, and sleep after initiating MC. A smaller portion used less antidepressants or alcohol. Additional research is needed to corroborate these self-reported, retrospective, cross-sectional findings using other data sources.”
“Oral, Head & Neck Cancer Awareness Month. While smoking and tobacco use are still major risk factors, the fastest growing segment of oral cancer patients is young, healthy, nonsmoking individuals due to the connection to the HPV virus. We cannot stop this virus from spreading; our only hope to save lives is with professional involvement and public awareness.” http://oralcancerfoundation.org/events/oral-head-neck-cancer-awareness-month/
“Bogarting that joint might decrease oral hpv among cannabis users. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794675/
“Type of food and risk of oral cancer. To reduce the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma, the most common oral cancer, diet must be optimized, primarily to reduce calorie intake, monounsaturated fat, and red or processed meat. Consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals, which are the major source of vitamins and fiber, should be adequate in the daily diet. Optimal levels of daily allowance of micronutrients like vitamin C, E, antioxidants, zinc, beta-carotene, and folate are effective in prevention of oral cancer. Consumption of fried or broiled foods and employment of microwave cooking, because of formation of heterocyclic amines, must be avoided because of increasing risks of oral cancer including the salivary gland tumors.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17367228
“Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26863913
“Cannabinoids Attenuate Cancer Pain and Proliferation in a Mouse Model. Our results suggest that systemic administration of cannabinoids decease oral cancer pain. Our findings suggest a direct role for cannabinoid mechanisms in oral cancer pain and proliferation. The systemic administration of cannabinoid receptor agonists may have important therapeutic implications wherein cannabinoid receptor agonists may reduce morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. The present findings suggest that cannabinoid treatment may be a promising alternative therapy for oral cancer pain management.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099480/
“Cannabinoids Inhibit Cellular Respiration of Human Oral Cancer Cells. The primary cannabinoids, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC) are known to disturb the mitochondrial function and possess antitumor activities. These observations prompted us to investigate their effects on the mitochondrial O2 consumption in human oral cancer cells (Tu183). This epithelial cell line overexpresses bcl-2 and is highly resistant to anticancer drugs. A rapid decline in the rate of respiration was observed when Δ9-THC or Δ8-THC was added to the cells. These results show the cannabinoids are potent inhibitors of Tu183 cellular respiration and are toxic to this highly malignant tumor.” https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/312686
“Evaluation of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors expression in mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma: associations with clinicopathological parameters and patients’ survival. The present study provides evidence that CB1R and CB2R may play a role in the pathophysiological aspects of the mobile tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and even each molecule may constitute a potential target for the development of novel anti-cancer drugs for this type of malignancy.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26459312
“Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells. CBD represents the first nontoxic exogenous agent that can significantly decrease Id-1 expression in metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, reducing Id-1 expression with cannabinoids could also provide a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of additional aggressive cancers because Id-1 expression was found to be up-regulated during the progression of almost all types” http://mct.aacrjournals.org/content/6/11/2921.long
“The endocannabinoid system and cancer: therapeutic implication. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids are efficacious in reducing cancer progression (i.e. inhibition of tumour growth and metastases as well as induction of apoptosis and other anti-cancer properties) in breast, prostate and bone cancer. Although this review focuses on these three types of cancer, activation of the endocannabinoid signalling system produces anti-cancer effects in other types of cancer.” http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01327.x/full
“Medical marijuana use in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The purpose of the study was to better understand why patients with history of head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy are using medical marijuana (MM). HNC patients report MM use to help with long-term side effects of radiotherapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27005465
“A Population-based Case-Control Study of Marijuana Use and Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Our study suggests that moderate marijuana use is associated with reduced risk of head and neck cancer (HNSCC). In fact, many of these studies reported non-significant protective estimates of effect, consistent with a possible anticarcinogenic action of cannabinoids.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812803/
“Nearly half of all states have legalized medical marijuana or recreational-use marijuana. As more states move toward legalization, the effects on injured patients must be evaluated.
This study sought to determine effects of cannabis positivity at the time of severe injury on hospital outcomes compared with individuals negative for illicit substances and those who were users of other illicit substances.
Cannabis users suffering from severe injury demonstrated no detrimental outcomes in this study compared with nondrug users.”
“Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR.
Hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR increased sharply by 300% on average in all states. Medical marijuana legalization was associated with 23% (p=0.008) and 13% (p=0.025) reductions in hospitalizations related to opioid dependence or abuse and OPR overdose, respectively; lagged effects were observed after policy implementation. The operation of medical marijuana dispensaries had no independent impacts on OPR-related hospitalizations. Medical marijuana polices had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations.
Medical marijuana policies were significantly associated with reduced OPR-related hospitalizations but had no associations with marijuana-related hospitalizations. Given the epidemic of problematic use of OPR, future investigation is needed to explore the causal pathways of these findings.”
“Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer by Natural Agents From Mother Nature. This review clearly demonstrates that various nutraceuticals provided by the Mother Nature have a huge potential for both prevention and treatment of Colorectal cancer (CRC). Since these agents can be administered chronically without any concern for safety and are highly affordable, their use has been the wave of the past and is likely to continue as the wave of the future.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3693477/
“Inflammation and colon cancer. The connection between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established.Inflammation is also likely to be involved with other forms of sporadic as well as heritable colon cancer.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20420949
“Cannabis-derived substances in cancer therapy–an emerging anti-inflammatory role for the cannabinoids. Chronic inflammation has been associated with neoplasia for sometime, and as a consequence, reducing inflammation as a way of impacting cancer presents a new role for these compounds. ” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20925645
“G‐protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a lysophospholipid receptor, has been shown to play an important role in carcinogenesis. GPR55 is involved in the migratory behaviour of colon carcinoma cells and may serve as a pharmacological target for the prevention of metastasis.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688947/
“Modulation of l-α-Lysophosphatidylinositol/GPR55 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) Signaling by Cannabinoids*. Here, we report that the little investigated cannabis constituents CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV are potent inhibitors of LPI-induced GPR55 signaling. The phytocannabinoids Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabidivarin, and cannabigerovarin are also potent inhibitors of LPI. Our findings also suggest that GPR55 may be a new pharmacological target for the following C. sativa constituents: Δ9-THCV, CBDV, CBGA, and CBGV. These Cannabis sativa constituents may represent novel therapeutics targeting GPR55.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249141/
“Cannabinoids in intestinal inflammation and cancer. In vivo, cannabinoids – via direct or indirect activation of CB(1) and/or CB(2) receptors – exert protective effects in well-established models of intestinal inflammation and colon cancer. Pharmacological elevation of endocannabinoid levels may be a promising strategy to counteract intestinal inflammation and colon cancer.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442536
“Increased endocannabinoid levels reduce the development of precancerous lesions in the mouse colon. Cannabinoids have been licensed for clinical use as palliative treatment of chemotherapy, but increasing evidence shows antitumor actions of cannabinoid agonists on several tumor cells in vitro and in animal models” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755791/
“Turning CB1 back on and then treating with a cannabinoid agonist could provide a new approach to colorectal cancer treatment or prevention. Cannabinoids are a group of ligands that serve a variety of cell-signaling roles. Some are produced by the body internally (endocannabinoids). External cannabinoids include manmade versions and those present in plants, most famously the active ingredient in marijuana (THC).” http://www.news-medical.net/news/2008/08/03/40485.aspx
“Cannabinoid Receptor Activation Induces Apoptosis through Tumor Necrosis Factor α–Mediated Ceramide De novo Synthesis in Colon Cancer Cells. The present study shows that either CB1 or CB2 receptor activation induces apoptosis through ceramide de novo synthesis in colon cancer cells. ” http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/14/23/7691.long
“The cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT survival signalling and induces BAD-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Here, we report that CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human colorectal adenoma and carcinoma cells, and show for the first time that THC induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. The use of THC, or selective targeting of the CB1 receptor, may represent a novel strategy for colorectal cancer therapy.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17583570
“Chemopreventive effect of the non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol on experimental colon cancer. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of Cannabis sativa, exerts pharmacological actions (antioxidant and intestinal antinflammatory) and mechanisms (inhibition of endocannabinoid enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for colon carcinogenesis. It is concluded that cannabidiol exerts chemopreventive effect in vivo and reduces cell proliferation through multiple mechanisms.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22231745
“Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol. Cannabis-based medicines are useful adjunctive treatments in cancer patients.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24373545
“Cannabigerol (CBG) is a safe non-psychotropic Cannabis-derived cannabinoid. CBG hampers colon cancer progression in vivo and selectively inhibits the growth of colorectal cancer cells. CBG should be considered translationally in colorectal cancer prevention and cure.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269802
“Cannabinoids appear to kill tumor cells but do not affect their nontransformed counterparts and may even protect them from cell death. Tumor specimens revealed that THC had antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects. CBD has also been demonstrated to exert a chemopreventive effect in a mouse model of colon cancer. In in vitro experiments involving colorectal cancer cell lines, the investigators found that CBD protected DNA from oxidative damage, increased endocannabinoid levels, and reduced cell proliferation. In addition, both plant-derived and endogenous cannabinoids have been studied for anti-inflammatory effects. A mouse study demonstrated that endogenous cannabinoid system signaling is likely to provide intrinsic protection against colonic inflammation. As a result, a hypothesis that phytocannabinoids and endocannabinoids may be useful in the risk reduction and treatment of colorectal cancer has been developed.” http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/treatment/cam/hp/cannabis-pdq#section/_7
“Viral hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) pose a major health problem globally and if untreated, both viruses lead to severe liver damage resulting in liver cirrhosis and cancer. While HBV has a vaccine, HCV has none at the moment. The risk of drug resistance, combined with the high cost of current therapies, makes it a necessity for cost-effective therapeutics to be discovered and developed.
The recent surge in interest in Medical Cannabis has led to interest in evaluating and validating the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis and its metabolites against various diseases including viruses. Preliminary screening of cannabidiol (CBD) revealed that CBD is active against HCV but not against HBV in vitro. CBD inhibited HCV replication by 86.4% at a single concentration of 10 μM with EC50 of 3.163 μM in a dose-response assay.
“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid found in the Cannabis plants and is credited for several pharmacological properties. It is also known to have beneficial effects against inflammation/pain, neurological conditions, cancer, and other ailments. In general, with regard to antiviral activity, medical Cannabis was reported to be used as an accompanying remedy by HIV/AIDS patients to alleviate neuropathic pain, wasting, nausea, and vomiting. Given the increasing use and application of medical Cannabis along with its nonpsychoactive metabolite (CBD), and in line with our continuous effort to evaluate and validate the potential therapeutic properties of CBD, the major aim of this study was as such to evaluate the anti-HBV and anti-HCV activities of CBD in vitro. We report here for the first time in vitro studies to demonstrate the antiviral activity of CBD against HCV. CBD was shown to have activity against HCV in vitro but not against HBV. A review of the literature seems to suggest that CBD may also have activity in vivo based on its interaction with the CB2 receptor and as such using a host mechanism to indirectly slow the pathogenic process of the HBV virus. Based on these findings, CBD as such has potential to be further developed as a treatment for viral hepatitis, especially as a combination therapy with the currently existing therapies.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5330095/