Utilization of medicinal cannabis for pain by individuals with spinal cord injury.

Image result for spinal cord series and cases“A cross-sectional multi-center study using an on-line survey addressing utilization, knowledge, and perceptions of medicinal cannabis (MC) by people with spinal cord injury (SCI).

OBJECTIVE:

To characterize differences between current (CU), past (PU), and never users (NU) of MC with SCI; to determine why people with SCI use MC; to examine reports of MCs’ efficacy and tolerability by individuals with SCI.

SETTING:

Three academic medical centers in the United States.

METHODS:

Comparison of demographic and attitudinal differences between CU, PU, and NU and differences in the groups’ reports of pain, health, and quality of life (QOL). Evaluation of utilization patterns and perceived efficacy of MC among CU and PU and reports of side effects of MC versus prescription medications. Data were analyzed using either Chi Square, distribution-free exact statistics, or t-tests for continuous data.

RESULTS:

Among a nationwide sample (n = 353) of individuals with SCI, NU were less likely than CU and PU to believe that cannabis ought to be legalized and more likely to endorse risks of use. Current users and PU reported greater pain interference in daily life than did NU, but there were no between group differences in QOL or physical or emotional health. Current users and PU took MC to address pain (65.30%), spasms (63.30%), sleeplessness (32.70%), and anxiety (24.00%), and 63.30% reported it offered “great relief” from symptoms. Participants reported that MC is more effective and carries fewer side effects than prescription medications.

CONCLUSIONS:

Medicinal cannabis is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for a number of SCI-related symptoms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31632724

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41394-019-0208-6

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Cellular Distribution of Canonical and Putative Cannabinoid Receptors in Canine Cervical Dorsal Root Ganglia.

Image result for frontiers in veterinary science“Growing evidence indicates cannabinoid receptors as potential therapeutic targets for chronic pain.

Consequently, there is an increasing interest in developing cannabinoid receptor agonists for treating human and veterinary pain.

The present study may represent a morphological substrate to consider in order to develop therapeutic strategies against chronic pain.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31608295

“The anti-nociceptive potential of the endocannabinoid system has prompted the development of therapeutic cannabinoid receptors agonists or medical marjiuana to be used in pets in order to treat chronic pain.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2019.00313/full

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The effect of cannabis laws on opioid use.

International Journal of Drug Policy“Many Americans rely on opioids at varying dosages to help ameliorate their suffering. However, empirical evidence is mounting that opioids are ineffective at controlling non-cancer related chronic pain, and many argue the strategies meant to relieve patient suffering are contributing to the growing opioid epidemic.

Concurrently, several states now allow the use of medical cannabis to treat a variety of medical conditions, including chronic pain. Needing more exploration is the impact of cannabis laws on general opioid reliance and whether chronic pain sufferers are opting to use cannabis medicinally instead of opioids.

METHODS:

This study investigates the effect of Medical Marijuana Laws (MML)s on opioid use and misuse controlling for a number of relevant factors using data from several years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis strategies.

RESULTS:

Results provide evidence that MMLs may be effective at reducing opioid reliance as survey respondents living in states with medical cannabis legislation are much less apt to report using opioid analgesics than people living in states without such laws, net other factors. Results further indicate that the presence of medicinal cannabis legislation appears to have no influence over opioid misuse.

CONCLUSION:

MMLs may ultimately serve to attenuate the consequences of opioid overreliance.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31590091

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0955395919302567?via%3Dihub

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Medical cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease: real-life experience of mode of consumption and assessment of side-effects.

 

Image result for ovid journal“Use of medical cannabis for improving symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing. However, reports on long-term outcomes are lacking. This prospective, observational study assessed the effects of licensed cannabis use among patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

METHODS:

Dose and mode of consumption, adverse events, use of other medications, and long-term effects were evaluated among 127 patients with inflammatory bowel disease using legalized medical cannabis. Blood count, albumin, and C-reactive protein were assessed before, 1 month, and at least 1 year after medical cannabis therapy was initiated. Questionnaires on disease activity, patient function, and signs of addiction were completed by patients and by a significant family member to assess its effects.

RESULTS:

The average dose used was 31 ± 15 g/month. The average Harvey-Bradshaw index improved from 14 ± 6.7 to 7 ± 4.7 (P < 0.001) during a median follow-up of 44 months (interquartile range, 24-56 months). There was a slight, but statistically significant, average weight gain of 2 kg within 1 year of cannabis use. The need for other medications was significantly reduced. Employment among patients increased from 65 to 74% (P < 0.05). We conclude that the majority of inflammatory bowel disease patients using cannabis are satisfied with a dose of 30 g/month. We did not observe negative effects of cannabis use on the patients’ social or occupational status.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use by inflammatory bowel disease patients can induce clinical improvement and is associated with reduced use of medication and slight weight gain. Most patients respond well to a dose of 30 g/month, or 21 mg Δ9-tetra- hydrocannabinol (THC) and 170 mg Cannabidiol (CBD) per day.”

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A National Survey of Marijuana Use Among US Adults With Medical Conditions, 2016-2017.

Image result for JAMA network“This study found that marijuana use was more common among adults with medical conditions than those without such conditions.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31539078/

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2751558

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Perception of Benefits and Harms of Medical Cannabis among Seriously Ill Patients in an Outpatient Palliative Care Practice.

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“Patients with serious illness often have pain, uncontrolled symptoms, and poor quality of life. Evidence continues to evolve regarding the role of cannabis to treat chronic pain, nausea, and anorexia. Little is known about how patients with serious illness perceive its benefits and harms. Given that an increasing number of clinicians across the United States are treating patients with medical cannabis, it is important for providers to understand patient beliefs about this modality. We assessed patient perceptions of benefits and harms of cannabis who obtained a medical cannabis card within an ambulatory palliative care (APC) practice.

Results: All 101 patients invited to participate completed the survey. A majority had cancer (76%) and were married (61%), disabled or retired (75%), older than 50 years of age (64%), and men (56%). Most patients ingested (61%) or vaporized (49%) cannabis products. A majority of respondents perceived cannabis to be important for their pain (96%) management. They reported that side effects were minimally bothersome, and drowsiness was the most commonly reported bothersome harm (28%). A minority of patients reported cannabis withdrawal symptoms (19%) and concerns for dependency (14%). The majority of patients were using concurrent prescription opioids (65%). Furthermore, a majority of cancer patients reported cannabis as being important for cancer cure (59%).

Conclusion: Patients living with serious illnesses who use cannabis in the context of a multidisciplinary APC practice use cannabis for curative intent and for pain and symptom control. Patients reported improved pain, other symptoms, and a sense of well-being with few reported harms.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31539298

https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/10.1089/jpm.2019.0211

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Medical cannabis for chronic pain: can it make a difference in pain management?

 “Globally, chronic pain is a major therapeutic challenge and affects more than 15% of the population. As patients with painful terminal diseases may face unbearable pain, there is a need for more potent analgesics.

Although opioid-based therapeutic agents received attention to manage severe pain, their adverse drug effects and mortality rate associated with opioids overdose are the major concerns.

Evidences from clinical trials showed therapeutic benefits of cannabis, especially delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabinoids reduced neuropathic pain intensity in various conditions. Also, there are reports on using combination cannabinoid therapies for chronic pain management.

The association of cannabis dependence and addiction has been discussed much and the reports mentioned that it can be comparatively lower than other substances such as nicotine and alcohol.

More countries have decided to legalise the medicinal use of cannabis and marijuana.

Healthcare professionals should keep themselves updated with the changing state of medical cannabis and its applications.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31535218

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00540-019-02680-y

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Medical Cannabis in Treatment of Resistant Familial Mediterranean Fever.

 Logo“Colchicine-resistant familial Mediterranean fever can be treated by anti-IL-1 biologic therapy; however, such treatment needs approval by the health insurance company, and many patients are denied such treatment or do not respond to it.

CASE REPORT Two familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients, both homozygous for M694V mutation and resistant to colchicine treatment, were treated with medical cannabis. Prior to that, 1 patient was denied biologic treatment and the other had no significant response to anakinra.

Under medical cannabis treatment, both patients had remarkable improvement in the severity of the attacks and also a decrease in the frequency of the attacks, from once every 2 weeks to 1 attack every month in 1 patient; this patient had also a remarkable reduction in the C-reactive protein level during the attacks.

CONCLUSIONS Cannabis is a therapeutic option for treating the most complex patients with FMF.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31501406

https://www.amjcaserep.com/abstract/index/idArt/917180

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The Effectiveness of Cannabinoids in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A Systematic Review.

Publication CoverPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health problem.

There has been a recent surge of interest regarding the use of cannabinoids in the treatment of PTSD.

We therefore sought to systematically review and assess the quality of the clinical evidence of the effectiveness of cannabinoids for the treatment of PTSD.

We found that cannabinoids may decrease PTSD symptomology, in particular sleep disturbances and nightmares.

Evidence that cannabinoids may help reduce global PTSD symptoms, sleep disturbances, and nightmares indicates that future well-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials are highly warranted.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31479625

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15504263.2019.1652380

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Activation of Cannabinoid Receptors Promote Periodontal Cell Adhesion and Migration.

Journal of Clinical Periodontology banner“Medical and recreational cannabis use is increasing significantly, but its impacts on oral health remains unclear.

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active component in cannabis, on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration to explore its role in periodontal regeneration and wound healing.

RESULTS:

Both CB1 and CB2 were expressed in periodontal tissues but with different expression patterns. THC promoted periodontal cell wound healing by inducing HPLF cell adhesion and migration. This was mediated by focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation and its modulation of MAPK activities. The effect of cannabinoids on periodontal fibroblast cell adhesion and migration were mainly dependent on the CB2.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggested that cannabinoids may contribute to developing new therapeutics for periodontal regeneration and wound healing.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461164

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jcpe.13190

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