“The oil extracted from hemp seeds has significant nutritional and biological properties due to the unique composition of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various antioxidant compounds. The potential of this oil for the prevention of oxidative stress and for the treatment of oxidative-stress-induced ailments is of increasing interest. Most studies of hemp seed oil were conducted in-vitro, meaning we lack information about effects and activity in vivo. In the present study, we evaluated the hypothesis that hemp seed oil at different concentrations improves the oxidative state of D. melanogaster, under non-stress as well as hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress. We analyzed the effects of hemp seed oil on oxidative stress markers and on the life cycle of D.melanogaster under non-stress and hydrogen-peroxide-induced stress conditions. D.melanogaster larvae were exposed to hemp seed oil concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 125 μL/mL. The results revealed that under non-stress conditions, oil concentrations up to 62.5 µL/mL did not induce negative effects on the life cycle of D. melanogaster and maintained the redox status of the larval cells at similar levels to the control level. Under oxidative stress conditions, biochemical parameters were significantly affected and only two oil concentrations, 18.7 and 31.2 µL/mL, provided protection against hydrogen peroxide stress effects. A higher oil concentration (125 μL/mL) exerted negative effects on the oxidative status and increased larval mortality. The tested oil was characterized chemically by NMR, transesterification, and silylation, followed by GC-MS analyses, and was shown to contain polyunsaturated fatty acid triglycerides and low levels of tocopherols. The high levels of linoleic and linolenic acids in the oil are suggested to be responsible for the observed in vivo antioxidant effects. Taken together, the results show that hemp seed oil is effective for reducing oxidative stress at the cellular level, thus supporting the hypothesis. The obtained results point to the potential of hemp seed oil for the prevention and treatment of conditions caused by the action of reactive oxygen species.”
“The concept of neurons as irreplaceable cells does not hold true today. Experiments and evidence of neurogenesis, also, in the adult brain give hope that some compounds or drugs can enhance this process, helping to reverse the outcomes of diseases or traumas that once were thought to be everlasting.
Cannabinoids, both from natural and artificial origins, already proved to have several beneficial effects (e.g., anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidants and analgesic action), but also capacity to increase neuronal population, by replacing the cells that were lost and/or regenerate a damaged nerve cell.
Neurogenesis is a process which is not highly represented in literature as neuroprotection, though it is as important as prevention of nervous system damage, because it can represent a possible solution when neuronal death is already present, such as in neurodegenerative diseases.
The aim of this review is to resume the experimental evidence of phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids effects on neurogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo, in order to elucidate if they possess also neurogenetic and neurorepairing properties.”
“The current results of cannabinoids effects on neurogenesis are encouraging, and it is expectable that the amount of evidence continues to increase in the future with other experiments.”
“The global incidence of respiratory diseases and complications is increasing. Therefore, new methods of treatment, as well as prevention, need to be investigated.
A group of compounds that should be considered for use in respiratory diseases is cannabinoids. There are three groups of cannabinoids – plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endogenous endocannabinoids including the enzymes responsible for their synthesis and degradation.
All cannabinoids exert their biological effects through either type 1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1) and/or type 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2). In numerous studies (in vitro and in vivo), cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation have shown beneficial anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and anti-fibrotic properties.
Although in the respiratory system, most of the studies have focused on the positive properties of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation. There are few research reports discussing the negative impact of these compounds. This review summarizes the properties and mechanisms of action of cannabinoids and inhibitors of endocannabinoid degradation in various models of respiratory diseases.
A short description of the effects selected cannabinoids have on the human respiratory system and their possible use in the fight against COVID-19 is also presented. Additionally, a brief summary is provided of cannabinoid receptors properties and their expression in the respiratory system and cells of the immune system.”
“Phytocannabinoids are terpenophenolic compounds produced by specialized parts of the Cannabis sativa plant and are found in high concentrations in marijuana and hashish. In most of models, these compounds have shown positive biological properties. Anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic actions are especially emphasized.”
“”Medicinal cannabis” is defined as the use of cannabis-based products for the treatment of an illness. Investigations of cannabis compounds in psychiatric and neurological illnesses primarily focus on the major cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), which are hypothesised to benefit multiple illnesses manifesting cognitive impairment, neurodegeneration and neuro-inflammation, as well as chronic pain, epilepsy and post-traumatic stress disorder, respectively.
The cannabis plant contains >500 compounds, including terpenes responsible for the flavour and fragrance profiles of plants. Recently, research has begun providing evidence on the potential use of certain plant-derived terpenes in modern medicine, demonstrating anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects of these compounds.
This review examined the effects of two key terpenes, pinene and linalool, on parameters relevant to neurological and psychiatric disorders, highlighting gaps in the literature and recommendations for future research into terpene therapeutics.
Overall, evidence is mostly limited to preclinical studies and well-designed clinical trials are lacking. Nevertheless, existing data suggests that pinene and linalool are relevant candidates for further investigation as novel medicines for illnesses, including stroke, ischemia, inflammatory and neuropathic pain (including migraine), cognitive impairment (relevant to Alzheimer’s disease and ageing), insomnia, anxiety, and depression.
Linalool and pinene influence multiple neurotransmitter, inflammatory and neurotrophic signals as well as behaviour, demonstrating psycho-activity (albeit non-intoxicating). Optimising the phytochemical profile of cannabis chemovars to yield therapeutic levels of beneficial terpenes and cannabinoids, such as linalool, pinene and CBD, could present a unique opportunity to discover novel medicines to treat psychiatric and neurological illnesses; however, further research is needed.”
“Overall, it appears that the importance of the terpene profile of plants to humans extends further than mere olfactory and gustatory delight. Rather, these compounds have the potential for use as treatments for serious chronic neurological and psychiatric illnesses.”
“The liver is a key metabolic organ that is particularly sensitive to environmental factors, including UV radiation. As UV radiation induces oxidative stress and inflammation, natural compounds are under investigation as one method to counteract these consequences.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topical application of phytocannabinoid-cannabidiol (CBD) on the skin of nude rats chronically irradiated with UVA/UVB, paying particular attention to its impact on the liver antioxidants and phospholipid metabolism.
The results of this study indicate that CBD reaches the rat liver where it is then metabolized into decarbonylated cannabidiol, 7-hydroxy-cannabidiol and cannabidiol-glucuronide. CBD increased the levels of GSH and vitamin A after UVB radiation. Moreover, CBD prevents the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-iso-prostaglandin-F2α levels in UVA-irradiated rats. As a consequence of reductions in phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases activity following UV irradiation, CBD upregulates the level of 2-arachidonoylglycerol and downregulates prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4. Finally, CBD enhances decreased level of 15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 after UVB radiation and 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid after UVA radiation.
These data show that CBD applied to the skin prevents ROS- and enzyme-dependent phospholipid metabolism in the liver of UV-irradiated rats, suggesting that it may be used as an internal organ protector.”
“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia Nigra pars compacta, leading to classical PD motor symptoms. Current therapies are purely symptomatic and do not modify disease progression.
Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main phytocannabinoids identified in Cannabis Sativa, which exhibits a large spectrum of therapeutic properties, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, suggesting its potential as disease-modifying agent for PD.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic treatment with CBD (10 mg/kg, i.p.) on PD-associated neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory processes, and motor deficits in the 6-hydroxydopamine model. Moreover, we investigated the potential mechanisms by which CBD exerted its effects in this model.
CBD-treated animals showed a reduction of nigrostriatal degeneration accompanied by a damping of the neuroinflammatory response and an improvement of motor performance. In particular, CBD exhibits a preferential action on astrocytes and activates the astrocytic transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), thus, enhancing the endogenous neuroprotective response of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF).
These results overall support the potential therapeutic utility of CBD in PD, as both neuroprotective and symptomatic agent.”
“Obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and attenuated brain insulin signaling are significant risk factors for neurodegenerative disorders, e.g., Alzheimer’s disease. IR and type 2 diabetes correlate with an increased concentration of sphingolipids, a class of lipids that play an essential structural role in cellular membranes and cell signaling pathways.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa plant that interacts with the endocannabinoidome. Despite known positive effects of CBD on improvement in diabetes and its aftermath, e.g., anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, there are no studies evaluating the effect of phytocannabinoids on the brain insulin resistance and sphingolipid metabolism. Our experiment was carried out on Wistar rats that received a high-fat diet and/or intraperitoneal CBD injections.
In our study, we indicated inhibition of de novo synthesis and salvage pathways, which resulted in significant changes in the concentration of sphingolipids, e.g., ceramide and sphingomyelin. Furthermore, we observed reduced brain IR and decreased tau protein phosphorylation what might be protective against neuropathologies development.
We believe that our research will concern a new possible therapeutic approach with Cannabis -plant derived compounds and within a few years, cannabinoids would be considered as prominent substances for targeting both metabolic and neurodegenerative pathologies.”
“CBD might be an essential factor that leads to the reduction of brain IR. Thus, we believe that our research will concern a new possible therapeutic approach with a Cannabis-plant derived compounds and within a few years, those substances would be considered as prominent compounds for targeting both metabolic and neurodegenerative pathologies.”
“Mitochondria have the main roles in myocardial tissue homeostasis, through providing ATP for the vital enzymes in intermediate metabolism, contractile apparatus and maintaining ion homeostasis. Mitochondria-related cardiotoxicity results from the exposure with illicit drugs have previously reported. These illicit drugs interference with processes of normal mitochondrial homeostasis and lead to mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial-related oxidative stress.
Here, we investigated this hypothesis that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC) as a main cannabinoid found in cannabis could directly cause mitochondrial dysfunction.
Our observation showed that THC did not cause a deleterious alteration in mitochondrial functions, ROS production, MMP collapse, mitochondrial swelling, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in used concentrations (5-100 µM), even in several tests, toxicity showed a decreasing trend.
Altogether, the results of the current study showed that THC is not directly toxic in isolated cardiac mitochondria, and even may be helpful in reducing mitochondrial toxicity.”
“Despite the high incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI), there is no universal treatment to safely treat patients. Blunt brain injuries destroy primary neural tissue that results in impaired perfusion, excessive release of glutamate, inflammation, excitotoxicity, and progressive secondary neuronal cell death.
We hypothesized that administration of cannabidiol (CBD) directly to a brain contusion site, will optimize delivery to the injured tissue which will reduce local neural excitation and inflammation to spare neural tissue and improve neurological outcome following TBI.
CBD was infused into a gelfoam matrix forming an implant (CBDi), then applied over the dura at the contusion site as well as delivered systemically by injection (CBD.IP). Post-injury administration of CBDi+IP greatly reduced defecation scores, lesion volume, the loss of neurons in the ipsilateral hippocampus, the number of injured neurons of the contralateral hippocampus, and reversed TBI-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) upregulation which was superior to either CBD.IP or CBDi treatment alone.
Vestibulomotor performance on the beam-balance test was restored by 12 days post-TBI and sustained through 28 days. CBDi+IP treated rats exhibited preinjury levels of spontaneous alternation on the spontaneous alternation T-maze. In the object recognition test, they had greater mobility and exploration of novel objects compared to contusion or implant alone consistent with reduced anxiety and restored cognitive function.
These results suggest that dual therapy by targeting the site of injury internally with a CBD-infused medical carrier followed by systemic supplementation may offer a more effective countermeasure than systemic or implant treatment alone for the deleterious effects of penetrating head wounds.”
“CBD improved vestibulomotor function and learning and memory cognitive performance post-TBI. Local delivery at the contusion site and systemic injection of CBD reduced TBI-induced lesion volume. Dual treatment, direct and systemic CBD, is superior to single treatment.”
“Introduction: Obesity is defined as an excess of accumulation of fat that can be harmful to health. Storage of excess fat in the adipose tissue triggers an inflammatory process, which makes obesity a low-grade chronic inflammatory disease. Obesity is considered a complex and multifactorial disease; hence, no intervention strategy appears to be an ideal treatment for all individuals. Therefore, new therapeutic alternatives are often studied for the treatment of this disease. Currently, herbal medicines are gaining ground in the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. In this context, much attention is being paid to Cannabis sativa derivatives, and their therapeutic functions are being widely studied, including in treating obesity.
Objective: Highlight the pharmacological properties of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabidinol (THC), and cannabidiol (CBD), the predominant isolated components of Cannabis sativa, as well as its therapeutic potential in the treatment of obesity.
Results: Evidence shows that Cannabis sativa derivatives have therapeutic potential due to their anti-inflammatory properties. In addition, people who use cannabis have a lower body mass index than those who do not, making the plant an option to reduce and reverse inflammation and comorbidities in obesity.
Conclusion: It is concluded that phytocannabinoids derived from Cannabis sativa have therapeutic potential due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties, making the plant a study option to reduce and reverse inflammation and comorbidities associated with obesity.”