In Vitro Model of Neuroinflammation: Efficacy of Cannabigerol, a Non-Psychoactive Cannabinoid.

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“Inflammation and oxidative stress play main roles in neurodegeneration. Interestingly, different natural compounds may be able to exert neuroprotective actions against inflammation and oxidative stress, protecting from neuronal cell loss.

Among these natural sources, Cannabis sativa represents a reservoir of compounds exerting beneficial properties, including cannabigerol (CBG), whose antioxidant properties have already been demonstrated in macrophages.

Here, we aimed to evaluate the ability of CBG to protect NSC-34 motor neurons against the toxicity induced from the medium of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages.

All together, these results indicated the neuroprotective effects of CBG, that may be a potential treatment against neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29986533

http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/7/1992

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Nutraceutical potential of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds and sprouts.

 Food Chemistry

“In this study the antioxidant effect of Cannabis sativa L. seeds and sprouts (3 and 5 days of germination) was evaluated.

Total polyphenols, flavonoids and flavonols content, when expressed on dry weight basis, were highest in sprouts; ORAC and DPPH (in vitro assays), CAA-RBC (cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cells) and hemolysis test (ex vivo assays) evidenced a good antioxidant activity higher in sprouts than in seeds. Untargeted analysis by high resolution mass spectrometry in negative ion mode allowed the identification of main polyphenols (caffeoyltyramine, cannabisin A, B, C) in seeds and of ω-6 (linoleic acid) in sprouts. Antimutagenic effect of seeds and sprouts extracts evidenced a significant decrease of mutagenesis induced by hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D7 strain.

In conclusion our results show that C. sativa seeds and sprouts exert beneficial effects on yeast and human cells and should be further investigated as a potential functional food.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29751921

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308814618307180?via%3Dihub

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β-Caryophyllene (BCP) ameliorates MPP+ induced cytotoxicity.

Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy

“Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases resulting from the continuous death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) has been reported to be a major neurotoxin causing neurotoxic insults on dopaminergic neurons in humans.

β-Caryophyllene (BCP), an important cannabinoid derived from the essential oils of different species, has displayed pharmacological properties in different kinds of tissues and cells. However, neuroprotective effects of BCP in PD haven’t been reported before.

Our results indicate that treatment with MPP+ in SH-SY5Y cells led to a significant decrease in cell viability, which was restored by BCP. Additionally, BCP suppressed MPP+-induced release of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, BCP treatment restored the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) induced by MPP+. BCP treatment increased intracellular GSH and GPx activity.

Also, we found that the antioxidant effects of BCP against MPP+- induced neurotoxicity are dependent on cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R). Moreover, our results indicated that BCP prevented MPP+-induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y through inhibiting the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-3, Bax, and restoring the expression of Bcl-2. Besides, BCP markedly suppressed HO-1 activation and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) phosphorylation.

We conclude that BCP might act as a promising therapeutic agent against MPP+ toxicity in neuronal cells.”

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”   http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934
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Cannabinoid receptor 2: a potential novel therapeutic target for sepsis?

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“Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. It is the most common cause of death among critically ill patients in non-coronary intensive care units and the incidence continues to rise. Although advanced management was applied, the prognosis of sepsis patients remains poor.

As a G-protein coupled receptor, cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) was implicated in a wide variety of diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of CB2R in sepsis.

With the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, CB2R is a novel and promising therapeutic target in the management of sepsis. Indeed, specific CB2R agonists have been reported to attenuate leukocyte recruitment, oxidative burst, systemic inflammatory mediator release, bacteremia, and lung tissue damage, while improving survival in different sepsis models.

In addition, autophagy has also been implicated in the protective role of CB2R activation in sepsis. However, almost all of the current outcomes result from animal studies or in vitro cultured cells. Due to the lack of clinical evidence and the ambiguous mechanisms underlying, the clinical application of CB2R stimulation in sepsis is limited. Further studies are needed to delineate the therapeutic effect and the related-pathways of CB2R agonists in sepsis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29694303

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17843286.2018.1461754?journalCode=yacb20

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Maternal administration of cannabidiol promotes an anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal wall in a gastroschisis rat model.

SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

“Gastroschisis (GS) is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients.

Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol(CBD) has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases.

Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS.

Maternal use of CBD had a beneficial effect on the intestinal loops of GS with decreased nitrite/nitrate and iNOS expression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29561958

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0100-879X2018000500607&lng=en&tlng=en

“Is CBD Oil Safe To Use During Pregnancy? It’s Said To Relieve Pain & Your Body Is Hurting” https://www.romper.com/p/is-cbd-oil-safe-to-use-during-pregnancy-its-said-to-relieve-pain-your-body-is-hurting-8280324

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Exploration of Potentially Bioactive Peptides Generated from the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Hempseed Proteins.

Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry

“The seed of industrial hemp is an underexploited protein source. In view of a possible use in functional foods, a hempseed protein concentrate was hydrolyzed with pepsin, trypsin, pancreatin, or a mixture of these enzymes. A detailed peptidomic analysis using data-dependent acquisition showed that the numbers of peptides identified ranged from 90 belonging to 33 parent proteins in the peptic hydrolysate to 9 belonging to 6 proteins in the pancreatin digest. The peptic and tryptic hydrolysates resulted to be the most efficient inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-coenzyme A reductase activity when tested on the catalytic domain of the enzyme. Using the open access tools PeptideRanker and BIOPEP, a list of potentially bioactive peptides was generated: the alleged activities included the antioxidant property, the glucose uptake stimulating activity, the inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and angiotensin-converting enzyme I.”

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Benefits of VCE-003.2, a cannabigerol quinone derivative, against inflammation-driven neuronal deterioration in experimental Parkinson’s disease: possible involvement of different binding sites at the PPARγ receptor.

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“Neuroprotection with cannabinoids in Parkinson’s disease (PD) has been afforded predominantly with antioxidant or anti-inflammatory cannabinoids. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties of VCE-003.2, a quinone derivative of the non-psychotrophic phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG), which may derive its activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). The compound is also an antioxidant.

We have demonstrated that VCE-003.2 is neuroprotective against inflammation-driven neuronal damage in an in vivo model of PD and in in vitro cellular models of neuroinflammation. Such effects might involve PPARγ receptors, although in silico and in vitro experiments strongly suggest that VCE-003.2 targets PPARγ by acting through two binding sites at the LBP, one that is sensitive to T0070907 (canonical binding site) and other that is not affected by this PPARγ antagonist (alternative binding site).”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29338785

https://jneuroinflammation.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12974-018-1060-5

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Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells.

 SAGE Journals

“Clostridium difficile toxin A is responsible for colonic damage observed in infected patients.

Drugs able to restore Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity have the potential to improve the recovery of infected patients. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, which has been demonstrated to protect enterocytes against chemical and/or inflammatory damage and to restore intestinal mucosa integrity.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) the anti-apoptotic effect and (b) the mechanisms by which cannabidiol protects mucosal integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A.

RESULTS:

Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly decreased Caco-2 cells’ viability and reduced transepithelial electrical resistence values and RhoA guanosine triphosphate (GTP), bax, zonula occludens-1 and occludin protein expression, respectively. All these effects were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by cannabidiol, whose effects were completely abolished in the presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, AM251.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabidiol improved Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of the CB1 receptor.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238589

“In the last decade, cannabinoids extracted from the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) and synthetic cannabinoids have shown numerous beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most interesting compounds, since it exerts a wide range of beneficial pharmacological actions on GI functions, ranging from antioxidant to antinflammatory activities. CBD has been shown to act as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors. Notably, CBD is able to restore in vitro intestinal permeability increased by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or pro-inflammatory stimuli.

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile-Toxin A significantly affects enterocytes permeability leading to apoptosis and colonic mucosal damage.

In the present study, we showed that Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa significantly inhibit the apoptosis rate in TcdA-exposed cells and restores barrier function by a significant RhoA GTP rescue.

We also provide evidence that the effects of Cannabidiol are mediated by CB-1 receptor.

Given the absence of any significant toxic effect in humans, cannabidiol may ideally represent an effective adjuvant treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.”   http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050640617698622

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Extract of Fructus Cannabis Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairment Induced by D-Galactose in an Aging Rats Model.

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“Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) has been used as a health food and folk medicine in China for centuries.

In the present study, we sought to define the underlying mechanism by which the extract of Fructus Cannabis (EFC) protects against memory impairment induced by D-galactose in rats.

To accelerate aging and induce memory impairment in rats, D-galactose (400 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally once daily for 14 weeks. EFC (200 and 400 mg/kg) was simultaneously administered intragastrically once daily in an attempt to slow the aging process.

We found that EFC significantly increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, while lowering levels of malondialdehyde in the hippocampus. Moreover, EFC dramatically elevated the organ indices of some organs, including the heart, the liver, the thymus, and the spleen. In addition, EFC improved the behavioral performance of rats treated with D-galactose in the Morris water maze. Furthermore, EFC inhibited the activation of astrocytes and remarkably attenuated phosphorylated tau and suppressed the expression of presenilin 1 in the brain of D-galactose-treated rats.

These findings suggested that EFC exhibits beneficial effects on the cognition of aging rats probably by enhancing antioxidant capacity and anti-neuroinflammation, improving immune function, and modulating tau phosphorylation and presenilin expression.”

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Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prevents Cardiovascular Dysfunction in STZ-Diabetic Wistar-Kyoto Rats.

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“The aim of this study was to determine if chronic, low-dose administration of a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus.

Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administration to diabetic animals significantly reduced blood glucose concentrations and attenuated pathological changes in serum markers of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Positive changes to biochemical indices in diabetic animals conferred improvements in myocardial and vascular function.

This study demonstrates that chronic, low-dose administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol can elicit antihyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects in diabetic animals, leading to improvements in end organ function of the cardiovascular system. Implications from this study suggest that cannabinoid receptors may be a potential new target for the treatment of diabetes-induced cardiovascular disease.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29181404

“The aim of this study was to determine if a nonspecific cannabinoid receptor agonist could provide cardioprotective effects in a model of type I diabetes mellitus. Outcomes from this study indicate that THC administration to STZ improved functional parameters of cardiovascular health by reducing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and blood glucose levels. These results indicate that activation of cannabinoid receptors may be a viable experimental target for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced complications in type I diabetes mellitus.”  https://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2017/7974149/

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