Cannabidiol induces antioxidant pathways in keratinocytes by targeting BACH1.

Redox Biology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that attracted a great attention for its therapeutic potential against different pathologies including skin diseases.

However, although the efficacy in preclinical models and the clinical benefits of CBD in humans have been extensively demonstrated, the molecular mechanism(s) and targets responsible for these effects are as yet unknown.

Herein we characterized at the molecular level the effects of CBD on primary human keratinocytes using a combination of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS).

Functional analysis revealed that CBD regulated pathways involved in keratinocyte differentiation, skin development and epidermal cell differentiation among other processes. In addition, CBD induced the expression of several NRF2 target genes, with heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) being the gene and the protein most upregulated by CBD. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, RNA interference and biochemical studies demonstrated that the induction of HMOX1 mediated by CBD, involved nuclear export and proteasomal degradation of the transcriptional repressor BACH1.

Notably, we showed that the effect of BACH1 on HMOX1 expression in keratinocytes is independent of NRF2. In vivo studies showed that topical CBD increased the levels of HMOX1 and of the proliferation and wound-repair associated keratins 16 and 17 in the skin of mice.

Altogether, our study identifies BACH1 as a molecular target for CBD in keratinocytes and sets the basis for the use of topical CBD for the treatment of different skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and keratin disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31518892

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231719306470?via%3Dihub

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

European Journal of Pharmacology“The biological effects of endocannabinoid system are mediated by two types of receptors, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2). They play a pivotal role in the management of pain, inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

CB2 receptor activity downregulation is hallmark of inflammation and oxidative stress. Strong evidence display the relation between activation of CB2 receptors with decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic factors. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been validated to confirm the role of CB2 receptor in the management of obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.

Activation of CB2 receptor has led to reduction of inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) and also amelioration of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species playing role in apoptosis. Many studies confirmed the role of CB2 receptors in the insulin secretion via facilitating calcium entry into the pancreatic β-cells. CB2 receptors also displayed improvement in the neuronal and renal functions by decreasing the oxidative stress and downregulating inflammatory cascade.

The present review addresses, potential role of CB2 receptor activation in management of diabetes and its complications. It also includes the role of CB2 receptors as an anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory for the treatment of DM and its complications. Also, an informative summary of CB2 receptor agonist drugs is provided with their potential role in the reduction of glucose levels, increment in the insulin levels, decrease in the hyperglycaemic oxidative stress and inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461639

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299919305801?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol differentially regulates basal and LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, lung epithelial cells, and fibroblasts.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology“Cannabidiol (CBD) containing products are available in a plethora of flavors including oral, sublingual, and inhalable forms. Immunotoxicological effects of CBD containing liquids were assessed by hypothesizing that CBD regulates oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory responses in macrophages, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts.

RESULTS:

CBD showed differential effects on IL-8 and MCP-1, and acellular and cellular ROS levels. CBD significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activity and IL-8 and MCP-1 release from macrophages. Cytokine array data depicted a differential cytokine response due to CBD. Inflammatory mediators, IL-8, serpin E1, CXCL1, IL-6, MIF, IFN-γ, MCP-1, RANTES, and TNF-α were induced, whereas MCP-1/CCL2, CCL5, eotaxin, IL-1ra, and IL-2 were reduced. CBD and dexamethasone treatments reduced the IL-8 level induced by LPS when the cells were treated individually, but showed antagonistic effects when used in combination via MCPIP (monocytic chemotactic protein-induced protein).

CONCLUSION:

CBD differentially regulated basal pro-inflammatory response and attenuated both LPS-induced cytokine release and NF-κB activity in monocytes, similar to dexamethasone. Thus, CBD has a differential inflammatory response and acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in pro-inflammatory conditions but acts as an antagonist with steroids, overriding the anti-inflammatory potential of steroids when used in combination.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31437494

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X19303217?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol Regulates the Expression of Keratinocyte Proteins Involved in the Inflammation Process through Transcriptional Regulation.

cells-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD), a natural phytocannabinoid without psychoactive effect, is a well-known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound.

The possibility of its use in cytoprotection of cells from harmful factors, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, is an area of ongoing investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CBD on the regulatory mechanisms associated with the redox balance and inflammation in keratinocytes irradiated with UVA [30 J/cm2] and UVB [60 mJ/cm2].

Spectrophotometric results show that CBD significantly enhances the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase in UV irradiated keratinocytes. Furthermore, despite decreased glutathione peroxidase and reductase activities, CBD prevents lipid peroxidation, which was observed as a decreased level of 4-HNE and 15d-PGJ2 (measured using GC/MS and LC/MS). Moreover, Western blot analysis of protein levels shows that, under stress conditions, CBD influences interactions of transcription factors Nrf2- NFκB by inhibiting the NFκB pathway, increasing the expression of Nrf2 activators and stimulating the transcription activity of Nrf2.

In conclusion, the antioxidant activity of CBD through Nrf2 activation as well as its anti-inflammatory properties as an inhibitor of NFκB should be considered during design of new protective treatments for the skin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31382646

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/8/827

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The curative effect of cannabinoid 2 receptor agonist on functional failure and disruptive inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia and reperfusion.

Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology banner“Ischemia and reperfusion of intestinal tissue (intestinal I/R) induces disruption of ileal contractility and chain responses of inflammatory.

The aim of this study was to reveal whether therapeutic value of cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor activity in the intestinal I/R, via to the exogenous administration of CB2 agonist (AM-1241).

Intestinal I/R injury were performed through 30 min ischemia and 150 min reperfusion of mesenteric artery in Wistar rats. The pre-administered doses of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg/kg of CB2 agonist were studied to inhibit inflammation of intestinal I/R injury including ileum smooth muscle contractility, polymorphonuclear cell migration, oxidant/antioxidant defence system, and provocative cytokines.

Pre-administration with CB2 receptor agonist ensured to considerable improving the disrupted contractile responses in ileum smooth muscle along with decreased the formation of MDA that production of lipid peroxidation, reversed the depleted glutathione, inhibited the expression of TNF-α and of IL-1β in the intestinal I/R of rats.

Taken together results of this research, the agonistic activity of CB2 receptor for healing of intestinal I/R injury is ensuring associated with anti-inflammatory mechanisms such as the inhibiting of migration of inflammatory polymorphonuclear cells that origin of acute and initial responses of inflammation, the inhibiting of production of provocative and pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α and IL-1β, the rebalancing of oxidant/antioxidant redox system disrupted in injury of reperfusion period, and the supporting of physiologic defensive systems in endothelial and inducible inflammatory cells.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31373049

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/fcp.12502

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids as neuroprotective agents for damaged cells conducing to movement disorders.

International Review of Neurobiology“The basal ganglia (BG), an organized network of nuclei that integrates cortical information, play a crucial role in controlling motor function. In fact, movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Huntington’s disease (HD) are caused by the degeneration of specific structures within the BG.

There is substantial evidence supporting the idea that cannabinoids may constitute novel promising compounds for the treatment of movement disorders as neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents.

This potential therapeutic role of cannabinoids is based, among other qualities, on their capacity to reduce oxidative injury and excitotoxicity, control calcium influx and limit the toxicity of reactive microglia.

The mechanisms involved in these effects are related to CB1 and CB2 receptor activation, although some of the effects are CB receptor independent.

Thus, taking into account the aforementioned properties, compounds that act on the endocannabinoid system could be useful as a basis for developing disease-modifying therapies for PD and HD.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31349929

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0074774219300327?via%3Dihub

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Cannabinoid system involves in the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid.

 “Protocatechuic acid is an antioxidant which is shown to have analgesic activity in limited studies. However, the mechanisms of action remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES:

It is aimed to investigate the possible contribution of cannabinoid system that supresses the nociceptive process by the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors in central and peripheral levels of pain pathways, to the analgesic activity of protocatechuic acid.

RESULTS:

It was determined that protocatechuic acid has dose-dependent analgesic effect independently from locomotor activity and is comparable with effects of dipyrone and WIN 55,212-2. Pre-treatment with CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 significantly antagonized the protocatechuic acid-induced analgesia in the tail-immersion and writhing tests, whereas pre-treatment of CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 was found to be effective only in the tail-immersion test.

CONCLUSION:

It is concluded that cannabinoid modulation contributes to the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid in spinal level rather than peripheral. CB1 receptor stimulation rather than CB2 receptor stimulation mediates the analgesic effect of protocatechuic acid in both levels, especially peripheral. Graphical abstract Protocatechuic acid inhibits pain response via cannabinoidergic system.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31325037

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40199-019-00288-x

“Protocatechuic acid (PCA) is a dihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid. It is a major metabolite of antioxidant polyphenols found in green tea.”  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protocatechuic_acid

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Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts.

“Herein, we report the antioxidant activity of cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in pure and mixed solutions at different ratios, as well as of six different Cannabis sativa extracts containing various proportions of CBD and THC by using spectrophotometric (reducing power assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) scavenging assays) and electrochemical methods (cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry).

The isolated cannabinoids, the different stoichiometric ratios of CBD and THC, and the natural extracts proved to have remarkable antioxidant properties in all the methods employed in this work.

The antioxidant activity of CBD and THC was compared against that of the well-defined antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), resveratrol (Resv) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Clear evidence of the synergistic and antagonistic effects between CBD and THC regarding to their antioxidant activities was observed.

Moreover, a good correlation was obtained between the optical and electrochemical methods, which proved that the reported experimental procedures can easily be adapted to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from various Cannabis sativa species and related compounds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31318364

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/AN/C9AN00890J#!divAbstract

Graphical abstract: Probing the antioxidant activity of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol in Cannabis sativa extracts

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The protective mechanism of cannabidiol in cardiac injury: A systematic review of non-clinical studies.

“Cardiac disease is accounted as the leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality, mainly in association with induction of inflammation and oxidative stress. The disease is characterized by the overproduction of reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS), and reduced antioxidant capacity.

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychoactive ingredient of marijuana that reported to be safe and well tolerated in patients. Due to its pleiotropic effect, CBD has been shown to exert cytoprotective effects. This study intended to clarify the mechanisms and the potential role of CBD regarding cardiac injuries treatment.

RESULTS:

Our findings obviously demonstrate that CBD has multi-functional protective assets to improve cardiac injuries; preliminary through scavenging of free radicals, and reduction of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation.

CONCLUSION:

CBD can protect against cardiac injuries, mainly through its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects on the basis of non-clinical studies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31291873

http://www.eurekaselect.com/173374/article

“Cytoprotection is a process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytoprotection

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Therapeutic prospects of cannabidiol for alcohol use disorder and alcohol-related damages on the liver and the brain

 Image result for frontiers in pharmacology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a natural compound of cannabis, which exerts complex and widespread immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antiepileptic properties. Many experimental data suggest that CBD could have several types of application in alcohol use disorder (AUD) and alcohol-related damage on the brain and the liver.

Experimental studies converge to find that CBD reduces the overall level of alcohol drinking in animal models of AUD by reducing ethanol intake, motivation for ethanol, relapse, and by decreasing anxiety and impulsivity. Moreover, CBD has been shown to reduce alcohol-related steatosis and fibrosis in the liver by reducing lipid accumulation, stimulating autophagy, modulating inflammation, reducing oxidative stress, and inducing death of activated hepatic stellate cells. Last, CBD has been found to reduce alcohol-related brain damage, preventing neuronal loss by its antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties.

CBD could directly reduce alcohol drinking in subjects with AUD. But other original applications warrant human trials in this population. By reducing alcohol-related processes of steatosis in the liver, and brain alcohol-related damage, CBD could improve both the hepatic and neurocognitive outcomes of subjects with AUD, regardless of the individual drinking trajectories. This might pave the way for testing new harm reduction approaches in AUD, i.e., for protecting the organs of subjects with an ongoing AUD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00627/abstract

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