Ameliorative effects of hempseed (Cannabis sativa) against hypercholesterolemia associated cardiovascular changes.

Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases“Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases, that are the major cause of mortality worldwide.

Free radicals mediated oxidative stress is a critical player in HC-associated pathophysiological insults including atherosclerosis. Unwanted side effects associated with statins, COX-2 inhibitors, and other synthetic drugs limit their use. Thus, modulation of oxidative stress during HC using green pharmaceuticals seems an appropriate approach against deleterious CV consequences without noticeable side-effect.

In this regard, owing to an abundance of proteins, fiber and optimal ratios of omega 6 PUFA: omega-3 PUFA in Hempseed (HS), we aim to exploit its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties to ameliorate HC- associated CV effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Current study evidently demonstrates that the anti-hypercholesterolemic effects of HS are mediated through redox-sensitive modulation of inflammatory pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31668458

“Hypercholesterolemia (HC) associated oxidative stress is central to cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Unwanted side effects associated with statins and other synthetic drugs limits their use. Modulation of HC associated oxidative stress by Hempseed (HS) was based on its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties. HS exhibited intense anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic effect via redox modulation of PG biosynthetic pathway. The multipronged approach to characterize HC associated CV effects and its modulation by HS is novel.”

https://www.nmcd-journal.com/article/S0939-4753(19)30345-X/fulltext

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Cannabidiol prevents LPS-induced microglial inflammation by inhibiting ROS/NF-κB-dependent signaling and glucose consumption.

Publication cover image“We used mouse microglial cells in culture activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 10 ng/ml) to study the anti-inflammatory potential of cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of cannabis.

Under LPS stimulation, CBD (1-10 μM) potently inhibited the release of prototypical proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) and that of glutamate, a noncytokine mediator of inflammation. The effects of CBD were predominantly receptor-independent and only marginally blunted by blockade of CB2 receptors.

We established that CBD inhibited a mechanism involving, sequentially, NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production and NF-κB-dependent signaling events. In line with these observations, active concentrations of CBD demonstrated an intrinsic free-radical scavenging capacity in the cell-free DPPH assay.

Of interest, CBD also prevented the rise in glucose uptake observed in microglial cells challenged with LPS, as did the inhibitor of NADPH oxidase apocynin and the inhibitor of IκB kinase-2, TPCA-1. This indicated that the capacity of CBD to prevent glucose uptake also contributed to its anti-inflammatory activity.

Supporting this view, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) mimicked the antioxidant/immunosuppressive effects of CBD. Interestingly, CBD and 2-DG, as well as apocynin and TPCA-1 caused a reduction in glucose-derived NADPH, a cofactor required for NADPH oxidase activation and ROS generation.

These different observations suggest that CBD exerts its anti-inflammatory effects towards microglia through an intrinsic antioxidant effect, which is amplified through inhibition of glucose-dependent NADPH synthesis.

These results also further confirm that CBD may have therapeutic utility in conditions where neuroinflammatory processes are prominent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31647138

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/glia.23738

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Hemp seed polysaccharides protect intestinal epithelial cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress.

International Journal of Biological Macromolecules“The purpose of this study was to investigate structure of Hemp seed polysaccharide (HSP) and the protective effect of HSP from H2O2-induced oxidative damage in IPEC-1 cells and the possible mechanism of this protection.

Analysis of monosaccharide composition and structure of two fractions HSP0 and HSP0.2 from polysaccharide of Hemp seed (HSPc) were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

The results showed that both HSP0 and HSP0.2 contain sulfate groups, which are sulfated polysaccharides. In IPEC-1 cells model, the release of LDH and MDA was significantly decreased, and the activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT were significantly increased in HSP0 and HSP0.2-treated group. HSP0.2 dramatically increased the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and phase II detoxification enzymes measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In addition, HSP0.2 up-regulated the expression level of intracellular transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and inhibited the level of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) with Western blot analysis.

Collectively, the present study suggested that HSP0.2 has the protective effect of IPEC-1 cells against H2O2-induecd oxidative stress. This protection mechanism may be related to activation of the Keap1/Nrf2 signaling pathway.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31108145

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141813018372660?via%3Dihub

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Effect οf Genotype and Growing Year on the Nutritional, Phytochemical, and Antioxidant Properties of Industrial Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Seeds.

antioxidants-logo “Cannabis sativa L. seeds have been an important source of protein, oil, and dietary fiber for human and animals. Currently, there is a growing interest in the commercial products of these seeds, which are recognized as a legitimate source of medicaments, cosmeceuticals, and nutraceuticals.

The objective of this study was to investigate the nutritional, phytochemical composition, and antioxidant properties of seeds from seven hemp cultivars grown in Greece for three consecutive years.

All the measured parameters strongly varied under the influence of growing year and genotype. In particular, protein, oil, and carbohydrates’ content of hemp seeds as well as fatty acids’ composition were mainly affected by genotype, whereas the growing year had a major effect on phytochemical components and antioxidant activity, which was determined by the 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonate) (ABTS) and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Moreover, a predominant effect of the year was observed for phenolic profiles as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and total carotenoids’ content.

This study suggests that hemp seeds could be a promising food crop as a result of their high nutritive traits and antioxidant potential. A comparison of the studied cultivars, showed that Finola seeds had the highest oil and protein contents and, thus, appeared to be the most promising cultivar for cultivation in Greece.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31627349

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/8/10/491

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CLG from Hemp Seed Inhibits LPS-Stimulated Neuroinflammation in BV2 Microglia by Regulating NF-κB and Nrf-2 Pathways.

Go to Volume 4, Issue 15“The healthy benefits of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed have often been attributed to its oils and proteins.

Recent studies reveal that hemp seed phenylpropionamides could also show various bioactivities. Continuation of our study on hemp seed provided a phenylpropionamide, coumaroylaminobutanol glucopyranoside (CLG). This work investigated the neuroprotective effect of CLG and its underlying mechanism using lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia.

Our study demonstrated that CLG increased adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression, suppressed the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation of IκBα and NF-κB p65 and decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, CLG reduced the production of cellular reactive oxygen species and stimulated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling pathway.

Collectively, these results suggested that CLG effectively and simultaneously inhibited inflammatory responses and oxidative stress through the NF-κB and Nrf-2 signaling pathways. AMPK was also involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of CLG. This study provides new insights into the diverse bioactive constituents of hemp seed.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31616830

“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed has been used as food and traditional medicine for centuries. Our findings contribute to the knowledge of diverse bioactive compounds from hemp seed and the potential of hemp seed in the treatment of microglia-related neuroinflammatory diseases.”

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.9b02168

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Neuroprotective protein hydrolysates from hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds.

 “Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds are well known for their potential use as a source of nutrients, fiber, and bioactive compounds.

A hemp protein isolate, prepared from defatted hemp flour, was hydrolyzed by alcalase and flavourzyme under specific conditions.

The resulting hydrolysates were evaluated for the selection of potentially bioactive hemp protein hydrolysates (HPHs) owing to their DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power activity. In vitro cell-free experiments led to the identification of two bioactive HPHs, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF, which were used at 50 and 100 μg mL-1 on BV-2 microglial cells in order to evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

Our results showed that HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF down-regulated TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA transcriptional levels in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. In addition, HPH20A and HPH60A + 15AF up-regulated the gene expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10.

This study suggests for the first time that HPHs may improve the neuroinflammatory and inflammatory states, supporting the nutraceutical value of hemp seeds.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31576391

https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/FO/C9FO01904A#!divAbstract

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Agitation, Oxidative Stress, and Cytokines in Alzheimer Disease: Biomarker Analyses From a Clinical Trial With Nabilone for Agitation.

 Image result for journal of geriatric psychiatry and neurology

“The endocannabinoid system has been a target of interest for agitation in Alzheimer disease (AD) because of potential behavioral effects and its potential impact on mechanisms implicated in AD such as oxidative stress (OS) and neuroinflammation.

We explored whether serum markers of OS and neuroinflammation were associated with response to the cannabinoid nabilone in agitated patients with AD (N = 38).

These findings suggest that OS and neuroinflammation may be associated with agitation severity, while nabilone may have anti-inflammatory effects.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31547752

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0891988719874118?journalCode=jgpb

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Antiproliferative and antioxidant effect of polar hemp extracts (Cannabis sativa L., Fedora cv.) in human colorectal cell lines.

Publication Cover “Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of polar extracts of edible resources from Fedora hemp cultivar (Cannabis sativa L.), namely seed, flour and oil, were evaluated. The main components in the polar extracts were identified using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. As expected, the molecular profile of components from seeds and flour was strictly similar, dominated by N-trans-caffeoyltyramine. The profile of oil polar extracts contained hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and cannabinoids at lower extent. While the extracts from hemp seed and flour did not interfere with growth of Caco-2 and HT-29 cell, the one from oil (150 µg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability after 24 h of treatment. This effect was associated with the activation of apoptotic cell death and was independent from the antioxidant capacity of the oil polar extract. Notably, HT-29 cells differentiated with sodium butyrate were not sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of the oil extract.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31544542

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09637486.2019.1666804?journalCode=iijf20

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Cannabidiol induces antioxidant pathways in keratinocytes by targeting BACH1.

Redox Biology“Cannabidiol (CBD) is a major non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that attracted a great attention for its therapeutic potential against different pathologies including skin diseases.

However, although the efficacy in preclinical models and the clinical benefits of CBD in humans have been extensively demonstrated, the molecular mechanism(s) and targets responsible for these effects are as yet unknown.

Herein we characterized at the molecular level the effects of CBD on primary human keratinocytes using a combination of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectrometry (SWATH-MS).

Functional analysis revealed that CBD regulated pathways involved in keratinocyte differentiation, skin development and epidermal cell differentiation among other processes. In addition, CBD induced the expression of several NRF2 target genes, with heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1) being the gene and the protein most upregulated by CBD. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing, RNA interference and biochemical studies demonstrated that the induction of HMOX1 mediated by CBD, involved nuclear export and proteasomal degradation of the transcriptional repressor BACH1.

Notably, we showed that the effect of BACH1 on HMOX1 expression in keratinocytes is independent of NRF2. In vivo studies showed that topical CBD increased the levels of HMOX1 and of the proliferation and wound-repair associated keratins 16 and 17 in the skin of mice.

Altogether, our study identifies BACH1 as a molecular target for CBD in keratinocytes and sets the basis for the use of topical CBD for the treatment of different skin diseases including atopic dermatitis and keratin disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31518892

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2213231719306470?via%3Dihub

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Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid receptor 2 in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications.

European Journal of Pharmacology“The biological effects of endocannabinoid system are mediated by two types of receptors, cannabinoid 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB2). They play a pivotal role in the management of pain, inflammation, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

CB2 receptor activity downregulation is hallmark of inflammation and oxidative stress. Strong evidence display the relation between activation of CB2 receptors with decrease in the pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic factors. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have been validated to confirm the role of CB2 receptor in the management of obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism.

Activation of CB2 receptor has led to reduction of inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κβ) and also amelioration of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species playing role in apoptosis. Many studies confirmed the role of CB2 receptors in the insulin secretion via facilitating calcium entry into the pancreatic β-cells. CB2 receptors also displayed improvement in the neuronal and renal functions by decreasing the oxidative stress and downregulating inflammatory cascade.

The present review addresses, potential role of CB2 receptor activation in management of diabetes and its complications. It also includes the role of CB2 receptors as an anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory for the treatment of DM and its complications. Also, an informative summary of CB2 receptor agonist drugs is provided with their potential role in the reduction of glucose levels, increment in the insulin levels, decrease in the hyperglycaemic oxidative stress and inflammation.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31461639

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014299919305801?via%3Dihub

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