From Cannabis sativa to Cannabidiol: Promising Therapeutic Candidate for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

frontiers in pharmacology – Retraction Watch“Cannabis sativa, commonly known as marijuana, contains a pool of secondary plant metabolites with therapeutic effects.

Besides Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol that is the principal psychoactive constituent of Cannabiscannabidiol (CBD) is the most abundant nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid and may represent a prototype for anti-inflammatory drug development for human pathologies where both the inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) play an important role to their etiology and progression.

To this regard, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), the most common neurodegenerative disorders, are characterized by extensive oxidative damage to different biological substrates that can cause cell death by different pathways. Most cases of neurodegenerative diseases have a complex etiology with a variety of factors contributing to the progression of the neurodegenerative processes; therefore, promising treatment strategies should simultaneously target multiple substrates in order to stop and/or slow down the neurodegeneration.

In this context, CBD, which interacts with the eCB system, but has also cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism, might be a good candidate as a prototype for anti-oxidant drug development for the major neurodegenerative disorders, such as PD and AD. This review summarizes the multiple molecular pathways that underlie the positive effects of CBD, which may have a considerable impact on the progression of the major neurodegenerative disorders.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32210795

“The present review provided evidence that the nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoids CBD could be a potential pharmacological tool for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; its excellent safety and tolerability profile in clinical studies renders it a promising therapeutic agent.

The molecular mechanisms associated with CBD’s improvement in PD and AD are likely multifaceted, and although CBD may act on different molecular targets all the beneficial effects are in some extent linked to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profile, as observed in in vitro and in vivo studies. Therefore, this review describes evidence to prove the therapeutical efficacy of CBD in patients affected by neurodegenerative disorders and promotes further research in order to better elucidate the molecular pathways involved in the therapeutic potential of CBD.”

https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2020.00124/full

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Melatonin and cannabinoids: mitochondrial-targeted molecules that may reduce inflammaging in neurodegenerative diseases.

Image result for histology and histopathology“Generally, the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases are associated with advancing age, so they are usually diagnosed in late adulthood. A primary mechanism underlying the onset of neurodegenerative diseases is neuroinflammation. Based on this background, the concept of “neuroinflammaging” has emerged. In this deregulated neuroinflammatory process, a variety of immune cells participate, especially glial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, receptors, and subcellular organelles including mitochondria, which are mainly responsible for maintaining redox balance at the cellular level. Senescence and autophagic processes also play a crucial role in the neuroinflammatory disease associated with aging.

Of particular interest, melatonin, cannabinoids, and the receptors of both molecules which are closely related, exert beneficial effects on the neuroinflammatory processes that precede the onset of neurodegenerative pathologies such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Some of these neuroprotective effects are fundamentally related to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidative actions at the mitochondrial level due to the strategic functions of this organelle. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent advances in the study of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration associated with age and to consider the use of new mitochondrial therapeutic targets related to the endocannabinoid system and the pineal gland.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32154907

https://www.hh.um.es/Abstracts/Vol_/_/__18212.htm

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Cannabidiol Effects on Phospholipid Metabolism in Keratinocytes from Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

biomolecules-logo“Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by dysregulated keratinocyte differentiation, but oxidative stress also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

Here, we examined the effect of cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, on the redox balance and phospholipid metabolism in UVA/UVB-irradiated keratinocytes isolated from the skin of psoriatic patients or healthy volunteers.

We conclude that CBD partially reduces oxidative stress in the keratinocytes of healthy individuals, while showing a tendency to increase the oxidative and inflammatory state in the keratinocytes of patients with psoriasis, especially following UV-irradiation.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/3/367

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Chronic Treatment with 50 mg/kg Cannabidiol Improves Cognition and Moderately Reduces Aβ42 Levels in 12-Month-Old Male AβPPswe/PS1ΔE9 Transgenic Mice.

Image result for j alzheimers dis“Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau hyperphosphorylation causing neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Current AD treatments do not stop or reverse the disease progression, highlighting the need for more effective therapeutics.

The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) has demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, chronic CBD treatment (20 mg/kg) reverses social and object recognition memory deficits in the AβPPxPS1 transgenic mouse model with only limited effects on AD-relevant brain pathology.

Importantly, studies have indicated that CBD works in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, this study determined the chronic effects of 50 mg/kg CBD in male AβPPxPS1 mice. 12-month-old mice were treated with 50 mg/kg CBD or vehicle via daily intraperitoneal injections for 3 weeks prior to behavioral testing. A variety of cognitive domains including object and social recognition, spatial and fear-associated memory were evaluated. Pathological brain analyses for AD-relevant markers were conducted using ELISA and western blot.

Vehicle-treated male AβPPxPS1 mice demonstrated impaired social recognition memory and reversal spatial learning. These deficits were restored after CBD treatment. Chronic CBD tended to reduce insoluble Aβ40 levels in the hippocampus of AβPPxPS1 mice but had no effect on neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, or PPARγ markers in the cortex.

This study demonstrates that therapeutic-like effects of 50 mg/kg CBD on social recognition memory and spatial learning deficits in AβPPxPS1 mice are accompanied by moderate brain region-specific reductions in insoluble Aβ40 levels. The findings emphasize the clinical relevance of CBD treatment in AD; however, the underlying mechanisms involved require further investigation.”

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Anti-inflammatory Potential of Terpenes Present in Cannabis sativa L.

Go to Volume 0, Issue 0 “Cannabis sativa L. (C. sativa) contains an array of plant-derived (phyto) cannabinoids and terpenes that are predominantly located in the trichome cavity of the plant. Terpenes, aromatic organic hydrocarbons characterized for their role in plant protection/pollination, are gaining attention for their potential as novel therapeutics in many areas of biomedicine. This Viewpoint will explore the exciting recent evidence that terpenes have anti-inflammatory/antioxidant propensity by targeting inflammatory signaling mechanisms relevant to human disease. Given their anti-inflammatory properties, terpenes may contribute to the effects of current cannabinoid-based therapies.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32091871

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00075

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Cannabinoid-mediated Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Early Inflammatory Response after Hypoxia-Ischemia.

ijms-logo“In the process of neonatal encephalopathy, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have a prominent role after perinatal asphyxia. With the exception of therapeutic hypothermia, no therapeutic interventions are available in the clinical setting to target either the oxidative stress or inflammation, despite the high prevalence of neurological sequelae of this devastating condition.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), recently recognized as a widespread neuromodulatory system, plays an important role in the development of the central nervous system (CNS).

This study aims to evaluate the potential effect of the cannabinoid (CB) agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and early inflammatory cytokine production after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in fetal lambs.

Hypoxic-ischemic animals were subjected to 60 min of HI by partial occlusion of the umbilical cord. A group of lambs received a single dose of 0.01 μg/kg WIN, whereas non-asphyctic animals served as controls. WIN reduced the widespread and notorious increase in inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 induced by HI, a modulatory effect not observed for oxidative stress.

Our study suggests that treatment with a low dose of WIN can alter the profile of pro-inflammatory cytokines 3 h after HI.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32074976

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/4/1283

“Cannabinoid as a neuroprotective strategy in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic injury.”   https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21788999

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Cannabidiol protects against high glucose-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels.

Publication cover image“Cardiovascular complications are the major cause of mortality in diabetic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying diabetes-associated arrhythmias are unclear.

We hypothesized that high glucose, could adversely affect Nav1.5, the major cardiac sodium channel isoform of the heart, at least partially via oxidative stress.

We further hypothesized that cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main constituents of Cannabis sativa, through its effects on Nav1.5, could protect against high glucose elicited oxidative stress and cytotoxicity.

KEY RESULTS:

High glucose evoked cell death associated with elevation in reactive oxygen species, right shifted the voltage dependence of conductance and steady state fast inactivation and increased persistent current leading to computational prolongation of action potential (hyperexcitability) which could result in long QT3 arrhythmia. CBD mitigated all the deleterious effects provoked by high glucose. Perfusion with Lidocaine (a well-known sodium channels inhibitor with anti-oxidant effects), or co-incubation of Tempol (a well-known anti-oxidant) elicited protection, comparable to CBD, against the deleterious effects of high glucose.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

These findings suggest that, through its favourable anti-oxidant and sodium channel inhibitory effects, CBD may protect against high-glucose induced arrhythmia and cytotoxicity.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32077098

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/bph.15020

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Cannabis Sativa Revisited-Crosstalk between microRNA Expression, Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Endocannabinoid Response System in Critically Ill Patients with Sepsis.

cells-logo“Critically ill patients with sepsis require a multidisciplinary approach, as this situation implies multiorgan distress, with most of the bodily biochemical and cellular systems being affected by the condition. Moreover, sepsis is characterized by a multitude of biochemical interactions and by dynamic changes of the immune system. At the moment, there is a gap in our understanding of the cellular, genetic, and molecular mechanisms involved in sepsis.

One of the systems intensely studied in recent years is the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, as light was shed over a series of important interactions of cannabinoid receptors with biochemical pathways, specifically for sepsis. Furthermore, a series of important implications on inflammation and the immune system that are induced by the activity of cannabinoid receptors stimulated by the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) have been noticed.

One of the most important is their ability to reduce the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators and the modulation of immune mechanisms. Different studies have reported that cannabinoids can reduce oxidative stress at mitochondrial and cellular levels.

The aim of this review paper was to present, in detail, the important mechanisms modulated by the endocannabinoid signaling pathway, as well as of the molecular and cellular links it has with sepsis. At the same time, we wish to present the possible implications of cannabinoids in the most important biological pathways involved in sepsis, such as inflammation, redox activity, immune system, and epigenetic expression.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32012914

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/9/2/307

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The Critical Role of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in URB602-induced Protective Effects Against Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Rat.

 Image result for shock journal“Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) and even induces remote organ damage.

Accumulating proofs demonstrates that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) may provide a promising access for treatment strategy of renal IRI associated AKI.

In the current study, using the established renal IRI model of rat, we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment of URB602, 30 min before renal IRI, alleviates kidney injury and relevant distant organ damage via limiting oxidative stress and inflammation.

Taken together, our data indicate that URB602 acts as a reactive oxygen species scavenger and anti-inflammatory media in renal IRI mainly depending on the activation of CB2.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32004183

 

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Neuroprotective and Neuromodulatory Effects Induced by Cannabidiol and Cannabigerol in Rat Hypo-E22 cells and Isolated Hypothalamus.

antioxidants-logo “Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) are non-psychotropic terpenophenols isolated from Cannabis sativa, which, besides their anti-inflammatory/antioxidant effects, are able to inhibit, the first, and to stimulate, the second, the appetite although there are no studies elucidating their role in the hypothalamic appetite-regulating network. Consequently, the aim of the present research is to investigate the role of CBD and CBG in regulating hypothalamic neuromodulators. Comparative evaluations between oxidative stress and food intake-modulating mediators were also performed.

RESULTS:

Both CBD and CBG inhibited NPY and POMC gene expression and decreased the 3-HK/KA ratio in the hypothalamus. The same compounds also reduced hypothalamic NE synthesis and DA release, whereas the sole CBD inhibited 5-HT synthesis.

CONCLUSION:

The CBD modulates hypothalamic neuromodulators consistently with its anorexigenic role, whereas the CBG effect on the same mediators suggests alternative mechanisms, possibly involving peripheral pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31941059

https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/9/1/71

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