“Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex behavioral condition with onset during early childhood and a lifelong course in the vast majority of cases. To date, no behavioral, genetic, brain imaging, or electrophysiological test can specifically validate a clinical diagnosis of ASD. However, these medical procedures are often implemented in order to screen for syndromic forms of the disorder (i.e., autism comorbid with known medical conditions).
In the last 25 years a good deal of information has been accumulated on the main components of the “endocannabinoid (eCB) system”, a rather complex ensemble of lipid signals (“endocannabinoids”), their target receptors, purported transporters, and metabolic enzymes.
It has been clearly documented that eCB signaling plays a key role in many human health and disease conditions of the central nervous system, thus opening the avenue to the therapeutic exploitation of eCB-oriented drugs for the treatment of psychiatric, neurodegenerative, and neuroinflammatory disorders.
Here we present a modern view of the eCB system, and alterations of its main components in human patients and animal models relevant to ASD. This review will thus provide a critical perspective necessary to explore the potential exploitation of distinct elements of eCB system as targets of innovative therapeutics against ASD.”
“Parathion and chlorpyrifos are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE).
The endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) are endogenous neuromodulators that regulate presynaptic neurotransmitter release in neurons throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Differential changes in extracellular and/or tissue levels of eCBs and eCBLs could potentially influence a number of signaling pathways and contribute to selective neurological changes following acute OP intoxications.”
“Mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to cell death after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.
Cannabinoid CB1 receptor is expressed in neuronal mitochondrial membranes (mtCB1R) and involved in regulating mitochondrial functions under physiological conditions…
In purified neuronal mitochondria, mtCB1R activation attenuated Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial injury.
In conclusion, mtCB1R is involved in ACEA-induced protective effects on neurons and mitochondrial functions, suggesting mtCB1R may be a potential novel target for the treatment of brain ischemic injury.”
Cannabis is often divided into 3 species-Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis-but there is significant disagreement about this, and some consider them subspecies of the same parent species.
Cannabis sativa can grow to 5-18 feet or more, and often has a few branches.
Cannabis indica typically grows 2-4 feet tall and is compactly branched.
Cannabis ruderalis contains very low levels of Δ-9-tetrahyocannabinol so is rarely grown by itself. Cannabis ruderalis flowers as a result of age, not light conditions, which is called autoflowering. It is principally used in hybrids, to enable the hybrid to have the autoflowering property.
There are > 700 strains of cannabis, often with colorful names.
Some are strains of 1 of the 3 subspecies. Many are crossbred hybrids.
The strains can be named in a variety of ways: smell or lineage are common ways of naming. There are only a few rules about how the strains are named, and most strains’ names do not follow the rules.
There are 4 basic preparations of marijuana: bhang, hasish, oil (or hash oil), and leaves and/or buds.
In medical marijuana trials, subjective outcomes are frequently used but blind breaking can introduce significant bias. Blind breaking occurs when patients figure out if they are in the control or the treatment group. When this occurs, there is significant overestimation of treatment effect.”
“Combinations of analgesics from different classes are commonly used in the management of chronic pain. The goal is to enhance pain relief together with the reduction of side effects.
The present study was undertaken to examine the anti-allodynic synergy resulting from the combination of WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, and JTC-801, a nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonist, on neuropathic pain…
In conclusion, co-administration of acannabinoid with a nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonist resulted in a synergistic interaction, which may have utility in the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain.”