The Therapeutic Effectiveness of Full Spectrum Hemp Oil Using a Chronic Neuropathic Pain Model

life-logo“Few models exist that can control for placebo and expectancy effects commonly observed in clinical trials measuring ‘Cannabis’ pharmacodynamics. We used the Foramen Rotundum Inflammatory Constriction Trigeminal Infraorbital Nerve injury (FRICT-ION) model to measure the effect of “full-spectrum” whole plant extracted hemp oil on chronic neuropathic pain sensitivity in mice.

Results: Mechanical allodynia was alleviated within 1 h (d = 2.50, p < 0.001) with a peak reversal effect at 4 h (d = 7.21, p < 0.001) and remained significant throughout the 6 h observation window. There was no threshold change on contralateral whisker pad after hemp oil administration, demonstrating the localization of anesthetic response to affected areas.

Conclusion: Future research should focus on how whole plant extracted hemp oil affects multi-sensory and cognitive-attentional systems that process pain.

The present study shows for the first time that common, commercially available, and easily reproducible full-spectrum hemp oil induces significant anti-allodynic effects with a bell-shaped pain sensitivity effect peeking between 2 and 4 h and lasting over 6 h. The study provides evidence that phytochemical extracts of the Cannabis plant, even with relatively low levels of THC, can significantly improve mechanical pressure pain in animals with established chronic neuropathic hypersensitivity.”

https://www.mdpi.com/2075-1729/10/5/69/htm

“Legal Cannabis hemp oil effectively treats chronic neuropathic pain: study”   https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-legal-cannabis-hemp-oil-effectively.html

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THC and gabapentin interactions in a mouse neuropathic pain model.

Neuropharmacology

“Clinical studies have shown that the major psychoactive ingredient of Cannabis sativa Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has some analgesic efficacy in neuropathic pain states.

However, THC has a significant side effect profile. We examined whether the profile of THC could be improved by co-administering it with the first-line neuropathic pain medication gabapentin.

These findings indicate that gabapentin synergistically enhances the anti-allodynic actions of THC and improves its therapeutic window.

Thus, THC may represent a potential adjuvant for neuropathic pain medications such as gabapentin.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30312630

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390818307779?via%3Dihub

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Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats.

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“Drugs that interfere with the endocannabinoid system are alternatives for the management of clinical pain. Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, has been utilized in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of pain. Herein, we evaluate the effects of CBD. The study provides evidence that CBD influences different dimensions of the response of rats to a surgical incision, and the results establish the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) as a brain area from which CBD evokes antinociceptive effects in a manner similar to the systemic administration of CBD. The present study has shown for the first time that CBD injected either systemically or into the rACC induces a long-lasting anti-allodynic effect with a bell-shaped dose-response curve in a rat model of incision pain.” https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28680401
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The multiplicity of spinal AA-5-HT anti-nociceptive action in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

“There is considerable evidence to support the role of anandamide (AEA), an endogenous ligand of cannabinoid receptors, in neuropathic pain modulation. AEA also produces effects mediated by other biological targets, of which the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) has been the most investigated. Both, inhibition of AEA breakdown by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and blockage of TRPV1 have been shown to produce anti-nociceptive effects.

Recent research suggests the usefulness of dual-action compounds, which may afford greater anti-allodynic efficacy. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the effect of N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT), a blocker of FAAH and TRPV1, in a rat model of neuropathic pain after intrathecal administration.

We found that treatment with AA-5-HT increased the pain threshold to mechanical and thermal stimuli, with highest effect at the dose of 500nM, which was most strongly attenuated by AM-630, CB2 antagonist, administration. The single action blockers PF-3845 (1000nM, for FAAH) and I-RTX (1nM, for TRPV1) showed lower efficacy than AA-5-HT. Moreover AA-5-HT (500nM) elevated AEA and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) levels.

Among the possible targets of these mediators, only the mRNA levels of CB2, GPR18 and GPR55, which are believed to be novel cannabinoid receptors, were upregulated in the spinal cord and/or DRG of CCI rats. It was previously reported that AA-5-HT acts in CB1 and TRPV1-dependent manner after systemic administration, but here for the first time we show that AA-5-HT action at the spinal level involves CB2, with potential contributions from GRP18 and/or GPR55 receptors.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27326920

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Opioid and cannabinoid synergy in a mouse neuropathic pain model.

“Clinical studies have reported that pan-cannabinoid receptor agonists may have efficacy in neuropathic pain states and that this might be enhanced by co-administration with opioids. While cannabinoid-opioid analgesic synergy has been demonstrated in animal models of acute pain, it has not been examined in neuropathic pain models. We examined the effect of combination treatment with cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists on allodynia and side-effects in a nerve injury induced neuropathic pain model.

These findings indicate that combination administration of non-selective opioid and cannabinoid receptor agonists synergistically reduces nerve injury induced allodynia, while producing side-effects in an additive manner. This suggests that combination treatment has an improved anti-allodynic potency and therapeutic index in a neuropathic pain model.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27278681

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Cannabinoids blocks tactile allodynia in diabetic mice without attenuation of its antinociceptive effect.

“Diabetic neuropathic pain is one of the most commonly encountered neuropathic pain syndromes.

It is well known that diabetic animals are less sensitive to the analgesic effect of morphine, and opioids are found to be ineffective in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain.

Cannabinoids are promising drugs and they share a similar pharmacological properties with opioids.

It has been reported that cannabinoid analgesia remained intact and to be effective in some models of nerve injury.

Thus, we investigated antinociceptive efficacy and the effects of cannabinoids on behavioral sign of diabetic neuropathic pain in diabetic mice by using WIN 55, 212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist.

This study suggests that cannabinoids have a potential beneficial effect on experimental diabetic neuropathic pain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15342139

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Synergistic anti-allodynic effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ and cannabinoid systems in neuropathic mice.

“Combinations of analgesics from different classes are commonly used in the management of chronic pain. The goal is to enhance pain relief together with the reduction of side effects.

The present study was undertaken to examine the anti-allodynic synergy resulting from the combination of WIN 55,212-2, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, and JTC-801, a nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonist, on neuropathic pain…

In conclusion, co-administration of acannabinoid with a nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor antagonist resulted in a synergistic interaction, which may have utility in the pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21664922

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Analysis of the anti-allodynic effects of combination of a synthetic cannabinoid and a selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor in nerve injury-induced neuropathic mice.

“Combining drugs not only reduces specific adverse effects of each of the drug at a higher dose but also may lead to enhanced efficacy.

Taking into consideration, the pharmacological similarities between opioids and cannabinoids, we assumed that combination of cannabinoids with noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors might also be effective…

Overall, our data suggest that combination of a cannabinoid with a selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor may offer a beneficial treatment option for neuropathic pain.”

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