Prevalence and predictors of cannabis use among men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer.

 “Prostate cancer patients receiving androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) often experience a combination of disease symptoms and treatment side effects. The therapeutic use of cannabis to alleviate these side effects has not been studied, despite increasing patient interest. With the increasing availability of cannabis, it is important for clinicians to understand the prevalence, predictors, and perceived benefits of cannabis use among patients with prostate cancer.

RESULTS:

Questionnaire data revealed that 23.2% of surveyed men had recently used cannabis. In contrast, 5.8% of men had detectable levels of THC metabolite in their urine. Combined questionnaire and urine data revealed that cannabis users were significantly younger (p=0.003) and had lower testosterone levels (p=0.003) than non-users. The majority of men experiencing common ADT side effects reported some degree of relief following cannabis use.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabis use among men with advanced prostate cancer receiving ADT is more prevalent than in the general population and the majority of other oncological cohorts. Lower testosterone levels and reported therapeutic benefit among cannabis users warrants confirmation in appropriate clinical trials.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31658007

https://cuaj.ca/index.php/journal/article/view/5911

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Endocannabinoid System Alterations in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Developmental and Accumulative Effects of Trauma.

 Image result for sage journals chronic stress“The role of the endocannabinoid system in stress-related psychiatric symptoms has been investigated in many animal and human studies.

Although most of these studies consistently report long-lasting effects of prolonged stress and trauma on the endocannabinoid system, the nature and direction of these changes are controversial.

We reviewed the available preclinical and clinical studies investigating the endocannabinoid system alterations long after chronic stress and trauma.

We propose that the effects of prolonged stress or trauma on the endocannabinoid system are different based on the developmental age of subjects at the time of experiencing the trauma and its repetitiveness and accumulative effects.

The current literature consistently demonstrates decreased levels of endocannabinoid ligands and receptors if the trauma occurs in childhood, whereas decreased levels of endocannabinoid ligands and increased levels of cannabinoid receptors are reported when trauma has happened in adulthood.

It is important to note that these changes are region-specific in the brain and also there are important sex differences, which are beyond the scope of this review.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31660473

“More studies are needed to compare the effects of childhood and adulthood trauma, with or without PTSD presentations, on the eCB system. These studies would have important clinical implications, not only for individuals with trauma and PTSD who commonly have comorbid recreational cannabis use, and medical marijuana users with PTSD being one of its main indicators but also for studies investigating the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoids and eCB enhancers in PTSD treatment.”

https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2470547019864096

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Structure of an allosteric modulator bound to the CB1 cannabinoid receptor.

Image result for nature chemical biology“The CB1 receptor mediates the central nervous system response to cannabinoids, and is a drug target for pain, anxiety and seizures.

CB1 also responds to allosteric modulators, which influence cannabinoid binding and efficacy.

To understand the mechanism of these compounds, we solved the crystal structure of CB1 with the negative allosteric modulator (NAM) ORG27569 and the agonist CP55940.

The structure reveals that the NAM binds to an extrahelical site within the inner leaflet of the membrane, which overlaps with a conserved site of cholesterol interaction in many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).

The ternary structure with ORG27569 and CP55940 captures an intermediate state of the receptor, in which aromatic residues at the base of the agonist-binding pocket adopt an inactive conformation despite the large contraction of the orthosteric pocket.

The structure illustrates a potential strategy for drug modulation of CB1 and other class A GPCRs.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31659318

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41589-019-0387-2

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Cannabinoid receptor 2‑selective agonist JWH015 attenuates bone cancer pain through the amelioration of impaired autophagy flux induced by inflammatory mediators in the spinal cord.

Journal Cover “Bone cancer pain (BCP) is a severe complication of advanced bone cancer.

Although cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists may have an analgesic effect, the underlying mechanism remains unclear.

CB2 serves a protective role in various pathological states through the activation of autophagy. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether the analgesic effects of the selective CB2 agonist JWH015 was mediated by the activation of autophagy in BCP.

The results of the present study suggested that the impairment of autophagy flux was induced by glia‑derived inflammatory mediators in spinal neurons. Intrathecal administration of the selective CB2 agonist JWH015 ameliorated autophagy flux through the downregulation of IL‑1β and IL‑6 and attenuated BCP.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31661120

https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2019.10772

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Antibacterial properties of hemp hurd powder against E. coli

Publication cover image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an eco‐friendly and multifunctional plant. Hemp hurd is a by‐product of hemp plant during hemp fiber separation. Although hemp hurd is repeatedly announced owing antibacterial activity, it has never been systematically investigated and reported. In this study, the antibacterial activity of hemp hurd powder against Escherichia coli is investigated. This article reveals antibacterial activity of hemp hurd where hemp hurd powder inhibits the growth of E. coli. Meanwhile, the self‐contamination (forming during retting process) inside hemp hurd has dramatic impact on the antibacterial performance. To achieve better antibacterial activity, hemp hurd was heat treated to eliminate self‐contaminations. The impact of the particle sizes and heat treatment on the antibacterial effectiveness was evaluated.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/app.41588

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267628173_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_Hurd_Powder_Against_E_coli

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WIN55,212-2-Induced Expression of Mir-29b1 Favours the Suppression of Osteosarcoma Cell Migration in a SPARC-Independent Manner.

ijms-logo“WIN55,212-2 (WIN) is a synthetic agonist of cannabinoid receptors that displays promising antitumour properties.

The aim of this study is to demonstrate that WIN is able to block the migratory ability of osteosarcoma cells and characterize the mechanisms involved.

Overall, these findings suggest that WIN markedly affects cell migration, dependently on miR-29b1 and independently of SPARC, and can thus be considered as a potential innovative therapeutic agent in the treatment of osteosarcoma.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31652569

https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/20/20/5235

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Roles of the Hepatic Endocannabinoid and Apelin Systems in the Pathogenesis of Liver Fibrosis.

cells-logo“Hepatic fibrosis is the consequence of an unresolved wound healing process in response to chronic liver injury and involves multiple cell types and molecular mechanisms. The hepatic endocannabinoid and apelin systems are two signalling pathways with a substantial role in the liver fibrosis pathophysiology-both are upregulated in patients with advanced liver disease. Endogenous cannabinoids are lipid-signalling molecules derived from arachidonic acid involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular dysfunction, portal hypertension, liver fibrosis, and other processes associated with hepatic disease through their interactions with the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Apelin is a peptide that participates in cardiovascular and renal functions, inflammation, angiogenesis, and hepatic fibrosis through its interaction with the APJ receptor. The endocannabinoid and apelin systems are two of the multiple cell-signalling pathways involved in the transformation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells into myofibroblast like cells, the main matrix-producing cells in liver fibrosis. The mechanisms underlying the control of hepatic stellate cell activity are coincident despite the marked dissimilarities between the endocannabinoid and apelin signalling pathways. This review discusses the current understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which the hepatic endocannabinoid and apelin systems play a significant role in the pathophysiology of liver fibrosis.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31653030

https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/8/11/1311

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A role for cannabinoids in the treatment of myotonia? Report of compassionate use in a small cohort of patients.

“The symptomatic treatment of myotonia and myalgia in patients with dystrophic and non-dystrophic myotonias is often not satisfactory.

Some patients anecdotally report symptoms’ relief through consumption of cannabis.

METHODS:

A combination of cannabidiol and tetrahydrocannabinol (CBD/THC) was prescribed as compassionate use to six patients (four patients with myotonic dystrophy types 1 and 2, and 2 patients with CLCN1-myotonia) with therapy-resistant myotonia and myalgia. CBD/THC oil was administered on a low dose in the first 2 weeks and adjusted to a higher dose in the following 2 weeks. Myotonia behaviour scale (MBS), hand-opening time, visual analogue scales (VAS) for myalgia and myotonia, and fatigue and daytime sleepiness severity scale (FSS, ESS) were performed weekly to monitor treatment response.

RESULTS:

All patients reported an improvement of myotonia especially in weeks 3 and 4 of treatment: MBS improved of at least 2 points in all patients, the hand-opening time variously improved in 5 out of 6 patients. Chronic myalgia was reported by both DM2 patients at baseline, one of them experienced a significant improvement of myalgia under treatment. Some gastrointestinal complaints, as abdominal pain and diarrhoea, improved in 3 patients; however, 4 out of 6 patients reported new-onset constipation. No other relevant side effect was noticed.

CONCLUSIONS:

These first empirical results suggest a potentially beneficial role of CBD/THC in alleviating myotonia and should encourage further research in this field including a randomized-controlled trial on larger cohorts.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31655890

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00415-019-09593-6

“Myotonia is a medical term that refers to a neuromuscular condition in which the relaxation of a muscle is impaired.” https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Myotonia-Information-Page

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Medical Marijuana Guidelines for Practice: Health Policy Implications.

Journal of Pediatric Health Care Home“Cannabis use in pediatric health care remains limited, however, there is increasing evidence on the pharmacologic benefits of medical marijuana for chronic conditions in childhood. Realizing the need for guidance in practice, the National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) published guidelines to aid in decision making in nursing practice. While focusing primarily on adult use of cannabis, the guidelines do address special populations such as children and adolescents. This article reviews the endocannabinoid system, current state of legislation on medical marijuana, policy considerations, recent FDA approval of a cannabis product for pediatric use, NCSBN National Nursing Guidelines for Medical Marijuana, and pediatric implications for nursing practice.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31655786

https://www.jpedhc.org/article/S0891-5245(19)30399-2/fulltext

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Effects of Cannabis and Its Components on the Retina: A Systematic Review.

 Publication Cover“Cannabis is the most prevalent drug in the world and its consumption is growing. Cannabinoid receptors are present in the human central nervous system. Recent studies show evidence of the effects of cannabinoids on the retina, and synthesizing the results of these studies may be relevant for ophthalmologists. Thus, this review adopts standardized, systematic review methodology to investigate the effects of exposure to cannabis and components on the retina.

RESULTS:

We retrieved 495 studies, screened 229 studies, assessed 52 studies for eligibility, and included 16 studies for qualitative analysis. The cannabinoids most frequently investigated were delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), abnormal cannabidiol, synthetic cannabinoid, and cannabidiol (CDB). The outcomes most studied were neuroretinal dysfunction, followed by vascular effects. The studies also included investigation of neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects and teratogenic effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review suggests that cannabinoids may have an important role in retinal processing and function.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31648567

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15569527.2019.1685534?journalCode=icot20

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