A systematic review on the neuroprotective perspectives of beta-caryophyllene.

Image result for phytother res

“Beta (β)-caryophyllene (BCAR) is a major sesquiterpene of various plant essential oils reported for several important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, nephroprotective, antimicrobial, and immune-modulatory activity. Recent studies suggest that it also possesses neuroprotective effect.

This study reviews published reports pertaining to the neuropharmacological activities of BCAR. Databases such as PubMed, Scopus, MedLine Plus, and Google Scholar with keywords “beta (β)-caryophyllene” and other neurological keywords were searched. Data were extracted by referring to articles with information about the dose or concentration/route of administration, test system, results and discussion, and proposed mechanism of action.

A total of 545 research articles were recorded, and 41 experimental studies were included in this review, after application of exclusion criterion. Search results suggest that BCAR exhibits a protective role in a number of nervous system-related disorders including pain, anxiety, spasm, convulsion, depression, alcoholism, and Alzheimer’s disease.

Additionally, BCAR has local anesthetic-like activity, which could protect the nervous system from oxidative stress and inflammation and can act as an immunomodulatory agent. Most neurological activities of this natural product have been linked with the cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), especially the CB2R. This review suggests a possible application of BCAR as a neuroprotective agent.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30281175

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava leaf extracts against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal of Integrative Medicine

“This study examined the antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa, Thuja orientalis and Psidium guajava against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and used a standardized purification protocol to determine the presence and abundance of bioactive compounds in the leaf extracts.

RESULTS:

Resistance to methicillin, penicillin, oxacillin and cefoxitin was observed in each of the clinical and nonclinical MRSA isolates. However, they were still vulnerable to vancomycin. Used individually, the 50% extract of each plant leaf inhibited MRSA growth. A profound synergism was observed when C. sativa was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1) and when P. guajava was used in combination with T. orientalis (1:1). This was shown by larger zones of inhibition. This synergism was probably due to the combined inhibitory effect of phenolics present in the leaf extracts (i.e., quercetin and gallic acid) and catechin, as detected by HPTLC.

CONCLUSION:

The leaf extracts of C. sativa, T. orientalis and P. guajava had potential for the control of both hospital- and community-acquired MRSA. Moreover, the inhibitory effect was enhanced when extracts were used in combination.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30120078

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095496418300815?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Cannabidiol restores intestinal barrier dysfunction and inhibits the apoptotic process induced by Clostridium difficile toxin A in Caco-2 cells.

 SAGE Journals

“Clostridium difficile toxin A is responsible for colonic damage observed in infected patients.

Drugs able to restore Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced toxicity have the potential to improve the recovery of infected patients. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa, which has been demonstrated to protect enterocytes against chemical and/or inflammatory damage and to restore intestinal mucosa integrity.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) the anti-apoptotic effect and (b) the mechanisms by which cannabidiol protects mucosal integrity in Caco-2 cells exposed to Clostridium difficile toxin A.

RESULTS:

Clostridium difficile toxin A significantly decreased Caco-2 cells’ viability and reduced transepithelial electrical resistence values and RhoA guanosine triphosphate (GTP), bax, zonula occludens-1 and occludin protein expression, respectively. All these effects were significantly and concentration-dependently inhibited by cannabidiol, whose effects were completely abolished in the presence of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) antagonist, AM251.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cannabidiol improved Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced damage in Caco-2 cells, by inhibiting the apoptotic process and restoring the intestinal barrier integrity, through the involvement of the CB1 receptor.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29238589

“In the last decade, cannabinoids extracted from the marijuana plant (Cannabis sativa) and synthetic cannabinoids have shown numerous beneficial effects on gastrointestinal (GI) functions. Non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most interesting compounds, since it exerts a wide range of beneficial pharmacological actions on GI functions, ranging from antioxidant to antinflammatory activities. CBD has been shown to act as a non-competitive negative allosteric modulator of CB1 receptors. Notably, CBD is able to restore in vitro intestinal permeability increased by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or pro-inflammatory stimuli.

Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. Clostridium difficile-Toxin A significantly affects enterocytes permeability leading to apoptosis and colonic mucosal damage.

In the present study, we showed that Cannabidiol, a non-psychotropic component of Cannabis sativa significantly inhibit the apoptosis rate in TcdA-exposed cells and restores barrier function by a significant RhoA GTP rescue.

We also provide evidence that the effects of Cannabidiol are mediated by CB-1 receptor.

Given the absence of any significant toxic effect in humans, cannabidiol may ideally represent an effective adjuvant treatment for Clostridium difficile-associated colitis.”   http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2050640617698622

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Bioactive products from singlet oxygen photooxygenation of cannabinoids.

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

“Photooxygenation of Δ8 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC), Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), Δ9 tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA) and some derivatives (acetate, tosylate and methyl ether) yielded 24 oxygenated derivatives, 18 of which were new and 6 were previously reported, including allyl alcohols, ethers, quinones, hydroperoxides, and epoxides.

Testing these compounds for their modulatory effect on cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2 led to the identification of 7 and 21 as CB1 partial agonists with Ki values of 0.043 μM and 0.048 μM, respectively and 23 as a cannabinoid with high binding affinity for CB2 with Ki value of 0.0095 μM, but much less affinity towards CB1 (Ki 0.467 μM).

The synthesized compounds showed cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (SK-MEL, KB, BT-549, and SK-OV-3) with IC50 values ranging from 4.2 to 8.5 μg/mL.

Several of those compounds showed antimicrobial, antimalarial and antileishmanial activities, with compound 14 being the most potent against various pathogens.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29232588

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523417309467?via%3Dihub

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System to Treat Sepsis

Image result for Signa Vitae

“Sepsis is a complex immune disorder that can affect the function of almost all organ systems in the body. This disorder is characterised by a malfunctioning immune response to an infection that involves both pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators. This leads to severe damage and failure of vital organs, resulting in patient death. Sepsis, septic shock, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome are the leading causes of mortality in surgical intensive care unit patients internationally.

The current lack of viable therapeutic treatment options for sepsis underscores our insufficient understanding of this complex disease. The endocannabinoid system, a key regulator of essential physiological functions including the immune system, has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment. The endocannabinoid system acquires its name from the plant Cannabis Sativa, which has been used medically to treat a variety of ailments, as well as recreationally for centuries. Cannabis Sativa contains more than 60 active phytocannabinoids with the primary phytocannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), (6) activating both endogenous endocannabinoid receptors.

The endocannabinoid system represents a potential therapeutic target in sepsis due to the presence of cannabinoid receptors (CB2) on immune cells. In this review we discuss how various targets within the endocannabinoid system can be manipulated to treat the immune consequences of sepsis. One of the targets outlined are the endocannabinoid receptors and modulation of their activity through pharmacological agonists and antagonists. Another therapeutic target covered in this review is the modulation of the endocannabinoid degradative enzyme’s activity. Modulation of degradative enzyme activity can change the levels of endogenous cannabinoids thereby altering immune activity. Overall, activation of the CB2 receptors causes immunosuppression and can be beneficial during the hyperactivated immune state of sepsis, while suppression of the CB2 receptors may be beneficial during a hypoimmune septic state.

The endocannabinoid system modulates the immune response in experimental sepsis. Manipulating the endocannabinoid system may have potential therapeutic benefit in clinical sepsis where immune and inflammatory dysfunction can be detrimental. Multiple targets exist within the endocannabinoid system, e.g. the system can be targeted at the level of receptors by administration of synthetic compounds, similar to the endocannabinoids, which either increase or inhibit receptor activation to provide the desired therapeutic effect. Alternatively, the endogenous enzymes that degrade endocannabinoids or cannabinoid-like lipids can also be targeted in order to manipulate the levels of endocannabinoids. Proper identification of the septic stage is crucial to determine the adequate therapeutic response that will be most beneficial. Due to the biphasic nature of sepsis immunopathology, immune suppression through endocannabinoid modulation can help mitigate the hyper-immune response during the early septic state, while immune activation may be beneficial in later stages.” http://www.signavitae.com/2013/05/targeting-the-endocannabinoid-system-to-treat-sepsis/

Targeting the Endocannabinoid System to Treat Sepsis

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

Image result for scientific research an academic publisher

“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Six Chemotypes of Medicinal Cannabis

“Nowadays, medicinal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L) is in the focus of the researches not only for its high content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but for other cannabinoids as well.

It has been reported that some of the identified substances (e.g. cannabidiol, cannabinochromene) possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which corresponds to its traditional use as wound healing agent at Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant ability of extracts from high potent Cannabis sativa chemotypes.

The six ethanolic extracts prepared from dried inflorescence of five medicinal cannabis chemotypes (Nurse Jackie, Jilly Bean, Nordle, Jack Cleaner, Conspiracy Kush) were tested by standard microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus (three strains), Streptococcus pyogenes and the yeast Candida albicans.

Those microbial strains are present on skin and can cause complication during wound healing process.

The antioxidative activity, which plays an important role in wound healing process, was tested by oxygen radical absorbance capacity test (ORAC).

All tested extracts demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against two strains of S. aureus and S. pyogenes (MIC ranged from 4 – 16 µg·mL-1), moreover high antioxidant capacity was observed (ORAC ranged from 800 – 1300 µg TE/mg of extract).

The results indicate that cannabis has high potential to be used in ointments and other material for wound healing.

However, further research on the identification of the active components is needed.”

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0036-1596302

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST SOME CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA

Image result for Lahore College for Women University

“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Amaranthus viridis (Chowlai) and Cannabis sativa (Bhang) against clinically important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

The study revealed that leaves of A. viridis and C. sativa possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and natural antioxidants that can be of considerable pharmaceutical importance.

Leaf and stem extracts of A. viridis and C. sativa demonstrated a broad spectrum efficacy against Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. These plants also exhibited good antioxidant activity.”

https://fuuast.edu.pk/biology%20journal/images/pdfs/2016/june/paper17.pdf

Image result for Amaranthus viridis (Chaulai)

Image result for Cannabis sativa (Bhang)

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Benefits of Cannabis Terpenes: Ocimene, Terpinolene, and Guaiol

Leafly

“Terpenes are a group of fragrant essential oils – secreted alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD – that contribute to the complex aroma of cannabis. They are also generally responsible for many of the distinguishing characteristics of different strains, and this discovery has led to a sharp increase in interest among researchers, producers, and consumers alike.

Though cannabis contains up to 200 different terpenes, there are about 10 primary terpenes and 20 secondary terpenes that occur in significant concentrations. We’d like to introduce you to the potential health benefits of three of those terpenes: ocimene, terpinolene, and guaiol.

Ocimene is an isomeric hydrocarbon found in a wide variety of fruits and plants. It is recognized by its sweet, fragrant, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas, which feature prominently in several perfumes, and which help plants defend themselves in their natural environment. Ocimene occurs naturally in botanicals as diverse as mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats, and of course cannabis.

Ocimene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Antiviral
  • Antifungal
  • Antiseptic
  • Decongestant
  • Antibacterial

Cannabis strains that can test high in ocimene include Golden Goat, Strawberry Cough,Chernobyl, and Space Queen. At Tilray, strains currently displaying high concentrations of ocimene include OG Kush, Elwyn, and Lemon Sour Diesel.

Terpinolene is another isomeric hydrocarbon, characterized by a fresh, piney, floral, herbal, and occasionally citrusy aroma and flavor. It is found in a variety of other pleasantly fragrant plants including nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilacs, and is sometimes used in soaps, perfumes, and lotions.

Terpinolene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Sedative
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal

Terpinolene is found most commonly in sativa-dominant strains; a few that frequently exhibit high concentrations of this terpene include Jack Herer and its derivatives, such as Pineapple Jack, J1, and Super Jack. At Tilray, strains currently possessing higher than average concentrations of terpinolene include Lemon Sour Diesel, Afghani, and Jean Guy.

Guaiol is not an oil but a sesquiterpenoid alcohol, and is also found in cypress pine and guaiacum. It has been used for centuries as a treatment for diverse ailments ranging from coughs to constipation to arthritis. It is also an effective insect repellent and insecticide.

Guaiol’s potential medical properties include:

  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-inflammatory

Strains that can test high in guaiol include Chocolope, Liberty Haze, and Blue Kush. At Tilray, strains currently exhibiting relatively high concentrations of guaiol include Barbara Bud, Jean

https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/benefits-of-cannabis-terpenes-ocimene-terpinolene-and-guaiol

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous

Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

“The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth.

The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions.

The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time.

It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969046

Facebook Twitter Pinterest Stumbleupon Tumblr Posterous