Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of two standardized extracts from a new Chinese accession of non-psychotropic Cannabis sativa L

Phytotherapy Research “The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two extracts from a new Chinese accession (G-309) of Cannabis sativa L. (Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol <0.2%) with high content of propyl side chain phytocannabinoids.

Dried flowering tops, as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, were extracted with acidic hexane to produce the Cannabis Chinese hexane extract 1 (CChHE1) and 2 (CChHE2), respectively. The phytochemical profile of CChHE1 and CChHE2 was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS) analyses. The antioxidant properties were assessed by several in vitro cell-free assays. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans.

Phytochemical analyses highlighted a high content of cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and tetraydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) in CChHE1, and cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetraydrocannabivarin (THCV) in CChHE2. Both extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity and strong antimicrobial properties (MIC 39.06 and MBC 39.06-78.13 μg/ml) against both ATCC and methicillin-resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus.

In conclusion, standardized extracts of C. sativa Chinese accession could be promising for their possible use as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of widespread S. aureus infections.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33034400/

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ptr.6891

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Preliminary data on the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa L. variety Futura 75 against food-borne pathogens in vitro as well as against naturally occurring microbial populations on minced meat during storage

 Archive of "Italian Journal of Food Safety".“In the present study, the antimicrobial effect of Cannabis sativa Futura 75 was evaluated both in vitro against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and on food against naturally occurring microbial groups of minced meat stored for 8 days at 4°C.

Ethanol extraction was performed on the grind of the inflorescence. After extraction, ethanol was completely evaporated and substituted by water. Serial dilutions of the extract, the grind and cannabidiol 99% were added to Nutrient Agar and spotted with Listeria monocytogenesSalmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. Regarding the evaluation on food, 50 mL of extract, characterised by CBD at concentration of 322,70 μg/mL, were added to 2.5 kg of minced beef meat. Meat was divided into aliquots and stored for 8 days at 4°C. At 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8 days, aerobic bacteria, enterobacteria, coliforms and E. coli were enumerated.

All tested products were efficient against Gram +. In particular, extract corresponding to CBD concentration of 0.017 and 0.3 mg/mL were effective against L. monocytogenes and Staphylococcus spp. respectively. After 8 days of storage at 4°C, treated minced meat showed a bright red colour in comparison to a brownish control meat. Moreover, Enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were significantly reduced of 2.3 log CFU/g and 1.6 log CFU/g respectively in treated meat in comparison to the control.

Although preliminary, the present study suggests the antimicrobial properties of the extract of Cannabis sativa both in vitro and in minced meat.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32913724/

https://www.pagepressjournals.org/index.php/ijfs/article/view/8581

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Protective Effects of Δ9‐Tetrahydrocannabinol Against Enterotoxin‐induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is Mediated by Modulation of Microbiota

British Journal of Pharmacology“Staphylococcal enterotoxin‐B (SEB) is one of the most potent bacterial superantigens that exerts profound toxic effects by inducing cytokine storm. When SEB is inhaled, it can cause Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which is often fatal and currently there are no effective treatment modalities.

Experimental Approach

We used mouse model of SEB‐mediated ARDS to test the efficacy of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). These mice were monitored for lung inflammation, alterations in gut and lung microbiota and production of short‐chain fatty acids (SCFA). Gene dysregulation of lung epithelial cells was studied by transcriptome arrays. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm the role of microbiota in suppressing ARDS.

Key results

While SEB triggered ARDS and 100% mortality in mice, THC protected the mice from fatality effects. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that THC caused significant and similar alterations in microbiota in the lungs and gut of mice exposed to SEB. THC significantly increased the abundance of beneficial bacterial species, Ruminococcus gnavus, but decreased pathogenic microbiota, Akkermansia muciniphila. FMT confirmed that THC‐mediated reversal of microbial dysbiosis played crucial role in attenuation of SEB‐mediated ARDS. THC treatment also led to increase in SCFA, of which propionic acid was found to inhibit the inflammatory response. Transcriptome array showed that THC up‐regulated several genes like lysozyme‐1&2, β‐defensin‐2, claudin, zonula‐1, occludin‐1, Mucin2 and Muc5b while downregulating β‐defensin‐1.

Conclusions

Current study demonstrates for the first time that THC attenuates SEB‐mediated ARDS and toxicity by altering the microbiota in the lungs and the gut as well as promoting anti‐microbial and anti‐inflammatory pathways.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436585/

https://bpspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.15226

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In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Cannabis sativa L. cv ‘Futura 75’ essential oil

Publication Cover“In the present work, Cannabis sativa L. cv Futura 75 inflorescences, cultivated in the Abruzzo territory, were characterized for their volatile fraction through SPME-GC-MS. In addition, the essential oil extracted from these inflorescences was investigated for the antioxidant potentialities and for the terpenic profile.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oil (HEO) against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food was also evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC).

The results showed significant antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 63.38 ± 0.08 mg TE/g HEO; FRAP: 438.52 ± 6.92 mg TE/g HEO) alongside good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (MIC 1.25-5 µL/mL).

The results obtained suggest that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial growth, also exerting antioxidant activity, and therefore it can find an advantageous application in the food processing field.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32865042/

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14786419.2020.1813139?journalCode=gnpl20

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The Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabinoids

antibiotics-logo“A post-antibiotic world is fast becoming a reality, given the rapid emergence of pathogens that are resistant to current drugs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to discover new classes of potent antimicrobial agents with novel modes of action.

Cannabis sativa is an herbaceous plant that has been used for millennia for medicinal and recreational purposes. Its bioactivity is largely due to a class of compounds known as cannabinoids.

Recently, these natural products and their analogs have been screened for their antimicrobial properties, in the quest to discover new anti-infective agents. This paper seeks to review the research to date on cannabinoids in this context, including an analysis of structure-activity relationships. It is hoped that it will stimulate further interest in this important issue.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32668669/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/9/7/406

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Cannabinoids-Promising Antimicrobial Drugs or Intoxicants with Benefits?

antibiotics-logo“Novel antimicrobial drugs are urgently needed to counteract the increasing occurrence ofbacterial resistance.

Extracts of Cannabis sativa have been used for the treatment of several diseases since ancient times. However, its phytocannabinoid constituents are predominantly associated with psychotropic effects and medical applications far beyond the treatment of infections.

It has been demonstrated that several cannabinoids show potent antimicrobial activity against primarily Grampositive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

As first in vivo efficacy has been demonstrated recently, it is time to discuss whether cannabinoids are promising antimicrobial drug candidates or overhyped intoxicants with benefits.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32498408/

https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/9/6/297

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Isolation, Purification, and Antimicrobial Characterization of Cannabidiolic Acid and Cannabidiol From Cannabis sativa L

biomolecules-logo“The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a major threat to public health due to its limited therapeutic options.

There is an urgent need for the development of new effective antimicrobial agents and alternative strategies that are effective against resistant bacteria.

The parallel legalization of cannabis and its products has fueled research into its many therapeutic avenues in many countries around the world.

This study aimed at the development of a reliable method for the extraction, purification, characterization, and quantification of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and its decarboxylated form cannabidiol (CBD) present in the fiber type Cannabis sativa L.

Overall, CBD exhibited a strong antimicrobial effect against Gram-positive strains and could serve as an alternative drug for tackling MRSA.”

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32545687/

https://www.mdpi.com/2218-273X/10/6/900

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Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of Cannabis sativa L. seeds extract against Staphylococcus aureus and growth effects on probiotic Lactobacillus spp.

LWT“The growing concern on the antibiotic resistance spreading among bacteria has stimulated the search for valuable alternatives from plant sources.

This study dealt with the potential use of hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds extract to inhibit the growth of selected pathogenic enterobacteria and the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus, representing severe risks of food-borne illnesses. Effects on probiotic bacteria were also examined. A double-staining viability/mortality assay was used to examine potential S. aureus membrane damage.

Our results highlighted a selective antimicrobial activity of C. sativa extract against pathogenic strains and no inhibitory effects on the growth of probiotic strains belonging to the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera. This selective inhibition is of outmost importance for the maintenance of healthy gut microbiota.

The double-staining assay showed that the C. sativa extract was capable of inhibiting the biofilm producer S. aureus ATCC 35556 strain; this antibacterial action was only partially linked to membrane damage. Biofilm formation was inhibited as well; inhibition occurs at lower concentration with respect to planktonic cells (0.5 mg/ml vs 1 mg/ml, respectively).

Therefore, hemp seeds extracts represent a new exploitable and valuable antimicrobial and antibiofilm agent for the food and nutraceutical industry as a possible alternative to antibiotics/antibacterial compounds.

Cannabis sativa L. seeds showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity.

C. sativa L. seeds selectively inhibit the growth of potentially pathogenic strains.

C. sativa L. seeds did not exert antimicrobial activity against probiotic bacteria.

C. sativa L. seeds inhibit the biofilm formation by Staphylococcus aureus.”

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0023643820301377

Image 1

“Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.”  https://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

“Antimicrobial studies of the leaf of cannabis sativa L.”  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414764

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Antibacterial properties of hemp hurd powder against E. coli

Publication cover image“Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an eco‐friendly and multifunctional plant. Hemp hurd is a by‐product of hemp plant during hemp fiber separation. Although hemp hurd is repeatedly announced owing antibacterial activity, it has never been systematically investigated and reported. In this study, the antibacterial activity of hemp hurd powder against Escherichia coli is investigated. This article reveals antibacterial activity of hemp hurd where hemp hurd powder inhibits the growth of E. coli. Meanwhile, the self‐contamination (forming during retting process) inside hemp hurd has dramatic impact on the antibacterial performance. To achieve better antibacterial activity, hemp hurd was heat treated to eliminate self‐contaminations. The impact of the particle sizes and heat treatment on the antibacterial effectiveness was evaluated.”

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/app.41588

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267628173_Antibacterial_Properties_of_Hemp_Hurd_Powder_Against_E_coli

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Chemical Characterization and Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils from Fibre-Type Cannabis sativa L. (Hemp).

molecules-logo“Volatile terpenes represent the largest group of Cannabis sativa L. components and they are responsible for its aromatic properties. Even if many studies on C. sativa have been focused on cannabinoids, which are terpenophenolics, little research has been carried out on its volatile terpenic compounds.

In the light of all the above, the present work was aimed at the chemical characterization of seventeen essential oils from different fibre-type varieties of C. sativa (industrial hemp or hemp) by means of GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

In total, 71 compounds were identified, and the semi-quantitative analysis revealed that α- and β-pinene, β-myrcene and β-caryophyllene are the major components in all the essential oils analysed. In addition, a GC-MS method was developed here for the first time, and it was applied to quantify cannabinoids in the essential oils.

The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oils against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food and food processing environment was also determined. The inhibitory effects of the essential oils were evaluated by both the agar well diffusion assay and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) evaluation. By using the agar diffusion method and considering the zone of inhibition, it was possible to preliminarily verify the inhibitory activity on most of the examined strains.

The results showed a good antibacterial activity of six hemp essential oils against the Gram-positive bacteria, thus suggesting that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial proliferation and it can be a valid support to reduce microorganism contamination, especially in the food processing field.”

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31234360

https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/24/12/2302

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