Antimicrobial Activity of Cannabis sativa L.

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“The oil of the seeds, petroleum ether and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Cannabis sativa belonging to the family Cannabinaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against two Gram positive organisms (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two fungi namely Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the cup plate agar diffusion method.

The oil of the seeds of Cannabis sativa exerted pronounced antibacterial activity (21 – 28 mm) against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, moderate activity (15 mm) against Escherichia coli and high activity (16 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and inactive against the two fungi tested. The petroleum ether extract of the whole plant exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity (23 – 28 mm) against both Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus organisms, high activity (16 mm) against Escherichia coli and inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and both fungi. The methanol extract of the whole plant showed also pronounced antibacterial activity (29 mm) against Bacillus subtilis, low activity (12 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus and high activity (16 – 18 mm) against both Gram negative organisms, inactive against Aspergillus niger and low activity (13 mm) against Candida albicans.

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of Cannabis sativa methanol extracts of the seeds and the whole plant against the standard organisms were determined using the agar plate dilution method. The standard organisms were tested against reference antibacterial and antifungal drugs and the results were compared with the activity of the extracts.”

http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=18123

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In vitro Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Six Chemotypes of Medicinal Cannabis

“Nowadays, medicinal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L) is in the focus of the researches not only for its high content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), but for other cannabinoids as well.

It has been reported that some of the identified substances (e.g. cannabidiol, cannabinochromene) possess anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, which corresponds to its traditional use as wound healing agent at Pakistan.

The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant ability of extracts from high potent Cannabis sativa chemotypes.

The six ethanolic extracts prepared from dried inflorescence of five medicinal cannabis chemotypes (Nurse Jackie, Jilly Bean, Nordle, Jack Cleaner, Conspiracy Kush) were tested by standard microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus (three strains), Streptococcus pyogenes and the yeast Candida albicans.

Those microbial strains are present on skin and can cause complication during wound healing process.

The antioxidative activity, which plays an important role in wound healing process, was tested by oxygen radical absorbance capacity test (ORAC).

All tested extracts demonstrated high antimicrobial activity against two strains of S. aureus and S. pyogenes (MIC ranged from 4 – 16 µg·mL-1), moreover high antioxidant capacity was observed (ORAC ranged from 800 – 1300 µg TE/mg of extract).

The results indicate that cannabis has high potential to be used in ointments and other material for wound healing.

However, further research on the identification of the active components is needed.”

https://www.thieme-connect.com/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0036-1596302

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IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF TWO MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST SOME CLINICALLY IMPORTANT BACTERIA

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“The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial potential of Amaranthus viridis (Chowlai) and Cannabis sativa (Bhang) against clinically important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli.

The study revealed that leaves of A. viridis and C. sativa possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and natural antioxidants that can be of considerable pharmaceutical importance.

Leaf and stem extracts of A. viridis and C. sativa demonstrated a broad spectrum efficacy against Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria. These plants also exhibited good antioxidant activity.”

https://fuuast.edu.pk/biology%20journal/images/pdfs/2016/june/paper17.pdf

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Benefits of Cannabis Terpenes: Ocimene, Terpinolene, and Guaiol

Leafly

“Terpenes are a group of fragrant essential oils – secreted alongside cannabinoids like THC and CBD – that contribute to the complex aroma of cannabis. They are also generally responsible for many of the distinguishing characteristics of different strains, and this discovery has led to a sharp increase in interest among researchers, producers, and consumers alike.

Though cannabis contains up to 200 different terpenes, there are about 10 primary terpenes and 20 secondary terpenes that occur in significant concentrations. We’d like to introduce you to the potential health benefits of three of those terpenes: ocimene, terpinolene, and guaiol.

Ocimene is an isomeric hydrocarbon found in a wide variety of fruits and plants. It is recognized by its sweet, fragrant, herbaceous, and woodsy aromas, which feature prominently in several perfumes, and which help plants defend themselves in their natural environment. Ocimene occurs naturally in botanicals as diverse as mint, parsley, pepper, basil, mangoes, orchids, kumquats, and of course cannabis.

Ocimene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Antiviral
  • Antifungal
  • Antiseptic
  • Decongestant
  • Antibacterial

Cannabis strains that can test high in ocimene include Golden Goat, Strawberry Cough,Chernobyl, and Space Queen. At Tilray, strains currently displaying high concentrations of ocimene include OG Kush, Elwyn, and Lemon Sour Diesel.

Terpinolene is another isomeric hydrocarbon, characterized by a fresh, piney, floral, herbal, and occasionally citrusy aroma and flavor. It is found in a variety of other pleasantly fragrant plants including nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilacs, and is sometimes used in soaps, perfumes, and lotions.

Terpinolene’s potential medical benefits include:

  • Anticancer
  • Antioxidant
  • Sedative
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal

Terpinolene is found most commonly in sativa-dominant strains; a few that frequently exhibit high concentrations of this terpene include Jack Herer and its derivatives, such as Pineapple Jack, J1, and Super Jack. At Tilray, strains currently possessing higher than average concentrations of terpinolene include Lemon Sour Diesel, Afghani, and Jean Guy.

Guaiol is not an oil but a sesquiterpenoid alcohol, and is also found in cypress pine and guaiacum. It has been used for centuries as a treatment for diverse ailments ranging from coughs to constipation to arthritis. It is also an effective insect repellent and insecticide.

Guaiol’s potential medical properties include:

  • Antimicrobial
  • Anti-inflammatory

Strains that can test high in guaiol include Chocolope, Liberty Haze, and Blue Kush. At Tilray, strains currently exhibiting relatively high concentrations of guaiol include Barbara Bud, Jean

https://www.leafly.com/news/cannabis-101/benefits-of-cannabis-terpenes-ocimene-terpinolene-and-guaiol

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Characterization and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of industrial hemp varieties (Cannabis sativa L.).

“The present study focused on inhibitory activity of freshly extracted essential oils from three legal (THC<0.2% w/v) hemp varieties (Carmagnola, Fibranova and Futura) on microbial growth.

The effect of different sowing times on oil composition and biological activity was also evaluated. Essential oils were distilled and then characterized through the gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thereafter, the oils were compared to standard reagents on a broad range inhibition of microbial growth via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay. Microbial strains were divided into three groups: i) Gram (+) bacteria, which regard to food-borne pathogens or gastrointestinal bacteria, ii) Gram (-) bacteria and iii) yeasts, both being involved in plant interactions.

The results showed that essential oils of industrial hemp can significantly inhibit the microbial growth, to an extent depending on variety and sowing time.

It can be concluded that essential oils of industrial hemp, especially those of Futura, may have interesting applications to control spoilage and food-borne pathogens and phytopathogens microorganisms.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19969046

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Antimicrobial studies of the leaf of cannabis sativa L.

“In vitro antimicrobial studies were conducted with aqueous, ethanolic and Petroleum ether extracts of the leaves of Cannabis sativa L. The acidic fraction was obtained from the ethanolic extract and 2% Sodium Hydroxide extract. Ethanolic extract, petroleum ether extract and the acidic fraction exhibited activity both against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and also against the fungi used in the study. The aqueous extract however, did not show any antimicrobial activity.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16414764

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Polypharmacological Properties and Therapeutic Potential of β-Caryophyllene: a Dietary Phytocannabinoid of Pharmaceutical Promise.

“β-Caryophyllene (BCP) is natural bicyclic sesquiterpene abundantly found in essential oils from various spices, fruits and medicinal as well as ornamental plants. It is approved by United States Food and Drug Administration and European agencies as food additive, taste enhancer and flavoring agent and termed as a phytocannabinoid.

Various pharmacological activities such as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, neuroprotective, nephroprotective, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immune-modulator have been reported in experimental studies. It has shown potent therapeutic promise in neuropathic pain, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases.

CONCLUSION:

The present review provides a comprehensive insight of pharmacological and therapeutic potential of BCP, its molecular mechanism and signaling pathways in different pathological conditions. The review also examines the possibility of its further development as a novel candidate for various pathologies considering the polypharmacological and multifaceted therapeutic properties potential along with favorable oral bioavailability, lipophilicity and physicochemical properties.”

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26965491

“β-caryophyllene (BCP) is a common constitute of the essential oils of numerous spice, food plants and major component in Cannabis.”  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138934

 

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