“Cannabis sativa produces a complex mixture of many bioactive molecules including terpenophenolic compounds known as phytocannabinoids. Phytocannabinoids come in neutral forms (e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, THC; cannabidiol, CBD; etc.) or as acid precursors, which are dominant in the plant (e.g., Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, THCA; cannabidiolic acid, CBDA; etc.).
There is increasing interest in unlocking the therapeutic applications of the phytocannabinoid acids; however, the present understanding of the basic pharmacology of phytocannabinoid acids is limited. Herein the brain and plasma pharmacokinetic profiles of CBDA, THCA, cannabichromenic acid (CBCA), cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA), cannabigerolic acid (CBGA), and cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA) were examined following intraperitoneal administration in mice.
Next it was examined whether CBDA was anticonvulsant in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome (Scn1aRX/+ mice). All the phytocannabinoid acids investigated were rapidly absorbed with plasma tmax values of between 15 and 45 min and had relatively short half-lives (<4 h). The brain-plasma ratios for the acids were very low at ≤0.04. However, when CBDA was administered in an alternate Tween 80-based vehicle, it exhibited a brain-plasma ratio of 1.9. The anticonvulsant potential of CBDA was examined using this vehicle, and it was found that CBDA significantly increased the temperature threshold at which the Scn1aRX/+ mice had a generalized tonic-clonic seizure.”
“We reported that cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a non-psychotropic constituent of fiber-type cannabis plants, down-regulates the mRNA expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the CBDA suppression of COX-2 have not yet been elucidated in detail. In MDA-MB-231 cells, COX-2 expression is known to be tightly regulated by the transcriptional activity of activator protein-I (AP-1), which is composed of a heterodimer of c-Fos and c-Jun. AP-1-mediated transcriptional activity was inhibited by CBDA in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of c-fos was maintained at markedly lower levels (0.035) than basal c-jun expression levels (1.0), implicating c- fos as a limiting factor in the regulation of COX-2. Analyses indicated that CBDA abrogated the expression of c-fos mRNA without affecting c-jun. Collectively, these results suggest that CBDA abolishes the expression of COX-2 by interfering with AP-I activity in MDA-MB3-231 cells.”
“Cannabis sativa L. is a dioecious plant belonging to the Cannabaceae family. The main phytochemicals that are found in this plant are represented by cannabinoids, flavones, and terpenes. Some biological activities of cannabinoids are known to be enhanced by the presence of terpenes and flavonoids in the extracts, due to a synergistic action.
In the light of all the above, the present study was aimed at the multi-component analysis of the bioactive compounds present in fibre-type C. sativa (hemp) inflorescences of different varieties by means of innovative HPLC and GC methods. In particular, the profiling of non-psychoactive cannabinoids was carried out by means of HPLC-UV/DAD, ESI-MS, and MS². The content of prenylated flavones in hemp extracts, including cannflavins A and B, was also evaluated by HPLC.
The study on Cannabis volatile compounds was performed by developing a new method based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with GC-MS and GC-FID. Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabidiol(CBD) were found to be the most abundant cannabinoids in the hemp samples analysed, while β-myrcene and β-caryophyllene were the major terpenes. As regards flavonoids, cannflavin A was observed to be the main compound in almost all the samples.
The methods developed in this work are suitable for the comprehensive chemical analysis of both hemp plant material and related pharmaceutical or nutraceutical products in order to ensure their quality, efficacy, and safety.”
“Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating component of cannabis, or the psychoactive Δ9-tetrahydrocannabiol (THC), shows anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory properties.
The present study evaluates the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects of CBD’s potent acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), in a rodent model of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in the rat hind paw, when administered systemically (intraperitoneal, i.p.) or orally before and/or after carrageenan. In addition, we assess the effects of oral administration of THC or CBDA, their mechanism of action, and the efficacy of combined ineffective doses of THC and CBDA in this model. Finally, we compare the efficacy of CBD and CBDA.
CBDA given i.p. 60 min prior to carrageenan (but not 60 min after carrageenan) produced dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesia and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, THC or CBDA given by oral gavage 60 min prior to carrageenan produced anti-hyperalgesia effects, and THC reduced inflammation. The anti-hyperalgesia effects of THC were blocked by SR141716 (a cannabinoid 1 receptor antagonist), while CBDA’s effects were blocked by AMG9810 (a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 antagonist). In comparison to CBDA, an equivalent low dose of CBD did not reduce hyperalgesia, suggesting that CBDA is more potent than CBD for this indication. Interestingly, when ineffective doses of CBDA or THC alone were combined, this combination produced an anti-hyperalgesia effect and reduced inflammation.
CBDA or THC alone, as well as very low doses of combined CBDA and THC, has anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesia effects in this animal model of acute inflammation.”
“Cannabinoids are secondary natural products from the plant Cannabis sativa L.
Therapeutic indications of cannabinoids currently comprise a significant area of medicinal research.
We have expressed the Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) and cannabidiolic acid synthase (CBDAS) recombinantly in Komagataella phaffii and could detect eight different products with a cannabinoid scaffold after conversion of the precursor cannabigerolic acid (CBGA).
Besides five products remaining to be identified, both enzymes were forming three major cannabinoids of C. sativa – Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and cannabichromenic acid (CBCA).
These studies lay the groundwork for further research as well as biotechnological cannabinoid production.”
“The physiological activities of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a component of fiber-type cannabis plants, have been demonstrated and include its function as a protector against external invasion by inducing cannabinoid-mediated necrosis.
The biological activities of CBDA have been attracting increasing attention.
We previously identified CBDA as an inhibitor of the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, a widely used human breast cancer cell line in cancer biology, due to its highly aggressive nature.
The chemical inhibition and down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the expression of which has been detected in ~40 % of human invasive breast cancers, are suggested to be involved in the CBDA-mediated abrogation of cell migration.
In the present study, we describe a possible mechanism by which CBDA abrogates the expression of COX-2 via the selective down-regulation of c-fos, one component of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) dimer complex, a transcription factor for the positive regulation of the COX-2 gene.”
“The effectiveness of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) was compared with other potential treatments for anticipatory nausea (AN), using a rat model of contextually elicited conditioned gaping reactions.
The potential of ondansetron (OND), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), chlordiazepoxide (CDP), CBDA, and co-administration of CBDA and tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) to reduce AN and modify locomotor activity was evaluated…
CBDA has therapeutic potential as a highly potent and selective treatment for AN without psychoactive or locomotor effects.”
“Anticipatory nausea (AN) is a poorly controlled side effect experienced by chemotherapy patients. Currently, pharmacotherapy is restricted to benzodiazepine anxiolytics, which have limited efficacy, have significant sedative effects and induce dependency.
The non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), has shown considerable efficacy in pre-clinical AN models…:
This study aims to assess the tolerability of CBDA in locomotor activity, motor coordination and muscular strength tests, and additionally for ability to modulate feeding behaviours…
CBDA is very well tolerated and devoid of the sedative side effect profile of benzodiazepines, justifying its clinical investigation as a novel AN treatment.”
“Smoked marijuana contains over 100 different cannabinoids, including the psychoactive compound Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD).
THC, CBD, and its acidic precursor, cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), have all been shown to have antiemetic properties in the Suncus murinus.
Here we show that when subthreshold antiemetic doses of CBD or CBDA are combined with a subthreshold antiemetic dose of THC in the S. murinus, both lithium-chloride-induced vomiting and abdominal retching are dramatically suppressed.
These results suggest that combined effects of these compounds may lead to better control of vomiting with fewer side effects.”
“Sequence variants of THCA- and CBDA-synthases were isolated from different Cannabis sativa L. strains expressing various wild-type and mutant chemical phenotypes (chemotypes). Expressed and complete sequences were obtained from mature inflorescences. Each strain was shown to have a different specificity and/or ability to convert the precursor CBGA into CBDA and/or THCA type products. The comparison of the expressed sequences led to the identification of different mutations, all of them due to SNPs. These SNPs were found to relate to the cannabinoid composition of the inflorescence at maturity and are therefore proposed to have a functional significance. The amount of variation was found to be higher within the CBDAS sequence family than in the THCAS family, suggesting a more recent evolution of THCA-forming enzymes from the CBDAS group. We therefore consider CBDAS as the ancestral type of these synthases.”